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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    BIONOMICS, POPULATION DYNAMICS AND STANDARDIZATION OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF POISON BAITS AGAINST FALL ARMYWORM, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH) INFESTING MAIZE 3743
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) RAKHOLIYA TANVIBEN DHARMENDRABHAI; Dr. A. V. Khanpara; 2010121049
    Investigations on “Bionomics, population dynamics and standardization of different doses of poison baits against fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) infesting maize” were carried out at Instructional farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during 2022. For this experiment, duration and measurement of different stages of S. frugiperda viz., eggs, larva, pupa, adult and were studied. The data on the life cycle of S. frugiperda revealed that the number of eggs laid by female was 327.4 ± 55.09. As far as the hatching per cent and the incubation period is concerned, 81.0 ± 5.91 per cent and 2.43 ± 0.67 days were recorded. Mean period of larval instars i.e., first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth was 2.56 ± 0.49, 2.30 ± 0.46, 2.03 ± 0.60, 2.00 ± 0.58, 2.40 ± 0.61, 4.63 ± 0.66, respectively with a total larval period of 15.93 ± 1.48 days. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and post oviposition periods were 4.2 ± 0.75, 3.6 ± 0.49, 4.4 ± 0.80 days, respectively. Period of pupal stage was 9.37 ± 0.91 days. Male and female adult longevity were 8.8 ± 1.17 and 11.6 ± 1.02 days, respectively. Total male and female adult life span were 37.6 ± 1.36 and 40.4 ± 1.62 days, respectively having 1: 1.72 (Male: female) of sex ratio. The average length and width of eggs was measured 0.34 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.008 mm. Average length of larval instars i.e., first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth was 1.57 ± 0.19, 3.44 ± 0.44, 5.98 ± 0.53, 9.94 ± 0.59, 16.3 ± 1.06, 33.9 ± 1.55 mm, respectively. Average width of larval instars i.e., first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth were 0.31 ± 0.027, 0.64 ± 0.037, 1.88 ± 0.23, 3.08 ± 0.33, 4.74 ± 0.49, 5.89 ± 0.22 mm, respectively. Average length and width of pupa was 15.94 ± 1.27 and 4.93 ± 0.12 mm. The mean body length (mm) of the male moths was 15.42 ± 1.25 mm while that of the female moths was 15.08 ± 1.58 mm, respectively. The wing span (mm) of the male moth is 32.77 ± 2.08 mm while that of the female moths was 32.15 ± 2.40 mm, respectively. The activity of fall armyworm, S. frugiperda was commenced from 31st SMW i.e. first week of August (0.98 larva per plant) which gradually increased and attained peak of 5.74 larva per plant during 38th SMW and reached minimum during the 46th SMW (0.21 larva per plant). Plant damage showed its peak by recording 83.33 per cent during the 3rd week of September 2022 (38th SMW). Cob damage was ranged between 44.61 to 77 per cent. Correlation studies between meteorological parameters and the S. frugiperda larval population showed significant positive correlation with mean temperature (r = 0.635* ), positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.025), minimum temperature (r = 0.461), bright sunshine hours (r = 0.255), morning relative humidity (r = 0.220), and evening relative humidity (r = 0.128) and evaporation (r = 0.203), whereas non-significant negative correlation with wind speed (r = -0.051), rainfall (r = -0.152). Efficacy of poison baits after 24 hours revealed that S. frugiperda can be effectively managed by Thiodicarb 75% WP (15 g/ liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha with the highest per cent mortality (93.51%) at 60 g of bait. While, Spinetoram 11.7% SC (10 ml/10 liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha and Indoxacarb 14.5% SC (30 ml/ liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha were next effective treatments over control. The chronological order of effectiveness of different poison bait treatments based on per cent mortality of larva was Thiodicarb 75% WP (15 g/ liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha (93.51 mean per cent mortality of larva) > Spinetoram 11.7% SC (10 ml/10 liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha (81.73 mean per cent mortality of larva) > Indoxacarb 14.5% SC (30 ml/ liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha (76.71 mean per cent mortality of larva) > Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG 125 g/ha + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha (75.11 mean per cent mortality of larva) > Carbosulfan 25% EC 25 ml/liter of water + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha (60.00 mean per cent mortality of larva) at both doses. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that S. frugiperda passed through four stages viz.; egg, larva, pupa, adult. It reached its peak activities (5.74 larva per plant) during 3rd week of September (38th standard meteorological week). S. frugiperda showed significant positive correlation with mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature and negative correlation with rainfall and wind speed. So. For economical management of S. frugiperda in maize, Thiodicarb 75% WP (15 g/ liter of water) + 5 kg jaggery + 25 kg wheat bran/ha with 60 g dose is effective
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    SEASONAL INCIDENCE, VARIETAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLY INFESTING GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) THROUGH FRUIT FLY TRAPS 3740
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) THUMAR JAIMISH MAHESHKUMAR; Dr. K. P. Baraiya; 2010121062
    A field experiment entitled “Seasonal incidence, varietal screening and management of fruit fly infesting guava (Psidium guajava L.) through methyl eugenol traps” was conducted at Fruit Research Station, Sakkar Baug and Fruit Research Station, Madhadi baug, Junagadh agricultural university from June 2022 to December 2022. Incidence of the guava fruit fly was recorded standard meteorological week wise throughout the course of the investigation. The fruit fly population was recorded from the 23rd standard meteorological week to the 52nd standard meteorological week and the frequency of population was recorded from 10.00 to 865.13 fruit flies per trap. The peak incidence of fruit fly was recorded at 35th SMW which was 865.13 fruit flies per trap. On the other hand, the lowest population of fruit fly (10.00 fruit flies/trap) was recorded at 52nd SMW. Furthermore, the maximum activity of fruit fly was remained throughout August month with 800.31 fruit flies per trap and the minimum activity of fruit fly was observed during the December month with 21.12 fruit flies per trap. The effects of various weather parameters on the fluctuation of the fruit fly population on guava indicated that the population of fruit fly had a highly significant positive correlation with evening humidity (r = 0.670), morning humidity (r = 0.669) and minimum temperature (r = 0.522). While, wind speed (r = 0.216) and rainfall (r = 0.293) were also found positively correlated but it was non significant to the fruit fly population. Temperature fluctuation (r = -0.696), relative humidity fluctuation (r = - 0.616), bright sunshine hours (r = -0.486) and evaporation (r = -0.483) had a highly significant negative correlation with fruit fly population. Furthermore, maximum temperature (r = -0.362) had a significant negative correlation with the fruit fly population. Susceptibility of guava varieties/genotype based on the number of oviposition marks and infected fruits revealed that the lowest fruit fly infestation was observed in the variety Lalit with 3.98 oviposition marks per fruit and 1.15 infected fruits followed by the variety Shweta (4.88 oviposition marks and 1.23 infected fruits). On the other hand, the highest fruit fly infestation was recorded on the variety Sarangpur selection with 12.27 oviposition marks and 2.73 infected fruits followed by the variety Bhavnagar local with 10.85 oviposition marks and 2.23 infected fruits. While moderate fruit fly damage was noted in the variety Lucknow – 49 (6.62 oviposition marks and 1.56 infected fruits) and Allahabad safeda with 8.76 oviposition marks1.80 infected fruits. Furthermore, when these varieties/genotypes were compared and categorized based on the number of oviposition marks and infected fruits, it revealed that the variety Lalit and the variety Shweta were found as resistant variety to fruit fly infestation. The variety Lucknow – 49 was found to be a moderately resistant variety. On the contrary, the variety Sarangpur selection was found to be susceptible variety to fruit fly infestation. While, two varieties were found as moderately susceptible variety which were Allahabad safeda and Bhavnagar local. Treatment incorporating 4 ml methyl eugenol + 6 ml ethanol + 1 ml spinosad 45 EC recorded the highest effectiveness with catches recorded an average of 141.72 fruit flies per trap. The second most effective treatment was the treatment containing 4 ml methyl eugenol + 6 ml ethanol + 1 ml spinetoram 11.7 SC with an average of 126.45 fruit flies per trap. On the contrary, the least effectiveness was observed in the treatment utilizing 4 ml methyl eugenol + 6 ml ethanol + 1 ml chlorpyriphos 50 + cypermethrin 5 EC with mere catches of 12.97 fruit flies per trap. However, this effectiveness was found to be statistically at par with the treatment containing 4 ml methyl eugenol + 6 ml ethanol + 1 ml chlorpyriphos 20 EC with mere catches of 14.44 fruit flies per trap
