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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR POWERED WEEDER AND BOOM SPRAYER 3788
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-12) RAJUGOUDA; Dr. M. S. DulawaT; 2050221011
    Weeds, insects, and diseases are the three main biological factors that mostly affect yield losses and the profits of farmers. Various categories of weeders and sprayers are available in the market, including tractor-mounted, power-operated, manual, and self-propelled options. These machines are typically operated by petrol or diesel engines. With the shortage of fossil fuel, its unavailability in rural areas, and the need to reduce emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuel, we must explore non conventional sources of energy. Such sources are available in an inexhaustible and eco friendly form in nature. The most significant source of renewable energy is the sun, which provides an infinite resource of energy to fulfil all energy requirements indefinitely. Keeping these issues in mind, a research project was undertaken to develop a solar-powered weeder and boom sprayer for selected field crops. This technology improved coverage by using two straight blades, reduced drudgery and minimized negative health impacts. The primary objective behind developing this machine was to replace fossil fuels, lower operational costs and introduce gender-neutral technology that could be used by anybody. It aimed to improve weeding and spraying technology in the field of agriculture. The developed weeder was evaluated in the groundnut crop for its performance. The field experiments were conducted at the instructional farm of soil and water conservation, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, JAU, Junagadh. The experiments involved varying forward speeds (1.0-1.5 km/h, 1.5-2.0 km/h, and 2.0- 2.5 km/h) in a completely randomized design with three treatments, each replicated five times. The study assessed the weeder's effectiveness by measuring parameters such as effective field capacity, field efficiency, weeding efficiency, plant damage, battery performance (charging, discharging, and charge-discharge cycles), and operational cost. Results indicated that the highest effective field capacity of the weeder was 0.27 ha/h at a forward speed of 2.0-2.5 km/h. The optimal field efficiency (86.66%) and weeding efficiency (88.33%) were achieved at 1.0-1.5 km/h. No plant damage occurred during operations. The weeder operated for 2 hours and 45 minutes on a single charge, requiring 5 hours for a full charge to reach 55.4 V. Additionally, the solar-powered weeder demonstrated uninterrupted operation for 7 hours from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., showcasing its reliability and sustainability in agricultural applications. The performance of the developed sprayer was evaluated in both laboratory and field conditions to ensure that the objectives were fulfilled. The sprayer underwent laboratory testing to determine its discharge rate, swath width, spray angle, and spray pattern at different pressures. The independent parameters for the tests were operating pressures of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kg/cm2 . The discharge rate increased with increasing operating pressure, while the swath width and spray angle also increased with higher operating pressures. In the groundnut field, the sprayer was tested to evaluate its actual field capacity, theoretical field capacity, and field efficiency at different speed levels of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 km/h. The actual field capacity and theoretical field capacity increased, while field efficiency decreased as the speed of operation increased. At speeds of 1.5 km/h, 2.0 km/h, and 2.5 km/h, the calculated theoretical field capacities were 0.525 ha/h, 0.7 ha/h, and 0.875 ha/h, respectively. However, the measured actual field capacities were found to be 0.42 ha/h, 0.54 ha/h, and 0.64 ha/h for the corresponding speeds. Among the different speeds of the spraying operation, a speed of 2.5 km/h for the sprayer was found to be superior. The solar-powered weeder and boom sprayer demonstrated an operating cost of ₹77 per hour. By adopting this weeder and boom sprayer, problems related to labor shortages can be reduced in terms of time and total cost per hectare (₹/ha). The breakeven point, payback period, average net annual benefit, and B-C ratio of the developed weeder were found to be 502.22 hours per year, 4.56 years, ₹42690 per year, and 4.37, respectively. These results indicate that the machine was effective in reducing time, energy, and operational costs. Overall, the performance of the machine was found to be satisfactory.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DRYING OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) IN SOLAR TUNNEL DRYER 3787
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-12) PRADEEP PATIDAR; Dr. S. P. Cholera; 2050221010
