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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF SELECTED HERBS AS DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SURVIVAL AND RESISTANCE AGAINST AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA INFECTION IN GENETICALLY IMPROVED FARMED TILAPIA (GIFT), OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FRY
    (JAU,JUANAGDH, 2020-11) HITESH VIRAMBHAI PARMAR; S. I. Yusufzai
    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of selected herbs on growth performance and resistance of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT), fry challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. In the current study for the improvement of the growth performance and immunity different level of ashwagandha, shatavari, turmeric, ginger, neem and tulsi were used in powder form as supplement in practical diet. Sixty days experiments were conducted to understand the role of this selected herbs administered through feed in growth, haematological response and disease resistance of GIFT, fry against A. hydrophila. The practical diet was formulated to contain different levels of mentioned herbal powder (5, 10, 20 and 50g/kg diet) and control diet was free from the herbal supplement. The diet was fed twice a day to fishes for 1 to 60 days. At the start of the experiment, fish weighed in gram and measured length in centimetre was recorded. At the end of feeding trials after 60 days, the experimental fishes were challenged with 0.1 ml of Aeromonas suspension @ 1 х 107 cells/ ml injected intramuscularly by selecting 10 fishes from each treatment. The selected medicinal plants showed increase trend of the Body length, body weight, SGR of fry of GIFT. At the end of experiment the average initial and final length ranged between 2.2±0.12 and 8.5±0.12 cm and the average initial and final weight was ranged between 1.68±0.22 and 7.30±0.022 g respectively among all the treatments. The fish fed the Ashwagandha at a concentration of 20 g/kg of feed showed 0.076±0.007, 0.077±0.005, 0.095±0.01, 0.096±0.02 and 0.090±0.04 in treatment AT0, AT1, AT2, AT3 and AT4 respectively. The mean initial and final length of GIFT fry fed with different levels of shatavari were ranged between 2.1±0.10 and 7.35±0.19 cm and the average initial and final weight ranged between 1.64±0.013 and 7.29±0.031 gm respectively. The fish fed with Shatavari at a concentration of 10 gm/kg of feed showed an enhanced specific growth rate when compared with that of the control fish. It was recorded 0.074±0.002, 0.087±0.030, 0.098±0.050, 0.092±0.09 and 0.094±0.10 in treatment ST0, ST1, ST2, ST3 and ST4 respectively. The treated fish fed the turmeric supplemets at the 20 g/kg ii level showed the significantly (P<0.05) greatest increases in length and weight. The average initial and final length was ranged between 2.1±0.20 and 7.80±0.25 cm and the mean initial and final weight was ranged between 1.67±0.01 and 7.51±0.88 g. SGR observed 0.070±0.017, 0.074±0.002, 0.091±0.03, 0.095±0.02 and 0.090±0.04 in treatment TRT0, TRT1, TRT2, TRT3 and TRT4 respectively when fish fed with Turmeric at a concentration of 20 gm/kg. Fish fed 1% ginger supplemented diet had a marked increase in growth performance parameters efficiently than control. The average initial and final length was ranged between 2.1±0.20 and 6.40±0.18 cm and weight was ranged between 1.67±0.0130 and 5.81±0.25g respectively. SGR were recorded 0.065±0.011, 0.068±0.012, 0.079±0.09, 0.072±0.11 and 0.069±0.14 in treatment GT0, GT1, GT2, GT3 and GT4 respectively. Initial mean length and weight were recorded 2.1±0.14 and 1.67±0.0130 and final mean length and weight were 6.1±0.05 cm 5.59±0.25 gm respectively. The fish fed the neem at a concentration of 20 g/kg of feed showed an enhanced specific growth rate recorded 0.064±0.011, 0.064±0.012, 0.068±0.031, 0.072±0.021 and 0.065±0.012 in treatment NT0, NT1, NT2, NT3 and NT4 respectively. The treated fish fed the tulsi supplemented diet at the 20 g/kg level showed the significantly (P<0.05) greatest increases. The mean initial and final length were ranged between 2.14±0.11 and 6.52±0.05 cm and weight were between 1.59±0.14 and 6.38±0.40 respectively. The results demonstrate enhanced haemoglobin content, total RBC counts, total WBC counts, super oxide anion production and survival (P < 0.05) in treatments group compared with control group. These results indicated that the addition of herbal powder to fish feed at the rate of 10 and 20 g/kg of diet could enhance the growth, immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila of GIFT fry during 60 days supplementation period.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EFFECT OF REPLACEMENT OF DIETARY FISHMEAL BY SQUILLA MEAL AND EARTHWORM MEAL MIXTURE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SURVIVAL RATE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF WHITE LEG SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei”
