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Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of Fipronil and Flubendiamide on Cabbage and Monitoring of Insecticide Residues in Vegetables
    (2022) Jat, Hansa Kumari; Jakhar, B.L.
    Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of Fipronil and flubendiamide on Cabbage and Monitoring of insecticide Residues in Vegetables was studied, following the application at recommended dose (40 and 18.24 g a. i. ha-1 ), respectively and double of the recommended dose (80 and 36.48 g a. i. ha-1 ), respectively, in the Division of Entomology, Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan) during (2020-21). The persistence study on cabbage recorded the average initial deposit of pesticide fipronil, its three metabolites desulfinyl (MB046513), sulfide (MB045950) and sulfone (MB046136) were 0.641, 0.377, 0.065, and 0.327 respectively and flubendiamide on cabbage was recorded as 0.292 mg kg-1 at recommended dose, while at double of the recommended dose, the average initial deposit were 1.077, 0.737, 0.115, and 0.677 for fipronil and its metabolites and 0.506 mg kg-1 for flubendiamide. The control sample of the cabbage show the residue of the fipronil, its three metabolites and flubendiamide, respectively. The residues half-life (RL50) values were 2.4, 2.7, 2.7, and 2.6 days for fipronil and its metabolites at recommended dose and 3.6 days for flubendiamide while at double of the recommended doses, it is 4.3, 2.6, 3.6, 2.9 and 4.5 for respectively. The waiting periods for the respective pesticides were worked out at their limit of determination (0.001 and 0.05 mg kg-1 for fipronil, its metabolites and flubendiamide) due to lack of MRL value by the FSSAI. In case of soil samples the residues at harvest time of cabbage crop was not detected in the recommended dose and double of the recommended dose, respectively. In decontamination studies, acetic acid treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by lukewarm water, NaHCO3 5 percent, NaCl 1 percent NaCl, KMnO4 and tap water washing were recorded in reduction of fipronil and its metabolites residues. While in reduction of flubendiamide residues, lukewarm water treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by acetic acid 5 percent, NaHCO3 5 percent , NaCl 1 percent, KMnO4 and tap water washing. Out of 40 samples of different farmgate vegetables analysed, 10 vegetable samples (25%) were detected with different pesticides residues. While, out of 40 market vegetables samples analysed, 12 vegetable samples (30%) were found contaminated with different pesticide residues. None of the samples showed pesticide residues exceeding the MRL in farmgate and market samples. Therefore, the study concluded that fipronil was the most persistent followed by desulfinyl, sulfone, sulfide and flubendiamide as least persistent among test pesticides on cabbage. The safe waiting period on cabbage were suggested as 5, 6, 3, 6 and 6 days at recommended dose and 10, 7, 7, 7 and 8 days at double of the recommended dose for fipronil, its metabolites and flubendiamide, respectively. In case of fipronil and its metabolites, acetic acid was found as the most effective decontamination process. While in case of flubendiamide luke warm water was significantly superior to rest of the treatments. Pesticide monitoring study is a continuous one and the real dimension of the problem may be apprehended only after widespread monitoring with adequately large sample size
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Population Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan
    (2022) Choudhary, Pradeep; Dhaka, S.R.
    The study on “Population Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan” was carried out at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, SKNAU, Durgapura, Jaipur during years 2018 and 2019. Observations on population abundance of pest complex in okra showed whitefly population peak level in last week of September during 2018 and in first week of October during 2019. Minimum temperature during 2018 and morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall during 2019 showed significant and negative influence on population of whitefly. The leafhopper attained the peak in last week of August during 2018 and 2019. During 2018, maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall showed positive and significant correlation with leafhopper population. Mite pest reached the peak in second week of October. During 2018, maximum temperature showed positive, while, minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and negative correlation with mite population. Likewise, the influence of minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity was significant and negative on mite abundance during 2019. Infestation of shoot caused by shoot and fruit borer reached the maximum level in second week of September during both the years. Here, maximum temperature exhibited significant and negative influence during 2018, while, morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and positive influence during 2019 on shoot infestation. The fruit damage was recorded at maximum level on number and weight basis in last picking done in fourth week of October during both the years. The influence of minimum temperature and morning
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Population Dynamics and Management of Carpomyia vesuviana Costa on Ber, Ziziphus mauritiana (L.