    India, renowned as the "Land of Spices," holds a prominent position as the world's leading producer, consumer, and exporter of spices. Derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, turmeric contains bioactive such as curcuminoids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids, all contributing to its health-promoting properties. To preserve turmeric, drying is a time-tested method, aimed at reducing its moisture content from the initial 70-80% at harvest to a safe 10%. Traditional sun drying, while effective, has limitations including extended drying times, space requirements, and potential product quality loss. In response, Solar dryers, which utilize solar radiation as an energy source for drying agricultural products, have been widely implemented in tropical and subtropical regions due to their affordability and cost effectiveness This study, conducted during the academic year 2022-2023, focuses on evaluating the drying characteristics of fresh turmeric rhizomes using different blanching temperatures, durations, and slice thicknesses. Both solar tunnel dryers and sun drying methods were employed. Turmeric samples, whole and sliced, were subjected to blanching at varying temperatures (70°C, 80°C and 90°C), durations (15, DRYING OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) IN SOLAR TUNNEL DRYER ABSTRACT II 30 and 45 minutes), and thicknesses (4 mm, 5 mm and whole). The experimental layout followed a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD). The samples were subsequently subjected to drying in two distinct systems, namely, sun drying and solar tunnel drying. The size of drying tray was kept 700 mm x 700 mm x 50 mm with net volume of 0.0245 m3. Spread density of turmeric 214.3 kg/m3 was employed The specimens are uniformly arranged on the drying layer, maintaining a thickness within the range of 2-3 cm. The drying process was conducted during the daytime, i.e., from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. The mean values of physical properties of fresh turmeric viz., moisture content, size, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity was 78.25 ± 0.703 % (wb), 30.80 ± 4.82 mm, 0.48 ±0.07, 447.87 ± 10.61 kg/m³, 1115.67 ± 39.97 kg/m³, and 60.22 %. The mean values of proximate composition, viz., total carbohydrate, true protein, total oil and total ash of raw turmeric rhizomes were found to be 9.18 ± 0.38 %, 1.41 ± 0.08 %, 0.82 ± 0.11 % and 0.71 ± 0.18 %, respectively. The mean value of moisture content, size, sphericity, bulk density, true density and porosity of dried turmeric rhizomes were found to be 9.88 ± 0.57 % (wb), 16.56 ± 2.81 mm, 0.41 ± 0.02 %, 579.15 ± 20.60 kg/m³, 1258.15 ± 61.82 kg/m³ and 54.40 %, respectively. The highest amount of curcumin (4.18 %), volatile oil (4.00 %), total carbohydrate (63.41 %), total oil (4.90 %) and total ash (8.57 %) was observed in whole turmeric rhizomes dried by solar tunnel drying. The findings viable option that whole turmeric rhizomes with blanching low temperature and time interval and dried by solar tunnel dryer is viable option for good qualities in term of curcumin, volatile oil, total carbohydrate, total oil and total ash than the other drying methods. From the present investigation, on the basis of biochemical parameters it is concluded that the best quality turmeric powder is prepared by solar tunnel dried whole turmeric rhizomes blanched at 70℃ for 15 min. The recovery level of dried turmeric rhizomes was higher in the Solar Tunnel Dryer (22.40 kg/q) as compared to traditional sun drying method (20.70 kg/q) in terms of quantity as 1.70 kg/q and in terms economics return as Rs. 561.00 per 100 kg of turmeric rhizomes. In other words, producer of Saurashtra region will gain additional benefits of Rs. 2805 per batch of 500 kg of fresh turmeric rhizomes by adopting solar tunnel dryer.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INVESTIGATION OF DISTINCTIVE MORPHO-PHYSIO AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogea. L) UNDER HEAVY METAL STRESS CONDITION 3783
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) VISHWANATHA B; Dr. CHANDRAKANT SINGH; 2010121089
    India's agricultural industry plays a crucial role in global oilseed production, particularly in the cultivation of groundnuts, which serve as a significant source of cooking oil, vegetable protein, dietary fiber, and food crops. Gujarat stands out as the leading state in groundnut production, covering more than 35 percent of the total area and 42 percent of peanut production in the country. However, heavy metal stress poses a significant challenge, as it can result in productivity losses and disrupt nutrient recycling in plants and the environment. Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic, can accumulate in plants and potentially enter in food chain, posing a threat to human health. Since groundnut grown in larger areas and increased pollution made it necessary to know the heavy metal accumulation pattern and their toxic effect in relation to plant growth and metabolism. This study investigated the morpho-physiological and biochemical changes in groundnut plant under heavy metal stress condition grown in both petri plate and poly bags. Heavy metals like chromium, nickel, and lead were used at different concentration for both the experiments. Growth as well as biochemical parameters with relation to heavy metal accumulation in different genotype were analyzed to know the effect of heavy metals on plants growth and development. Initial experiment on seed germination under different levels (20, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ppm) of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cr) was conducted. Germination percentage of seeds reduced with increasing concentration of heavy metals, but at low concentration (20 ppm) showed comparative germination with control. Similar for shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight also decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metals. Among Ni, Pb, and Cr metals, Ni induce highest stress and Cr induced mild stress among the heavy metals. The results from the experiment conducted in polybag showed that heavy metal stress, especially at higher concentrations of Ni and Pb, negatively affected the growth parameters of groundnut plants, with reduced values observed in plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weights, total dry weight, and total leaf area. At harvest, GJG-22 exhibited superior performance in terms of plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, biomass, and number of pods per plant compared to GJG-9. The biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity were also affected by heavy metal stress, with increased levels of proline, H2O2, and MDA, and decreased chlorophyll content and total antioxidant activity. In terms of heavy metal uptake, GJG-9 showed higher shoot and root concentrations of Ni and Pb compared to GJG-22, indicating its susceptibility to heavy metal accumulation. The translocation efficiency of Ni from roots to shoots was similar between the two varieties, while GJG-22 displayed slightly better translocation factors for Pb. Overall, GJG-9 exhibited higher heavy metal concentrations, indicating less tolerance, while GJG-22 demonstrated greater tolerance to heavy metal stress. Heavy metal uptake and distribution were studied, revealing that GJG-9 exhibited higher shoot and root concentrations of Ni and Pb, while GJG-22 showed better heavy metal tolerance with lower uptake levels. Among both metals lead has less translocation compared to nickel at higher concentration showing less chance to enter in food chain. These results could be used on screening and identifying groundnut varieties that exhibit higher tolerance to heavy metal stress. The data generated from this research could contribute to effective strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of heavy metal stress on groundnut crops, promoting sustainable agriculture, and ensuring food safety and environmental sustainability
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INVESTIGATION OF DISTINCTIVE MORPHO - PHYSIO AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) UNDER HEAVY METAL STRESS CONDITIONS 3780
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) SUSHMITA PARASAPPA HULLUR; Dr. RAJIV KUMAR; 2010121086
    Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, is a self-pollinated annual herb belonging to family fabaceae. Fenugreek is also used in medicine as a carminative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and also as tonic for gastric troubles, diabetes, leucorrhea etc. Human exposure to heavy metals comes mostly through edible vegetables, which account for around 90% of the overall intake, while the remaining 10% comes from skin contact and breathing of polluted dust. Because of the growing demand for food in recent decades, food safety has become a major public health concern in terms of human health. In this manner the chain of link gets established between heavy metals and contaminated food products and health risks associated with them. Since leafy vegetables have a tendency to accumulate relatively larger number of heavy metals, it is essential to have knowledge about their accumulation pattern and their toxic effects in relation to plant growth and metabolism. This study investigated the morpho-physiological and biochemical changes in fenugreek plant under heavy metal stress condition grown in both petri plate and polybag separately. Heavy metals like chromium, nickel and mercury were included in the study with different concentrations for both the experiments. Germination percentage, speed of germination, growth parameters (shoot length, root length, seedling length, seedling vigour index, fresh weight, dry weight, metal tolerance index), biochemical parameters (proline, chlorophyll, MDA, H2O2, Antioxidant activity, phenol content, MSI) and accumulation of heavy metals, were analysed to evaluate the performance of fenugreek under heavy metal stress condition. The impact of heavy metals on the morphological parameters of fenugreek seedlings cultivated in Petri plates was investigated. The findings highlighted that exposure to heavy metals led to a notable reduction in shoot length, root length, seedling length, and seedling vigour index when compared to the control group. Among the three metals studied, nickel demonstrated the mildest effects on seedling morphology. In contrast, chromium and mercury caused a substantial 25 to 50% decrease in the evaluated morphological parameters compared to the control. Remarkably, the concentration of 800 ppm chromium exhibited the most significant reduction in the mentioned parameters, establishing it as the most toxic level of chromium exposure. Dry weight was more affected than fresh weight, with 53-70% reductions in chromium and nickel, but less impact from mercury. Moisture