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF PHEROMONE TRAPS, MATING DISRUPTION PASTE AND INSECTICIDES FOR Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) IN MAIZE 3782
    (jau junagadh, 2023-11) BHIMANI ANKUR MANJIBHAI; Dr. D. M. JETHVA; 1010117030
    The present investigation was framed with an aim to molecular characterization of fall armyworm in the Saurashtra region, standardization of trap density, evaluation of mating disruption paste (MDP), bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides against S. frugiperda under field and laboratory conditions. The field investigation was carried out at the farmers' field and Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, while laboratory experiments were taken at the Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during Kharif 2020-21 and 2021-22. Investigations on the molecular characterization were carried out for the identification of S. frugiperda at molecular levels from five districts (Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Porbandar, Rajkot and Amreli) of the Saurashtra region. These studies revealed that the presence of this pest was confirmed in all five districts and based on the sequence available online on the NCBI GenBank portal percentage of similarity ranged from 99.57 to 98.00%. A study on the standardization of sex pheromone traps against S. frugiperda noted that the sex pheromone traps installed @ 60 and 50 traps/ha recorded the lowest (12.01-16.51% and 12.89-17.26%) per cent central shoot damage, larval population (2.37-10.27 and 2.49-10.62 larvae/10 plants), cob damage (12.07 and 13.08%) and moth catches (27.34 and 25.98 moths/trap/week), respectively. The study concluded that a trap density of 50 pheromone traps per hectare was optimal for managing fall armyworm infestation in maize. The pragmatic data from the evaluation of different doses of Gir Sawaj MDP showed that the two applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 600 g/ha or 400 g/ha showed the lowest percentages of central shoot damage, larval population, per cent cob damage, moth catches and the highest cob yield. Moreover, Gir Sawaj MDP had higher economic feasibility with ICBR as compared to farmers' practices. ABSTRACT Investigations on the efficacy of insecticides showed that treatments of spinoteram 11.7 EC 0.012%, emamectin benzoate 5 SG 0.0025 and thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% were found the most effective against S. frugiperda as they recorded the lowest per cent central shoot damage, larval population and per cent cob damage as well as higher yield and net realization. However, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 0.05%, spinosad 45 SC 0.013%, and chlorantraniliprole 9.3 + lambda-cyhalothrin 4.6 ZC 0.006% were found next in order. The highest ICBR (1: 11.58) was obtained in thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% followed by emamectin benzoate 5 SG 0.0025% (1: 11.56). During the investigation of the bio-efficacy of different insecticides under laboratory conditions, it was found that the treatments of spinoteram 11.7 EC, 0.012%, emamectin benzoate 5 SG, 0.0025% and thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% were showed the cent per cent mortality after 5 days of treatment and found the most effective against S. frugiperda under laboratory condition. Further, these insecticides persisted for up to 10 days but exposed the persistence a strong up to 5 days of application. From the overall results of the present investigations, it can be concluded that S. frugiperda is present in the five districts (Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Porbandar, Rajkot and Amreli) of the Saurashtra region in maize. Installation of 50-60 pheromone traps/ha or two applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400-600 g/ha at 40-day intervals was found effective pheromone base management technique. The insecticides like spinoteram 11.7 EC, 0.012% @ 10 ml or emamectin benzoate 5 SG, 0.0025% @ 5 g or thiodicarb 75 WP, 0.075% @ 10 g in 10 litres of water was recommended for the management of S. frugiperda in maize. These insecticides persisted up to 10 days with 5 days of their strong effect.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF BOTANICAL FORMULATIONS AGAINST MAJOR DEFOLIATORS OF GROUNDNUT 3771