    (2022) BAGARIA, SANJAY KUMAR; Bairwa, D.K.
    Investigations on “Population Dynamics and Management of Carpomyia vesuviana Costa on Ber, Ziziphus mauritiana (L.)” were carried out at Asalpur farm, S.K.N College of Agriculture, Jobner during October, 2021 to March, 2022. The Infestation of ber fruit fly on cultivar Gola started in the first week of November and gradually increased and reached its peak in the first week of February on number basis and in the third week of January on weight basis. A non-significant negative correlation was observed between infestation of fruit fly with maximum and minimum temperature. The morning and evening relative humidity and rain fall showed non-significant positive correlation with the incidence of fruit fly. Wind velocity showed significant positive correlation with the incidence of ber fruit fly. A significant difference was found in marketable yield between the protected and unprotected plots. The average fruit yield per tree of protected plots was 52.13 kg per tree while the average fruit yield of unprotected plots was 32.51 kg per tree. The loss in yield caused by ber fruit fly was 37.61 per cent in unprotected trees as compared to protected treeOut of seven biopesticides tested against ber fruit fly, revealed that spinosad 45 SC 0.01% was found most effective followed by azadirachtin 0.03 EC. The treatment of NSKE 5%, Beauveria bassiana 1.15 WP and Metarhizium anisopliae 1.15 WP existed in moderate group of their efficacy however they were at par to each other. The Neem oil and Karanj oil proved least effective against fruit fly. All the biopesticide increased the marketable yield of ber fruits significantly over the control. The maximum yield (41 kg/tree) was recorded in the plot treated with spinosad 45 SC followed by azadirachtin 0.03 EC (37 kg/tree), NSKE 5% (35.35 kg/tree), Beauveria bassiana 1.15 WP (33 kg/tree) and Neem oil (32 kg/tree). The minimum yield (31 kg/tree and 29.40 kg/tree) was recorded in Metarhizium anisopliae 1.15 WP and Karanj oil. Maximum increase in yield over control was recorded in the plot treated with spiosad 45 SC (37.91%) followed by azadirachtin 0.03 EC (34.05%), NSKE 5% (31.85%), Beauveria bassiana 1.15 WP (25.71%) and Neem oil (22.48%). whereas, The minimum increase in yield over control was found in Metarhizium anisopliae 1.15 WP (19.71%) and Karanj oil (18.28%) The highest incremental cost benefit ratio (ICBR) of 4.03 was computed in spinosad followed by Beauveria bassiana (2.62), azadirachtin (2.60), Neem oil (2.41) and NSKE (2.16). The lowest B:C ratio 1.58 was obtained in Karanj oil and 2.0 Metarhizium anisopliae
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Biointensive Management of Major Sucking Insect Pests of Groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L.) in Semi arid Ecosystem of Rajasthan
    (2022) Priyanka; Khinchi, S.K.