content was least affected. The presented study delves into the impact of heavy metals on various morphological parameters of fenugreek plants cultivated in polybags. The findings revealed that the root length experienced a substantial reduction (32 to 41%) at higher metal concentrations compared to lower doses. Shoot length remained unaffected by certain concentrations of chromium and nickel, though mercury led to reduced growth. Leaf area was generally resilient to heavy metals, except for specific concentrations of chromium and mercury causing reductions. Heavy metal concentration detrimentally affected fresh weight, while dry weight exhibited a biphasic response, both positive and negative. Dry matter accumulation displayed a positive correlation with heavy metal concentration. Proline content showed a drastic increase (almost 100 %) under 400 ppm of nickel treatment. Chlorophyll content was more impacted by chromium and nickel than by mercury. H2O2 content was notably elevated in plants treated with higher chromium and nickel doses. Chromium-treated plants exhibited the highest MDA production, followed by mercury and nickel treatments. Nickel substantially affected membrane stability and phenolic content. Antioxidant activity was significantly heightened in chromium and nickel treatments compared to mercury. Metal accumulation increased with concentration, particularly in roots. Chromium showed the highest root accumulation, followed by nickel and mercury. Heavy metal remediation is a must activity to be followed to our secured future since the speed of urbanization and industrialization, which is the main cause, is surpassing even the speed of light. So, this idea of research needs a peak importance with respect to conservation of agricultural lands, maintenance of organic and healthy food habit and life style with less impacts. Innovations and discoveries in this thought can reduce the ill effects of heavy metals on human health, plants and soil micro flora and fauna
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON PACKAGING AND STORAGE OF TENDER COCONUT WATER 3778
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) B. HEMALATHA; Dr. V. K. Chandegara; 2050221007
    Tender coconut water (TCW) is incredible healthy drink and the best one to hydrate the body. The sweet, clear, aqueous part inside the immature green coconut is referred as tender coconut water (TCW). TCW starts to deteriorate once it is exposed to the air and stored at ambient temperature due to microbial contamination as well as oxidation reactions, which cause changes in its sensory properties. Preserving the TCW with its wholesome natural property remains a challenge. Therefore nonthermal processing techniques treated tender coconut water (ozonation and ultrasonication) and packed in 200ml glass and PET bottles under refrigerated condition (4±2℃) , and withdrawn a weekly interval to checked the quality and stability of TCW. The effect of ozonation treatment time (10,20,30 min), ultrasonication treatment time (10,20,30 min), combination treatment time (ozonation and ultrasonication) and packaging materials (glass bottle, PET bottle) on different characteristics of tender coconut water viz. biochemical, enzyme activities and sensory characteristics of tender coconut water were studied. The Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) was used in designing the experiment and analyzing the results. From the study, ozonation treated TCW was found at 20min treatment time and packed in glass bottle under refrigerated condition, which gave the experimental values of TSS 4.89⁰Brix, TA 0.08%, pH 4.94, EC 5.10 mS/cm, TDS 4.14ppm, TS 4.13 %, TPC 2.37 (mg GAE/ml), Total plate count 2.485log (CFU/ml), Yeast and Mould count, ii 2.253log (CFU/ml), POD and PPO 0.038 and 0.020 (∆ O.D./min/ml) and Overall acceptability 6.70 for after 4th week of storage period. Ultrasonication treated TCW was found at 20min treatment time and packed in glass and PET bottle under refrigerated condition, which gave the experimental values of TSS 5.17 and 4.93⁰Brix, TA 0.08 and 0.10 %, pH 4.87 and 4.68, EC 5.24 and 5.15 mS/cm, TDS 4.03 and 4.62 ppm, TS 4.37 and 4.63 %, TPC 2.43 and 1.77 (mg GAE/ml), Total plate count 1.718 and 2.418log (CFU/ml), Yeast and Mould count 2.579 and 1.384log (CFU/ml), POD 0.014 and 0.021, PPO 0.017 and 0.021(∆ O.D./min/ml) and Overall acceptability 8.13 for after 4th week of storage period. Ozonation and Ultrasonication treated TCW was found at 20min treatment time and packed in glass and PET bottle under refrigerated condition, which gave the experimental values of TSS 5.17 and 5.01⁰Brix, TA 0.08 and 0.09 %, pH 4.75 and 4.72, EC 5.82 and 5.93 mS/cm, TDS 4.60 and 4.68 ppm, TS 3.55 and 3.60 %, TPC 1.80 and 2.07 (mg GAE/ml), Total plate count 2.472 and 1.681log (CFU/ml), Yeast and Mould count 2.019 and 1.726log (CFU/ml), POD 0.014 and 0.016, PPO 0.010 and 0.014 (∆ O.D./min/ml) and Overall acceptability 7.33 and 7.50 for after 4th week of storage period. It was recommended to tender coconut water treated with 20min ozonation treatment stored in glass bottle upto 4th week of storage period and 20min ultrasonication treatment stored in glass and PET bottle at 4±2℃ upto 4th week of storage period. Combination treatment 20min ozonation and 20 min ultrasonication treatment stored in glass bottle and PET bottle at 4±2℃ upto 4th week of storage period.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT OF EXTRUDED PRODUCT FROM PEARL MILLET FLOUR BLENDED WITH CHICKPEA FLOUR 3777