    (JAU,JUANAGDH, 2020-11) CHAVADA SARMAN RAMBHAI; Dr. S. I. YUSUFZAI
    The experiment on “Effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by squilla meal earthworm meal mixture on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of white leg shrimp, L. vannamei” was conducted during March to May, 2020 in Aquaculture Laboratory of College of Fisheries science, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of replacement of fishmeal by squilla meal and earthworm meal in the diet of L. vannamei post larvae. Six experimental diets were formulated and prepared. 35% protein level was maintained in all the diets. The control diet was prepared without squilla meal and earthworm meal, while the treatment containing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% squilla meal and earthworm meal mixture were prepared and fed to L. vannamei at 10% body weight four times in a day for 60 days. The data pertaining to growth, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of L. vannamei were evaluated. L. vannamei post larvae (average weight 0.0155 g) were stocked at a density of 20 nos. in each18 aquarium tanks. The highest weight gain and SGR were recorded in treatment T6 compared to other treatments. 100% survival rate was recorded in all treatments. The lowest FCR and higher PER were recorded in treatment T6 (100% squilla meal and earthworm meal). The result of the present investigation revealed that replacement of squilla meal and earthworm meal significantly affected the weight gain, SGR, survival rate, FCR and PER of L. vannamei.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA FROM THE GUT OF SELECTED FRESHWATER ORNAMENTAL FISHES 3065
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2020-06) CHOPARA KRISHNA KARSHANBHAI; S.I. YUSUFZAI
    he study was conducted to isolate and identify probiotic bacteria from the gut of Xiphophorous helleri and Betta splendens. For isolation of gut microbes five fishes of each variety were collected. Eleven bacterial strains were isolated from the freshwater ornamental fishes. The eleven group represented by isolates of C1, C2, C4, C9, C11, C13(a), C13(b), C14, C19, FSB and FSS were selected for biochemical tests. Bacteria isolated from the gut of Xiphophorous helleri were identified as Enterobacter, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis by observing their colony morphology, physiological and as well as some biochemical characteristics. Microscopically they were Gram-negetive, irregular or round shaped, non- motile and few bacterial strains were catalase negative. Bacillus cereus was isolated from Betta splendens. It was Gram-positive and catalase-positive. From this study, it was concluded that the eleven bacteria isolated from intestine could be potentially developed for their use as probiotic bacteria in fish feeds.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF POND PRODUCTION OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931) CULTURE IN GUJARAT STATE 3037
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2020-06) BAJANIYA VIRALKUMAR CHHAGANLAL; N.H. Joshi
    Shrimp aquaculture industry has shown the highest economic growth worldwide. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) are the main two species that contribute to the higher portion of shrimp aquaculture. India ranks first in shrimp export due to great development in brackishwater aquaculture. Shrimp farming has been also developing actively in Gujarat. Currently approximately 15,000 ha are used for brackishwater shrimp production out of the land available 376,000 ha. The main districts for this activities are Valsad, Navsari, Surat and Bharuch, of which Surat is the foremost brackish aquaculture district. The present study was carried out at aquaculture shrimp farms of six districts of Gujarat i.e, Gir-somnath, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Surat, Navsari, Valsad during the year 2018 to assess the pond production and to document the soil parameters, water parameters and planktonic groups found in shrimp culture pond. Five ponds from each selected districts was randomly selected. All selected shrimp farms were visited on