    The field experiment on “Biointensive Management of Major Sucking Insect Pests of Groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L.) in Semi-arid Ecosystem of Rajasthan” was conducted for two consecutive years 2020 and 2021 during the Kharif, season at Agronomy Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan). The incidence of the aphid Aphis craccivora started in the first week of August in both the years. The population of aphid gradually increased and reached to its peak in the first week of September and last week of August during Kharif, 2020 and 2021 respectively. The incidence of leafhopper, Empoasca kerri and thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis appeared in the fifth and fourth week of July in both the years. The leafhopper and thrips population reached to its peak in the second week of September in 2020 and the first week of September in 2021. The incidence of ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata and syrphid fly Xanthogramma scutellare appeared from second week of August to second week of October during 2020 and 2021. The correlation studies indicated that the aphid, leafhopper and thrips population had significant positive correlation with relative humidity (r= 0.71, r= 0.62 and r= 0.60) and (r= 0.64, r= 0.77 and r= 0.75) during both the years 2020 and 2021, respectively. Whereas the leafhopper and thrips population had significant positive correlation with (r= 0.59 and r= 0.61) minimum temperature in the Kharif, season 2021. In the experiment it was observed that the predators, ladybird beetle and syrphid fly had significant positive relationship with aphid, leafhopper and thrips population during both the years. Out of fifteen genotypes of groundnut screened against major sucking insect pests four genotypes viz., RG-632-1, RG-559-3, Girnar 4 and RG-633 were categorized as least susceptible against all the sucking insect pests under the study. Whereas, RG-622-5, RG-382, RG-638, RG-628, RG-621, TG-37-A and RG-639 as moderately susceptible and RG-624, RG-425, RG-510 and RG-578 as highly susceptible to aphid infestation. Eight genotypes viz., RG-382, RG-638, RG-622-5, RG-628, TG-37-A, RG-639, RG-425 and RG-621 were moderately susceptible and three genotypes viz., RG-624, RG-510 and RG-578 were highly susceptible to leafhopper infestations. Similarly, the genotypes RG-382, RG-638, RG-622-5, RG-628, RG-621, RG-624 and RG-639 found to be moderately susceptible and RG-425, RG-510, TG-37-A and RG-578 as highly susceptible to thrips infestation. The biophysical characters of different groundnut genotypes viz., trichome density, leaf thickness, relative water content and wax content of leaf had significant negative correlation with mean aphid, leafhopper and thrips populations. Among the biochemical parameters total phenol had significant negative correlation while, total sugar, free amino acid content and chlorophyll content had significant positive correlation with mean aphid, leafhopper and thrips populations. Among different treatments applied to control sucking insect pests of groundnut in the study, the treatments imidacloprid 17.8 SL and diafenthiuron 50 WP were proved to be most effective. The next effective treatments were pyriproxyfen 10 EC, spiromesifen 22.9 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, novaluron 10 EC and NSKE 5%, while the least effective treatments i.e. L. lecanii, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae against major sucking insect pests of groundnut. The maximum yield of groundnut pod 25.21 q ha-1 and 24.54 q ha-1was obtained in the plots treated with imidacloprid 17.8 SL and diafenthiuron 50 WP, respectively. The highest benefit cost ratio was obtained with imidacloprid 17.8 SL (28.39) followed by pyriproxyfen 10 EC (17.26) and diafenthiuron 50 WP (15.33) treatments. The different IPM modules that were evaluated on sucking insect pests of groundnut indicated that the maximum per cent reduction insucking insect pests populations was observed in modules M10 (farmer practices - imidacloprid) followed by M7, M1 and M9 and categorized as most effective IPM modules. The minimum per cent reduction in sucking insect pests population was recorded in modules M5, M2 and M8 and ranked as least effective group of modules. The modules M6, M4 and M3 were found to be moderately effective IPM modules. The maximum pod yield of groundnut 27.08 q ha-1 was obtained in the modules M10 followed by M7 (25.92 q ha-1 ), M1 (25.59 q ha-1 ) and M9 (25.25 q ha-1 ). On the basis of cost benefit ratio the modules M10 gave the highest ratio (25.62) followed by M7 (12.35) and M1 (12.15
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Management of Major Insect Pests of Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L.) with Special Reference to Biorational Approach
    (2022) CHOUDHARY , ARJUN LAL; Kumawat, K.C.