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) KULDEEP P. NAGHERA; Dr. M. N. Dabhi; 2050221005
    The aim of this research work was to develop extruded snacks using a combination of pearl millet flour and chickpea flour. The study focused on standardizing the process technology for extrusion and optimizing the machine parameters for the production of the extruded product. The objectives included studying the proximate composition of the flours, determining the appropriate blended flour proportion, preparing the extruded product at different machine parameters, and evaluating the physical, functional, biochemical, and sensory properties of the developed extruded product. Raw materials were procured from the local market and a composite flour was prepared. Various characteristics of the composite flour were analyzed using standard techniques. The extrusion process was conducted using a twin screw extruder, and the extruded products were collected, dried, and packed for analysis. The findings revealed that a composite flour proportion of 70 % pearl millet and 30 % chickpea flour was suitable. The extruded products exhibited varying characteristics based on different process conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for bulk density, true density, expansion ratio, water solubility index, water absorption index, water holding capacity, hardness, crispness, moisture content, total carbohydrate, true protein, crude fiber, starch, total ash, calcium, iron, zinc, and sensory properties. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters and develop mathematical models for the response variables. The optimized conditions are - die temperature of 138 °C, screw speed of 320 rpm, and feed moisture content of 14.5 % (w.b.). Overall, this research provides insights into the development of extruded snacks using pearl millet and chickpea flour, offering potential for enhanced nutritional value and consumer acceptability.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    APPRAISAL OF SALINITY/SODICITY PARAMETERS IN THE SOILS OF SOUTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) BAMANIYA VIMALKUMAR PARVATSINH; Dr. L. C. Vekaria; 2010120093
    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study the salinity/sodicity parameters of Gujarat by collecting 270 surface soil samples from the farmer’s cultivated field during summer, 2021. The present investigation was carried out for the appraisal of soil salinity/sodicity parameters in the soils of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone. For this purpose, 270 surface soil samples were collected from 6 districts (10 soil samples from each taluka) of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone viz., Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Amreli, Bhavanagar, Porbandar and Rajkot. Soil samples were analyzed for chemical properties. On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different districts of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat, it can be concluded that the range of water soluble cations Ca++, Mg++, Na+ and K+ were 0.69 to 7.20 me L-1 , 0.40 to 12.98 me L-1 , 1.09 to 149.32 me L-1 and 0.01 to 1.04 me L-1 with mean values of 2.73, 2.61, 14.32 and 0.15, respectively recorded in the soils of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone. Similarly, in respect of water soluble anions like CO3 2- , HCO3 - , Cl and SO4 2- in range of 0.00 to 4.80 me L-1 , 0.40 to 9.90 me L-1 , 1.25 to 149.30 me L-1 and 0.00 to 7.98 me L-1 with mean values of 0.28 me L-1 , 3.46 me L-1 , 14.99 me L-1 and 1.07 me L-1 respectively also observed in this zone. The dominance order of water soluble cations Na+>Ca++>Mg++>K+ and water soluble anions Cl ->HCO3 2->SO4 2- >CO3 2- were recorded. The overall exchangeable Ca++ values of South Saurashtra’s soil samples were ranged from 8.80 to 36.80 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with the mean value of 21.40 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). Among the different districts falls under South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, overall mean value of exchangeable Mg++ was [13.70 (cmol (p+) kg-1 )]. Exchangeable Na+ levels in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone ranged from 1.70 to 51.40 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 , with a mean of 6.30 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). The overall value of range of Abstract exchangeable K+ in South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.10-1.70 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with mean value of 0.40 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). The dominance order of exchangeable cations Ca++>Mg++>Na+>K+ was recorded. The overall mean value of EC2.5 of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.59 dS m-1 and it was ranged widely from 0.14 to 5.15 dS m-1 . In general, the soil samples of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone showed pH2.5 value ranging from 6.74 to 8.84 with a mean value of 7.97. Soluble sodium percentage ranged