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) SUNKARA VENKATA LAKSHMI SUNITHA; Dr. D. M. Jethva; 1010120027
    The present investigation was carried out with the aim of “Development and evaluation of botanical formulations against major defoliators of groundnut” and planned to extract the active compounds with different solvents, identification of active compounds, development of botanical formulations, evaluation of developed botanical formulation under laboratory and field conditions against S. litura and H. armigera on groundnut. The laboratory experiments were studied under the Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, while field experiments were carried out in the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the summer seasons of the year 2021-22 and 2022-23. A total of eleven botanical plant samples of selected plant parts were collected from Lalbagh and the nursery of JAU, Junagadh, Gujarat. The selected plant materials were extracted with different organic solvents (acetone, methanol, hexane, ethanol and dichloro methane) using the Soxhlet apparatus. Among all the solvents, methanol solvent recorded the maximum product yield compared with other solvents. In methanol solvent, neem recorded the maximum yield recovery with 20.40% followed by custard apple (18.41%), pongamia (16.55%), eucalyptus (12.91%) and vitex (12.51%). The identification of active compounds from methanol crude extract of different botanical plants was analysed by using GC-MS analysis. The compounds such as octadecanoic acid, betulin, oleic acid, squalene, α-amyrin, 1,8-cineole, caryophyllene, p-cymene, thymol, phytol, linalool, methyl eugenol, eucalyptol, estragole, limonene, ursolic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, scopolamine, n hexadecanoic acid, atropine, hyoscyamine, syringaldehyde, syringic acid and γ sitosterol were identified in various botanical crude extracts (neem, pongamia, custard apple, eucalyptus, tulsi, vitex, datura, jatropa, calotropis, henna and nerium). These compounds were responsible for insecticidal activity against different insect pests. The methanol crude extract of different botanicals were evaluated to study their efficacy against S. litura and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The results revealed that methanol crude extract of neem, custard apple, pongamia, eucalyptus and vitex recorded more than 80% and 75% mortality against S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. These five treatments were significantly superior to other treatments. These top five botanical crude extracts were used further in the development of the botanical formulations. The developed 40 EC, WP and WDG formulations of neem, pongamia, custard apple, eucalyptus and vitex passed all the physicochemical studies viz., emulsion stability, cold test, pH test, wettability test, suspensibility test, dispersibility test, disintegration time and accelerated storage temperature. These developed botanical formulations were further used to study their efficacy against major defoliators under laboratory and field conditions. The developed formulations of five different botanicals each with five different concentrations studied against S. litura and H. armigera under laboratory conditions by leaf disc bioassay method. The results of EC formulations showed that neem, custard apple, pongamia and vitex 40 EC 1.5% recorded mortality of more than 75% and 65% on S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. The LC50 values ranged from 0.63 to 0.97% and 0.90 to 1.12% on S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. The results of WP formulations revealed that neem, custard apple, pongamia and vitex 40 WP 1.50% recorded more than 80% and 70% mortality on S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. The LC50 values of these botanical WP formulations ranged from 0.53 to 0.89% and 0.73 to 0.99% on S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. Whereas, the WDG formulation of neem, custard apple and pongamia 40 WDG 1.50% recorded more than 70% and 50% mortality and median lethal concentration (LC50) of WDG formulations ranged from 0.73 to 0.99% and 1.30 to 1.75% against S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. The bio-efficacy of developed botanical formulations was evaluated at the field level. The results revealed that neem 40 WP 1.50% recorded the