    The investigation entitled ‘Management of major insect pests of Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L.) with special reference to biorational approach.’ was conducted at Asalpur Farm, S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) during the year 2019 and 2020. The study on the succession and incidence of insect pests revealed that the leaf roller, Caloptilia (=Gracillaria) acidula (Meyr.);shoot gall maker, Hypolamprus (=Betousa) stylophora (Swinhoe); bark eating caterpillar, Indarbela tetraonis Moore, I. quadrinotata (Walker) and fruit borer, Deudorix (=Virachola) isocrates (Fab.) were recorded as major insect pests quantitatively at different phenology of Indian gooseberry.The peak population (46.60 and 44.80/ 5 shoots) of leaf roller was recorded in the last week of September (39th SMW), 2019 and 2020. The leaf roller population had positive significant correlation (r=0.44, 0.39, respectively during 2019 and 2020) with the minimum temperature.The maximum shoot gall maker damage of 6.60-7.40 per cent was observed in last week of August (35th SMW) to first week of September (36th SMW).The mean relative humidity had significantly positive correlation (r=0.57, 0.65) during both the years of investigation. The damage of bark eating caterpillar was observed at its peak (4.0-5.0/ 5 plants in 2019 and 2020) in first week of September. The bark eating caterpillar had significantly positive correlation (r=0.54, 0.61) during both the years with the mean relative humidity. The peak infestation of fruit borer was recorded to be 16.00 and 15.00 per cent in 2019 and 2020, respectively in the 38th SMW (3rd week of September). The natural enemies (parasites and predators) associated with the insect pests on Indian gooseberry were Trichogramma chilonis Ishii; Tetrastichus sp.; green lacewing, Chrysoperala zastrowi arabica (Henry et al.); preying mantid, Mantis religiosa (L.); ladybird beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fab.); yellow wasp, Polistes hebraeus (F.); assassin bug, Harpactor costalis (Stal); spider and black ant, Camponotus compressus (Fab.) but meagre in numbers. The incubation period of eggs of shoot gall maker, H. stylophora was observed to be 5-7 days at ambient temperature, longevity of the caterpillar 21-27 days, pupal duration 9-12 days and adult longevity 6-10 days (female) and 6-9 days (male). Out of nine varieties of Indian gooseberry screened, NA-10, Kanchan, Gujarat-2, NA-20, Chakaiya, Gujarat-1 and Local were moderately susceptible to leaf roller; Chakaiya and Kanchan were least susceptible to shoot gall maker; Chakaiya was least susceptible to bark eating caterpillar and Chakaiya and Kanchan were categorized as least susceptible to fruit borer. The correlation (r) of all four major insect pests infestation was negatively significant with fruit yield. The TSS (%) of fruit had positive significant correlation with fruit borer infestation. The phenol had negative significant correlation, whereas, sugar had positive significant correlation with four major insect pests. Out of twelve treatments of newer insecticides and biopesticides, the minimum population of leaf roller was found in diafenthiuron, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, standard check (quinalphos/ malathion) and pyriproxyfen treated plants which were found at par. The minimum shoot gall maker infestation was recorded on the plants treated with standard check (quinalphos/ malathion), spinosad and chlorantraniliprole which were statistically at par among each other. The minimum bark eating caterpillar infestation was evident in the spinosad and emamectin benzoate which differed non significantly with each other. The minimum fruit borer infestation was recorded in the plants treated with spinosad, emamectin benzoate, standard check (quinalphos/ malathion) and chlorfenapyr which were statistically at par among each other. The maximum fruit yield was observed in the diafenthiuron 50 WP, chlofenapyr 10 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, pyriproxyfen 10.8 EC, spinosad 45 SC, standard check (quinalphos 25 EC/ malathion 50 EC) and emamectin benzoate 5 SG viz., 169.75-177.95 q/ ha which were found at par among each other and significant over other treatments. The maximum benefit cost ratio was exhibited in spinosad 45 SC (24.56) followed by pyriproxyfen 10.8 EC (21.94), emamectin benzoate 5 SG (16.59) and standard check (quinalphos 25 EC/ malathion 50 EC)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Management of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) in Stored Chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.) with Special Reference to Ecofriendly Approaches
    (2022) ARUL. G; Kumawat, K.C.