a monthly interval for water sample and data collection. Details of stocking of shrimp seed, feed etc. were collected from shrimp farms during March to September 2018. The soil & water quality parameters, weight gain, FCR and survival were evaluated. Pond sizes of selected districts were significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value (sq.mt) 9200±1095.445 found in Surat while lowest ii mean value 6300±374.166 found in Amreli. Stocking density of selected districs were statistically significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value (nos./sq.mt) 34±9.91 found in Gir-somnath while 24±2.263 was found in Amreli. Pond production of selected districts were statistically not significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value of pond production (kg/ha) 8252±200.227 was found in Gir-somnath while lowest 5932±688.871 was found in Valsad. Harvest size of selected districts were statistically significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value of harvest size (gm) 32.07±1.473 was found in Amreli while lowest 21.99±2.183was found in Gir-Somnath. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of selected districts were statistically significantly different (P < 0.01) with highest mean value of FCR 1.73±0.131 was found in Surat while lowest 1.21±0.125 FCR was found in Gir-Somnath. Culture period (days) of selected districts were statistically significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value (days) 169.8±4.817 was found in Navsari while lowest 126.0±8.216 was found in Valsad. Growth rate (gm/day) of selected districts were statistically significantly different (P<0.01) with highest mean value of growth rate (gm/day) 0.22±0.016 was found in Amreli while lowest 16±0.015 was found in Gir somnath with value. Survival rate of selected districts were statistically not significantly different (P<0.01) with the highest mean value of survival rate (%) 92±6.602 was found in Bhavnagar while 81±2.881was found in Amreli. Water parameters were statistically significantly different (P<0.01) except alkalinity which is not significantly different among all the ponds. Soil parameters of selected districts also statistically significantly different (P<0.01). The present study has given the culture parameters. To sustain the present culture practices in Gujarat, it is being recommended to adopt better farm husbandry. The study has also provided essential information on which further studies can be carried out to evaluate impact of water parameters on growth & survival and also supports protection and decision making for sustainable development in the coastal districts of Gujarat.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EFFECT OF SEAWEED Caulerpa spp. AS DIETARY INGREDIENT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND SURVIVAL OF Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) FRY” 3019
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-10) SOLANKI RAVINA DHIRUBHAI; N. H. JOSHI
    The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of seaweed (Caulerpa spp.) as feed additive on specific growth rate, weight gain, survival and some biochemical parameters in rohu (Labeo rohita) fry for 60 days. The five experimental diets were prepared by adding Caulerpa spp. at 0% (control diet), 3% (T1), 6% (T2), 9% (T3) and 12% (T3) inclusion level. Total 150 numbers of rohu (Labeo rohita) fry were randomly distributed into five treatments (control + treatment), each in three replicate. Sampling was carried out at every 15 days to monitor growth performance and to adjust rations. The water quality parameters viz. DO, alkalinity, pH and temperature was found in the permissible range during entire experimental period. Based on the results, there was a significant difference (P>0.05) reported in weight and length gain of fry fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days. Fishes fed with T2 (Treatment) diet showed the highest mean weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed with other diets. Lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and highest specific growth rate (SGR) SGR was obtained in T2.In the proximate analyses of the fish carcass the protein content was significantly highest in T2 compared to other treatments. The fat content was significantly higher in T4. From the findings of the current study it can be concluded that seaweed Caulerpa spp. is a potential protein rich basal ingredient and can be used to as good feed additive if used 6% level in the diets of rohu (Labeo rohita) fry without compromising its growth performance.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL WITH EARTHWORM (Eisenia fetida) MEAL IN THE DIET OF Labeo rohita FRY” 3018