lowest larval population which was found statistically at par with custard apple 40 WP 1.50%. The treatments, neem 40 EC 1.50%, custard apple 40 EC 1.50%, azadirachtin 0.15% neem 40 WDG 1.50% and custard apple 40 WDG 1.50% were found next better treatmens for effective management of defoliators (S. litura and H. armigera) in groundnut. The data on groundnut yield revealed that maximum (1983 kg ha-1 ) yield was recorded in neem 40 WP 1.5% treated plots followed by custard apple 40 WP 1.5%, neem 40 EC 1.5%, custard apple 40 EC 1.5% and azadirachtin 0.15% with 1883, 1849, 1817 and 1750 kg ha-1 , respectively. The maximum ICBR was recorded in neem 40 WP 1.5% (1:15.20) followed by custard apple 40 WP 1.5% (1:13.65), neem 40 EC 1.5% (1:13.13), custard apple 40 EC 1.5% (1:12.64) and azadirachtin 0.15% (1:12.69). From the overall results of the present investigation, it can be concluded that methanol extract of developed botanicals formulations (WP, EC and WDG) of neem and custard apple was found to be promising against S. litura and H. armigera in groundnut. Therefore, it can be used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes to reduce the usage of synthetic chemical insecticides.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF TRAP DESIGNING, MASS TRAPPING AND MATING DISRUPTION PASTE APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGEMENT OF BRINJAL SHOOT AND FRUIT BORER 3770
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) KACHOT AKASH VAJSHIBHAI; Dr. D. M. JETHVA; 1010118013
    The present investigations were framed to evaluate types of sex pheromone traps, installation of sex pheromone traps at different trap densities, shelf life, release rate and effectiveness of the Gir Sawaj MDP for the management of shoot and fruit borer in brinjal. The field studies were carried out on farmers' fields at Kalana, Khadiya and Nani-Parabdi villages of Junagadh district, while laboratory experiments were taken at Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, JAU, Junagadh during the year 2020-21 to 2022-23. The funnel diameter of 13 cm and 11 cm catches the highest (47.95 and 46.81 moth catches/trap/week, respectively) number of moths. From five different trap design evaluated, the modified sex pheromone trap and modified sex pheromone trap without bottom ring recorded the highest moth catches which was 47.89 and 46.63 moths/trap/week. Among the different traps available for mass trapping of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, the Gir Sawaj sex pheromone trap exhibited superior efficacy by catching the highest moth population of 47.09 moth catches/trap/week. The sex pheromone traps installed @ 50 and 40 traps/ha recorded the lowest (8.47-23.63% and 8.88-24.22%, respectively) percentage of shoot damage, fruit damage (4.94-20.91% and 5.23-21.49%, respectively) and the highest (36.85 and 36.00 moths/trap/week, respectively) moth catches. The study concluded that a trap density of 40 pheromone traps per hectare is optimal for managing shoot and fruit borer infestation in brinjal. The concentration of pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP slightly decreases over time under ambient room temperature storage conditions. The decay curve analysis revealed that the reduction of pheromone concentration was 0.43%, 1.71%, 2.56%, 3.85%, 4.70% and 5.98% after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after manufacturing, respectively. To maintain the vitality of the pheromone present in Gir Sawaj MDP formulation, it can be stored for up to six months of duration under ambient room temperature conditions. The concentration of pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP decreases gradually over time and the paste needs to be re-applied after a certain duration to ensure the reduction of pests. The decay curve analysis revealed that the reduction in pheromone content was 25.94%, 45.19%, 63.60% and 92.89% after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days, respectively. The study also revealed that the residual pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP decreased from 100% on the day of application to 7.11% after 40 days. However, the release of pheromone persisted until the residues were depleted, with stronger adhesive forces leading to a slower release of pheromone over time. The release rate of pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP for brinjal shoot and fruit borer is gradual, and the paste needs to be re-applied periodically to maintain its effectiveness. The recommended dose of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha was evaluated with the farmers' practices. The pooled results of two years showed that the lowest (1.26%) percentage of shoot damage and fruit damage (1.06%) was recorded in the Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha as compared to farmers’ practices. The treatment also led to a reduction of moth catches (4.48 moths/traps/week) and an increase in brinjal yield (33036 kg/ha). Moreover, Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha had higher economic feasibility with net realization of ₹88280/ha and ICBR of 1:10.90 as compared to farmers' practices. Therefore, Gir Sawaj MDP was found to be superior to farmers' practices for the effective management of shoot and fruit borer in brinjal. From the overall results of the present investigations, it can be concluded that for the mass trapping, installation of sex pheromone trap having funnel diameter of 11- 13 cm @ 40 traps/ha or for the mating disruption, three applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha, first application at 15 days after transplanting and subsequent two applications at 40 days interval was found effective and economical for the management of shoot and fruit borer in brinjal crop. The pheromone in paste exhibited a slow release rate up to 40 days and it can be stored for up to six months of duration under ambient room temperature conditions
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF MATING DISRUPTION PASTE (MDP) TECHNOLOGY AND SEX PHEROMONE TRAP FOR COTTON PINK BOLLWORM 3769
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) DAVARIA PRATIK JAYSHUKHBHAI; Dr. D. M. JETHVA; 1010120004
    The present investigations were framed to evaluate different doses and release rates of Gir Sawaj Mating Disruption Paste (MDP) and the installation of sex pheromone traps at different trap densities and heights for the management of pink bollworm in cotton. The field studies were carried out on farmers' fields at Khadiya, Nani-Parabdi, and Kathrota villages of Junagadh district during the year, 2021-22 and 2022-23. The results showed that the use of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 500 g/ha and 400 g/ha resulted in the lowest percentage of rosette flowers (2.40-3.20% and 2.60-3.40%), green boll damage (3.10-3.30% and 3.35-3.55%), open boll damage (4.00-4.40% and 4.30-4.65%) and locule damage (4.28-4.65% and 4.65-4.95%), respectively. These doses were also found to be equally effective in reducing moth catches with the lowest (2.07 and 2.66 moths/trap/week) moths catches observed in Gir Sawaj MDP @ 500 and 400 g/ha, respectively. The study suggested that the use of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 500 g/ha and 400 g/ha could be an effective strategy to manage pink bollworm infestation in cotton. The concentration of pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP decreases gradually over time and the paste needs to be re-applied after a certain duration to ensure the reduction of pests. The decay curve analysis revealed that the reduction in pheromone content was 16.09%, 24.89%, 53.85% and 70.14% after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days, respectively. The study also revealed that the residual pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP decreased from 100% on the day of application to 29.86% after 40 days. However, the release of pheromone persisted until the residues were depleted, with stronger adhesive forces leading to a slower release of pheromone over time. The release rate of pheromone in Gir Sawaj MDP for cotton pink bollworms is gradual, and the paste needs to be re-applied periodically to maintain its effectiveness. The recommended dose of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha was evaluated with the farmers' practices. The results of both years showed that the lowest percentage of rosette flowers (2.34% and 1.57%), green boll damage (3.18% and 2.55%), open boll damage (3.68% and 3.08%) and locule damage (3.98% and 3.55%) was recorded in the Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha as compared to farmers’ practices. The treatment also led to a reduction of moth catches (4.10 and 2.60 moths/traps/week) and an increase in cotton yield (3267 kg/ha). Moreover, Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400 g/ha showed economic feasibility with high net realization (₹109510/ha) and high ICBR of 1:13.52 as compared to farmers' practices. Therefore, Gir Sawaj MDP was found to be superior to farmers' practices for the effective management of pink bollworms in cotton. The sex pheromone traps installed @ 60 and 50 traps/ha