from 11.72 to 96.30 in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 64.62. The exchangeable sodium percentage was found in the range of 4.20 to 59.00 in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 15.00. The overall range of cation exchange capacity was 20.10 to 87.10 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 with the mean value of 41.80 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 . The overall reserve lime content was ranging from 10.00 to 475 g kg-1 with mean value of 128.50 g kg-1 indicating the normal to slightly calcareous nature of the soil. The soil samples of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone were found about 61.11, 19.25, 18.11 and 1.48 per cent to tend to be saline (0.25 to 0.75 dS m-1 ), saline (0.75 to 2.25 dS m-1 ), be normal (<0.25dS m-1 ), and highly saline (>2.25 dS m 1). about 53.70, 40.37, 5.92 and 0.00 per cent to be normal (<8.0), Alkaline (8.0 to 8.5), Alkali (8.5 to 9.0) and highly alkali (>9.0), about 51.85% , 45.55% and 2.22% to be non alkaline, slightly alkaline and moderately alkaline and about 35.92% and 64.07% soils to be good and fair category, respectively. The soils of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone were normal (34.07%) followed by slightly calcareous (31.48%) in nature and cation exchange capacity was 41.80 cmol (p+ ) kg-1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF UPL FUNGICIDE USAGE AMONG FARMERS IN RAJKOT DISTRICT 3772
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) KHER SURPALSINH RAJESHBHAI; Dr. Kalpesh Kumar; 2072121007
    This study aims to measure the growth and stability of the cumin crop, identify factors influencing brand loyalty, examine the impact of promotional activities on farmers' purchase behavior, assess farmers' awareness levels, and determine their satisfaction levels. The research was conducted in three talukas of Rajkot district using a multistage sampling technique, with 200 farmers selected as respondents. Various research methodologies were employed to achieve the study's objectives. CAGR and CDVI were used to assess the growth and stability of the cumin crop, while a Linear Multiple Regression Model was employed to identify factors affecting brand loyalty towards UPL fungicide. Garrett's ranking technique was used to study the influence of promotional activities on farmers' purchase behavior, and a class interval was utilized to determine farmers' awareness levels about Avancer Glow. Importance-Performance Analysis was conducted to identify farmers' satisfaction levels towards UPL fungicide. The study investigated cumin production, factors influencing the purchase of Avancer Glow, promotional activities for pesticide sales, awareness levels about Avancer Glow fungicide among farmers, and cumin farmers' satisfaction with fungicide attributes. The findings revealed significant growth in cumin production during the first period, followed by slower but positive growth in the second period. Factors such as product quality and dealer influence positively affected the purchase of Avancer Glow. On-farm demonstrations and farmer meetings played significant roles in pesticide purchases. However, awareness about Avancer Glow fungicide was found to be low among farmers. Farmer satisfaction varied, with areas for improvement identified. Enhancing product quality, considering dealer opinions, and implementing interactive promotions are crucial for increasing Avancer Glow purchases. Efforts to raise awareness and improve fungicide attributes are recommended to enhance crop productivity
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AWARENESS AND ADOPTION OF BIO-PESTICIDE IN GIR-SOMNATH AND JUNAGADH DISTRICTS 3768
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) PANSURIYA CHINTANBHAI ASHVINBHAI; Dr. M. S. Shitap; 2072121016
    A bio-pesticide is a biological substance or organism that damages, kills or repels pests. They are obtained from organisms including plants, bacteria and other microbes, fungi, nematodes, etc. Total 120 coconut farmers were selected from Gir somnath and Junagadh districts using multistage sampling technique. Arbitary method of classification was used to measure awareness and adoption, Multiple linear regression for identifying the factors influencing purchase decision of bio-pesticides, Chi-square test to study the various parameters affecting the satisfaction level and Garret ranking to identify the constraints faced by farmers in use of bio-pesticides. The cost of cultivation for non-users (₹ 96798.7) was higher than Hopewell users (₹ 84326.5). The benefit cost ratio for users (1.63:1) was higher than Hopewell non-users (1.44:1). Around 67.92 per cent of farmers had high to medium awareness of Hopewell, while 35.85 per cent had adopted its application and around 79.11 per cent of farmers had high to medium awareness of other bio-pesticides. Cropping area, size of package, quality of product and result of product are positively significant to influenced adoption. Factors such as price, quality, packaging size, results of product, availability and yield influenced farmer’s satisfaction. The main constraints in use of bio-pesticide were perception that chemical pesticides are more effective, lack of usage by fellow farmers and higher prices of bio-pesticides