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-09) SOSA KANAK JETHABHAI; K. H. Vadher
    The experiment on “Effect of partial replacement of fish meal with earthworm meal in the diet of Labeo rohita fry” was conducted during the September to November, 2018 in the wet laboratory of College of Fisheries Science, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval. The objective of the present study was to find out the effect of partial replacement of fish meal with earthworm meal in the diet of L. rohita fry. In this experiment, the data pertaining to growth, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of L. rohita fry at partial replacement of earthworm meal were evaluated. L. rohita fry (average weight 0.103gm) were stocked at a density of 10 nos. /aquarium in all 20 aquaria. Five experimental diets were formulated and prepared. Approximately 35% protein level was maintained in all the diets. Diet prepared without earthworm meal protein (control) and other four diets containing 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% earthworm meal protein were prepared and fed to L. rohita fry at 10% body weight two times in a day for 60 days. Highest mean weight gain, SGR, PER and lowest FCR were recorded in 10% (T3) earthworm meal protein diet. 100% Survival rate were recorded in treatment including control diet. The result of the present investigation revealed that partial replacement of earthworm meal significantly affected the mean weight gain, SGR, survival rate, FCR and PER of L. rohita fry.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ADOPTION OF IMPROVED SHRIMP FARMING PRACTICES IN SAURASHTRA REGION OF GUJARAT 3002
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-07) TANK KETAN VALLABHDAS; S. I. Yusufza
    Litopenaeus vannamei farming is playing a pivotal role in the socio-economic development of coastal districts of India. India is exporting 4.4 lakh tonnes of shrimp products (2016-17) of which L. vannamei share is 3.30 lakh tonnes. The present study was carried out in all coastal districts of Saurashtra viz. Bhavnagar, Amreli, Gir-Somnath, Junagadh, Porbandar, Devbhumi Dwarka and Jamnagar and Union Territory of Diu. Compendium of act, rules, guidelines, regulations and other notifications (2014) by Coastal Aquaculture Authority of India, Chennai was used as a base for compilation of interview schedule. Descriptive statistical tools was employed wherever required. The work was done with five objectives viz. adoption, knowledge, constraints, GIS imagery and socio-economic profile of the shrimp farmer. Adoption of shrimp farming practices indicated that 54.88% respondents were found to be partial adopters. Major adoption by the farmers viz. jaggery, yeast, vegetable meals and rice was used for water enrichment (100%), SPF healthy seed (100%), DO (100%), nutritionally balance feed (100%), probiotics (99.53%) and HDPE liner (51.63%). If disease outbreak occurs then 2.79% of farmers knows about treatment of the disease. Farmers having enough knowledge about HDPE liner (78.14%), nutritionally balanced supplementary feed (100%), nutritional enrichment (100%), probiotics (99.53%), chain dragging and sludge management (44.19%). Major constraints farmers faced were lack of disease diagnose lab (97.21%), non-availability of land (89.30%), price fluctuation during harvest (88.84%), lack of experience (86.51%), high initial investment (82.33%) and lack of proper extension network (60.47%). Detailed mapping of Saurashtra shrimp farms using high resolution Google imagery was carried out using QGIS software. Socio-economic data revealed that 94.42% farmers having their private land, 75.35% farmers have education above secondary, 58.60% farmers had more than five members in family, 58.44% respondents were having farming experience upto five years and 51.63% partnership type firm. Education and experience were positive and highly significant correlated to the adoption of shrimp farming. The result of the present study was very promising that all the farmers were high adoption rate and follow the guidelines of Coastal Aquaculture Authority at great extent. They have also utilized this knowledge for better profit gaining.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF SELECTED MICROBIAL SYMBIONTS FROM GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF GIFT TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) AS POTENTIAL PROBIOTICS IN Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931) 3021