recorded the lowest percentage of rosette flowers (3.20-4.70% and 3.60-5.20%), green boll damage (4.90- 5.20% and 5.30-5.60%), open boll damage (5.90-6.40% and 6.30-6.90%), locule damage (6.60-7.70% and 7.10-8.40%), moth catches (43.52 and 38.20 moths/trap/week) and the highest cotton yield (3029 and 2917 kg/ha), respectively. The study concluded that a trap density of 50 pheromone traps per hectare is optimal for managing pink bollworm infestation in cotton. The population of pink bollworms was correlated with weather parameters and the results discovered a significant positive correlation between moth catches and maximum temperature and bright sunshine hours while it showed a significant negative correlation with morning and evening relative humidity and wind speed. It appears that sex pheromone traps installed at the crop canopy level were the most effective height of traps for capturing moths of cotton pink bollworm as they recorded the highest (28.13 moths/trap/week) number of moth catches. However, it was followed by traps installed above and below 15 cm in height, which recorded 17.98 and 16.99 moths/trap/week, respectively. The results showed that the installation of sex pheromone traps at the crop canopy level was found to be effective for the management of pink bollworms. From the overall results of the present investigations, it is recommended to give three applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 500 g/ha or 400 g/ha at 40 days of interval as the pheromone exhibited slow release rate from the paste upto 40 days or install sex pheromone traps @ 60 or 50 traps/ha at crop canopy level for the effective management of pink bollworm in cotton.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND DESIGNING OF BEEHIVE FOR HONEYBEE IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3667
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-05) SHARMA VISHALKUMAR GHANSHYAMBHAI; Dr. D. M. JETHVA; 1010119026
    The present investigations were framed with an aim to morphometric studies, molecular characterization and designing of beehive for honeybee in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. The field investigations were carried out at Sukhpur (Village), Bhesan (Taluka) and Junagadh (District) on farmers apiary, while laboratory experiments were conducted at Bio-control Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year, 2020-21 and 2021-22. During the survey, five species of honeybee (Apis dorsata Fabricius, Apis cerana indica Fabricius, Apis florea Fabricius, Apis mellifera Linnaeus. and Trigona irridipennis Smith) were collected from different talukas of Junagadh distict. Investigations on the morphometrics and molecular characterization were carried out for the identification of these honeybee species at taxonomic and molecular levels, respectively. These studies revealed that five major honeybee species (A. dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea, A. mellifera and T. irridipennis) were confirmed from Junagadh district of Gujarat state. Based on honeybee sequences available online on the NCBI GenBank portal, the percentage of similarity was ranged from 99.10 to 91.25%. A study on development and standardize the design of feeding tray for A. mellifera noted that the feeding tray with single channel bottom feeder (T4) was found effective design, as it recorded the highest eggs (8.77 eggs/cm2 /frame), larvae (11.74 larvae/cm2 /frame), pupae (18.41 pupae/cm2 /frame), workers bees (7.04 worker bees in 4 cm2 /frame), drone (69.08 drones/frame) and food consumption (95.53% food consumption/beehive). It was followed by feeding tray with double channel bottom feeder (T3), while the perforated feeding tray (T1) was found the least effective design of feeding tray. The pragmatic data from development and standardize the rooftop of beehive for the summer season showed that significantly the highest egg laying capacity (22.51% egg laying/frame), sealed brood (38.57% sealed brood/frame) and worker bees (6.21 worker bees in 4 cm2 /frame) were recorded in the rooftop modification having two exhaust fans and two solar panels (T4) and similar results were also found in case of unsealed brood, as it recorded the lowest (61.43%) unsealed brood/frame. The main aim of the modification in beehive rooftop is maintaining and reducing the inside temperature of beehive and the results revealed that the rooftop modification having two exhaust fans and two solar panels (T4) was found effective in which the highest (7.55°C) inside and outside temperature difference with the change of 19.34% was observed. The