    The investigations on the ‘Management of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) in stored chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.) with special reference to ecofriendly approaches’ was conducted in the Department of Entomology at S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) during 2021. Out of five plant oils evaluated at three dosage levels (5.0, 7.5 and 10%) and four insecticides at two dosage levels (0.05 and 0.1%) as surface protectants of packaging material, minimum adult emergence was recorded in deltamethrin 2.8% EC at 0.1% (0.67- 3.33 adults) and neem oil 10% (1.33- 8.33 adults). Similar trend of weight loss was recorded in these treatments. Minimum grain damage was recorded in deltamethrin 2.8% EC at 0.1 % (0.33- 2.33%). It was followed by deltamethrin 2.8% EC at 0.05% (0.67- 5.00%) and spinetoram 11.7% SC at 0.1% (1.33- 6.33%). No adverse effect of surface treated gunny bags was registered on germination of the chickpea seeds. Out of seven plant oils, evaluated at three dosage levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0%) as seed protectants against pulse beetle, C. chinensis, the minimum fecundity was observed in mustard oil 1.0% (7.67- 23.00 eggs). It was followed by sesame oil 1.0% (11.67- 31.67 eggs) and cotton seed oil 1.0% (13.67- 35.67 eggs). The adult emergence was minimum in mustard oil 1.0% (0.00- 2.67 adults). It was followed by sesame oil 1.0% (0.00- 3.33 adults) and cotton seed oil 1.0% (0.00- 4.67 adults). No adult emergence took place upto 60 days of treatment of chickpea seeds with mustard oil 1.0%. It was followed by sesame oil 1.0% and cotton seed oil 1.0%. Similar trend of seed damage and weight loss was recorded in these treatments. No adverse effect on germination of chickpea seedsOut of five insect growth regulators evaluated at four dosage levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 ppm), three neem products and a standard check evaluated at one dosage level (2 ppm) as seed protectants against pulse beetle, C. chinensis, the minimum fecundity was observed in NSKE 5.0% (0.00- 8.33 eggs). It was followed by azadirachtin 0.15% EC at 1500 ppm (0.00- 11.33 eggs) and neem oil 1% (0.00- 11.33 eggs). No egg laying was recorded upto 60 days of treatment of chickpea seed with azadirachtin 0.15% EC at 1500 ppm. No adult emergence was recorded upto 120 days of treatment of chickpea seeds with azadirachtin 0.15% EC at 1500 ppm, NSKE 5.0% and neem oil 1%. Similar trend of seed damage and weight loss was recorded in these treatments. No adverse effect on germination of chickpea seeds was recorded in the insect growth regulator treated seeds. Out of eight exposure periods of UV rays (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 min.) against pulse beetle, C. chinensis, the minimum egg laying was observed on treatments exposed to 16 min (42 eggs/ 2 females) followed by 14 min (48 eggs/ 2 females) and 12 min (54 eggs/ 2 females). Similar trend of hatchability percentage, pupation percentage and adult emergence was recorded in these treatments. No adverse effect on germination of chickpea seeds was recorded in UV radiation treated seeds. Out of six coloured polythene bag exposed to solar radiation for three exposure periods viz., 5, 10 and 15 hours against pulse beetle, C. chinensis, no adult emergence was observed in treatments exposed to sun in black and blue colour polythene bags for 15 hours. Least grain damage was observed in black coloured polythene bag (1.84 %), it was followed by blue coloured bag (2.58 %) and green coloured bag (3.26 %). Similar trend of weight loss and adult mortality was recorded in these treatments. The per cent seed germination significantly decreased with increase in exposure periods for each coloured polythene bag.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Host Plant Resistance in Varieties of Brinjal against Shoot and Fruit Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee
    (2022) Nayak, Rohit Kumar; Hussain, Akhter
    The investigations on the “Host plant resistance in varieties of brinjal against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee” were conducted at Horticulture farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner during two consecutive seasons i.e. Kharif, 2019 and 2020. The infestation of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, L. orbonalis on shoots of brinjal commenced in the second week of August (33rd SMW) during both the years and reached to its peak in the second week of September (37th SMW) 30.84 per cent and 32.74 per cent shoot infestation during 2019 and 2020, respectively. The correlation studies indicated that the infestation of L. orbonalis on brinjal shoots had significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r= 0.68 & 0.79), while, non-significant correlation with minimum temperature (r= 0.40 & 0.27) and average relative humidity (r= - 0.52 & -0.37) during both the years. The total rainfall had non-significant correlation (r= -0.48) and significant negative correlation (r= -0.57) with infestation of L. orbonalis on brinjal shoot during 2019 and 2020, respectively. The infestation of fruits due to brinjal shoot and fruit borer on brinjal commenced in the third week of September (38th SMW) during both the years and reached to its peak (30.27% number basis and 28.30% weight basis during 2019; 26.32% number basis and 27.22% weight basis during 2020) in the third week of October (42th SMW) during both the years.fruits of brinjal both on number and weight basis had significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r= 0.80 on number and r= 0.70 on weight basis during 2019; r= 0.76 on number and r= 0.79 on weight basis during 2020). The fruit infestation had non-significant negative correlation with average relative humidity (r= -0.43 on number and r= -0.43 on weight basis) during 2019, while, contrary to this it had significant negative correlation with average relative humidity (r= -0.85 on number and r= -0.82 on weight basis) during 2020. The fruit infestation had non-significant correlation