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-11) ANITA; S. I. YUSUFZAI
    Present study was designed for evaluation of selected microbial symbionts isolated from gastrointestinal tract of GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as potential probiotics in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Total 40 colonies were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and on the basis of gram’s staining 15 colonies were discarded on the basis of colony morphology study and 25 colonies were purified by quadrant streaking method. Out of 25 different colonies 10 best performing colonies were selected for further study. All the colonies were screened for extracellular enzyme production. The zone of hydrolysis was measured and enzymatic activity index was calculated for different colonies. Colony C5 showed highest enzymatic index for amylase production (7.5) while colonies C9 and C10 were negative to amylase. Colony C4 showed highest enzymatic index for cellulase production (5) while colonies C9 and C10 were negative to cellulase. For chitinase colony C2, C6 and C8 showed highest enzymatic index for chitinase production (6) while, colonies C9 and C10 were negative to chitinase. Colony C4 and C9 showed highest enzymatic index for lipase production (7) while colonies C1 and C8 showed lowest enzymatic activity index (5) to lipase. For protease Colony C9 showed highest enzymatic index for amylase production (8) while colonies C2 showed lowest (3.6). The quantitative analysis of protease showed highest protease production by C9 (21.49 µg/ml) while, colony C4 produced (17.698 µg/ml) protease. Molecular identification of colonies showed that C1 and C3 were found to be homologous with Bacillus sonorensis, C2, C5, C6 and C7 were found to be homologous with Pseudomonas, C4 was found to be homologous with Bacillus thuringiensis, C8 was found to be homologous with Pseudomonas fragi while C9 and C10 were found to be homologous with Lactobacillus fermentum. Colony C1 Bacillus sonorensis was ii selected for probiotic in diet of L. vannamei. The culture of B. sonorensis was lyophilized and added in the shrimp diet @ 0.5gm in 500gm of feed. The feeding trial was conducted for 60 days. The effect of B. sonorensis was evaluated on SGR, FCR, PER and GCE. Four treatment groups T1(100% fish meal), T2 (50% fish meal and 50% soybean meal), T3 (25% fish meal and 75% soybean meal supplement) and T4 (100% soybean meal) were without probiotic supplementation while treatments T5 (100% fish meal with probiotic supplement), T6 (50% fish meal and 50% soybean meal with probiotic supplement), T7 (25% fish meal and 75% soybean meal with probiotic supplement) and T8 100% (soybean meal with probiotic supplement). The highest final wet weight gain was observed in T6 (3.62±0.08) and lowest in T4 (2.10±0.06g) treatments (p>0.05).The highest net weight gain was found in treatment T6 (3.42gm), where as the lowest was found in T4 diet (1.9gm). The highest net length was observed in T6 (8.4±0.06 cm) and lowest in T3 (6.93±0.03 cm) treatments (p>0.05). Data for average net length gain of post larvae of L. vannamei fed without probiotic and with probiotic diets showed highest net length in treatment T6 (6.6 cm), whereas the lowest was found in T4 diet (5.17 cm). Highest SGR was found in T6 diet treatment followed by T2, T3, T7, T8, T5, T1 and lowest in T8. Highest FCR was found in T4 diet treatment followed by T1, T5, T3, T8, T7, T2 and lowest in T6. Thus, the lowest FCR was observed in T6 (50% FM and 50% SM with probiotic supplement). No significant difference (p>0.05) was FCR values observed among the treatment diets. Highest PER was found in T6 diet treatment followed by T2, T7, T8, T3, T5, T1 and lowest in T4. Highest GCE was found in T6 diet treatment followed by T2, T3, T8, T7, T5, T1 and lowest in T4. The findings of the above study indicates that the treatment T6 showed higher growth of post larvae of L. vannamei at the end of the experiment along with higher value of SGR (2.15 ± 0.19), FCR (0.35 ± 0.01), PER (7.13±0.11) and GCE (2.85 ± 0.01) for treatment T6 (50% of fish meal and 50% soybean meal with probiotic supplementation). From the findings of the above study it can be concluded that the inclusion of B. sonorensis probiotic strain isolated from gastrointestinal tract of GIFT tilapia in a shrimp feed can help in 50% of fish meal replacement by soybean meal in diets of shrimps without compromising with growth and survival of L. vannamei.