with minimum temperature (r= 0.55 on number and r= 0.45 on weight basis during 2019; r= 0.59 on number and r= 0.59 on weight basis during 2020) and total rainfall (r= 0.05 on number basis and 0.07 on weight basis during 2019; r= 0.44 on number basis and 0.54 on weight basis during 2020). The population of braconids had significant positive correlate with shoot infestation and fruit infestation by L. orbonalis during both the years. The per cent increase in yield over untreated plots and avoidable losses were 96.93 and 49.09 per cent, respectively. Evidently prolonged durations of different larval instars, pupal period and lowest total number of eggs were found when the insect was reared on the least susceptible variety Pant Samrat while it was vice versa when reared on highly susceptible variety BR-112. Out of ten varieties of brinjal screened for resistance, none was identified as completely free from the attack of brinjal shoot and fruit borer. The varieties Pant Samrat and Pusa Purple Long were categories as least susceptible while the varieties BR-112, BR-5 and GJB-2 as highly susceptible with respect to both shoot infestation and fruit infestation by L. orbonalis. The leaf area, diameter of fruits, length of fruit, length of pedicel and length of calyx had non-significant correlation, whereas, trichome density, thickness of shoot and thickness of pericarp showed negative significant correlation with shoot infestation and fruit infestation. The long shaped fruits of brinjal varieties were least susceptible whereas, varieties with round shaped fruits were highly susceptible to L. orbonalis. The colour of fruits of brinjal varieties screened had no clear cut impact on the preference of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, however, varieties with purple and green coloured fruits emerged as less susceptible to L. orbonalis. The maximum fruit yield of brinjal was obtained in variety Pant Samrat and minimum in the variety BR-112 and BR-5. The total soluble solids, total soluble sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar recorded a significant positive correlation whereas, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase activity, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, total phenol and solasodine content recorded a significant negative correlation with shoot infestation and fruit infestation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of Fipronil and Spiromesifen on Chilli Fruits and Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables”
    (2022) Dudwal, Ramgopal; Jakhar, B.L.
    Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of fipronil and spiromesifen on chilli fruits and Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables was studied, following the application at recommended dose 40 and 96 g. a.i. ha-1 , respectively and double of the recommended dose 80 and 96 g. a.i. ha-1 , respectively, in the Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Division of Entomology, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan) during 2020-21. The persistence study on chilli fruits recorded, the average initial deposit of pesticide fipronil, its three metabolites desulfinyl (MB046513), sulfide (MB045950) and sulfone (MB046136) and spiromesifen on chilli fruit was recorded as 0.574, 0.123, 0.031, 0.180 and 1.207 mg kg-1 at recommended dose, while at double of the recommended dose, the average initial deposit was 1.204, 0.230, 0.067, 0.382 and 1.948 mg kg-1 . The untreated control sample of the chilli fruits and soil did not show the residue of the fipronil, its three metabolites and spiromesifen, respectively. In case of soil samples the residues at harvest time of chilli crop was not detected in the recommended dose and double of the recommended dose, respectively.The half-life RL50 of fipronil, its metabolites and spiromesifen in chilli fruits was found to be 3.4, 3.8, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.7 days at recommended dose and 3.2, 4.1, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.2 days at double of the recommended doses, respectively. However, currently safe waiting periods are suggested based on the limits of determination of 0.0003 mg kg-1 (fipronil and its metabolites) and 0.01 mg kg-1 (spiromesifen). The safe waiting period on chilli fruits have been calculated as 7, 5, 3, 5 and 7 days at recommended dose and 10, 7, 5, 7 and 10 days at double of the recommended dose for fipronil, its metabolites and spiromesifen, respectively. In decontamination studies, acetic acid treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by hot water, NaHCO3, 5 per cent NaCl, 1 per cent NaCl, KMnO4 and tap water washing were recorded in reduction of fipronil and its metabolites residues. While in reduction of spiromesifen residues, hot water treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by acetic acid, NaHCO3, 5 per cent NaCl, 1 per cent NaCl, KMnO4 and tap water washing. Out of 34 samples of different farm gate vegetables analyzed, 7 vegetable samples (20.6%) were contained with different pesticides residues. While, out of 40 market vegetables samples analyzed, 10 vegetable samples (25%) were found contaminated with different pesticide residues. None of the samples showed pesticide residues exceeding the MRLs in farm gate and market samples. Therefore, the experiment concluded that, fipronil was the most persistent followed by sulfide, desulfinyl, sulfone and spiromesifen as least persistent among the test pesticides on chilli fruits. In case of decontamination study, acetic acid treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments for fipronil and its metabolites residues. While in case of spiromesifen lukewarm water was significantly superior to rest of the treatments. The pesticide monitoring study is an ongoing study and the true dimension of the problem can be understood only after extensive monitoring with a sufficiently large sample size.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Biorational Management of Sucking Insect Pests of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.)
    (2022) Choudhary,Hari Singh; Jat, B. L.
    Investigations on “Biorational management of sucking insect pests of fenugreek” were conducted at Agronomy farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner during Rabi, 2016-17 and 2017-18. In the present study aphid, Acythosiphon pisum (Harris) infesting on fenugreek crop was identified as major sucking insect pest and whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) as a miner pest. Among the natural enemy coccinellid predator, Coccinella septempunctata (Linn) and syrphid fly, Xanthograma scutellare (Fab.) were observed as prominent natural enemies in the fenugreek crop. The peak population of the aphid on fenugreek crop was recorded in the third week of February and whitefly in the first week of January during both the years. The maximum population of C. septempunctata was recorded in the third week of February during both the years while, X. scutellare in the last and third week of February during first and second years, respectively which coincided with the peak population of pests. The correlation studies indicated that the population of aphid had significant positive correlation with maximum and minimum temperature (r= 0.65, 0.58 and r= 0.62, 0.69) during both the years. Whereas, relative humidity (r= 0.64) showed significant positive correlation with whitefly only during 2017.18. The population of C. septempunctata and X. scutellare was significant positively correlated with aphid (r=0.64 & 0.83 and r=0.75 & 0.72) and whitefly population (r=0.62 & 0.79 and r=0.67 & 0.59) during both the years respectively. An avoidable loss of 23.37 was registered due to insect pest of fenugreek and per cent increase in yield was 29.65 per cent. Out of ten varieties of fenugreek screened for susceptibility, none was identified as completely free from the attack of aphid. Varieties, RMt-143 and RMt-365 were categorized as least susceptible, while RMt-305, RMt-361, RMt-354, RMt-1, RMt-303 and RMt-351 as moderately susceptible and varieties Local-1 and Hisar Sonali as highly susceptible to aphid. The morphological characters of different fenugreek varieties viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, pods per plant and seed yield showed significant negative correlation with the population of aphid. While biochemical parameters viz., total soluble sugar and free amino acids content showed significant positive correlation.  The IPM modules viz., M5 (Seed treatment of imidacloprid+ spray of M. anisopliae + spray of imidacloprid) was found most effective against aphid followed by M6 (Seed treatment of imidacloprid+ spray of B. bassiana + spray of imidacloprid), M8 (Seed treatment of thiomethoxam+ spray of B. bassiana + spray of thiomethoxam) and M7 (Seed treatment of thiomethoxam + spray of M. anisopliae + spray of thiomethoxam) however, next to M13 (standard check). Whereas modules M4 followed by M3, M1 and M2 were found least effective. The maximum yield of fenugreek (18.02 q ha-1) was obtained in the module M13 followed by M5 (17.92 q ha-1 ), M6 (17.42 q ha-1 ), M8 (15.57 q ha-1 ) and M7 (15.32 q ha-1 ). The maximum benefit cost ratio of 27.01 was obtained in the modules M13 (standard check) followed by M5 (20.21), M6 (19.43), M8 (19.87) and M7 (18.63). While, was recorded in the M9 (1.27) followed by M11 (1.29), M12 (1.34