rooftop modification, T2- Commercially available rooftop found the least effective as it recorded weaker honeybee brood and failed to reduce the inside temperature of the beehive. It can be concluded that there are five major species of honeybees viz., A. florea, A. dorsata, A. cerena indica, A. mellifera and T. iridipennis in Junagadh district of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. For design of feeding tray for A. mellifera, single channel bottom feeder in feeding tray was found effective to feed the sugar syrup conveniently by the honeybees. Further, it was found that the rooftop modification having two exhaust fans and two solar panels can be used in the beehive for the better maintainance of beehive temperature and honeybee colony
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ECOLOGICAL NICHE, SEASONAL INCIDENCE, BIODIVERSITY AND MANAGEMENT OF PINK BOLLWORM, Pectinophora gossypiella (SAUNDERS) ON Bt COTTON 3662
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-05) VARIYA MAYUR VISHNUBHAI; Dr. M. F. ACHARYA; 1010119037
    The present investigation entitled “Ecological niche, Seasonal incidence, Biodiversity and Management of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (SAUNDERS) on Bt cotton” was carried out at Cotton Research Station, J.A.U., Junagadh, Gujarat during kharif, 2020-21& 2021-22. The survey was conducted in different Saurashtra districts viz., Junagadh, Rajkot, Amreli and Surendranagar of Gujarat to know the intensity of pink bollworm incidence in Bt cotton. The highest incidence of pink bollworm was noticed in Junagadh district followed by Rajkot district of Gujarat during 2020-21. Whereas in 2021-22, the highest pink bollworm infestation was noticed in Amreli district followed by Rajkot district of Gujarat. Also in both these years, Surendranagar district recorded a very less incidence of pink bollworm compared to Junagadh, Rajkot and Amreli districts. In the Saurashtra region, three species of pink bollworm viz., Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), Pectinophora scutigera (Holdaway) and Pectinophora endema (Common) were recorded. The incidence of pink bollworms on rosette flowers commenced from the 37th Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) during 2020-21. The initial per cent rosette flower count i.e. 10.48% rosette flower was observed at the 37th SMW and escalated to 13.39% rosette flower during the 40th SMW. In the case of per cent green boll damage commenced from the 43rd SMW 7.56% green boll damage and escalated to 16.20% green boll damage during the 48th SMW. The peak incidence of PBW larvae per 10 bolls was observed during the 48th SMW of the year, with 6.00 larvae/10 bolls. During 2021-22, rosette flower initiation was started (1 per cent) from the 33rd Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) and formed a peak (12.70 per cent) during the 43rd SMW. Further coming to per cent green boll damage by pink bollworm on cotton, commenced from the 43rd SMW and continued till the 52nd SMW. In addition to the PBW larvae per 10 bolls were noticed from the 41st SMW and continued till the 52nd SMW. In addition to this, locule damage and open boll damage during 2020-21 locule damage were 20.68 and 21.80 per cent during 1st and 2nd picking, respectively. Whereas, open boll damage was 26.88 and 28.40 per cent during 1st and 2nd picking, respectively. Also during 2021-22, locule damage was 19.80 and 20.60 per cent during 1st and 2nd picking, respectively. Whereas, open boll damage was 24.40 and 26.20 per cent during 1st and 2nd picking, respectively. During the biodiversity study period 2020 and 2021, P. gossypiella was the most abundant contributing with the maximum relative abundance of P. gossypiella in Saurashtra region. Based on Pectinophora sequences available online in the NCBI Gene Bank portal, the percentage of similarity ranged from 100 to 97.00 per cent and pair-wise genetic distance between the isolates of Saurashtra ranged from 2.16 to 5.57 with an average of 1.446 thereby indicating very low genetic variation between the Pectinophora isolates. Validation of IPM module and farmer practices the result indicated that the range of per cent rosette flower by pink bollworm during 2020-21 was 0.79 to 2.35 per cent and 5.45 to 6.50 per cent recorded from 50 to 65 DAS in IPM module and farmer practices, respectively. The per cent green boll damage was 2.18 to 2.60 per cent and 11.24 to 15.9 per cent recorded from 120 to 150 DAS in IPM module and farmer practices, respectively. During 2021-22, per cent of the rosette flowers by pink bollworm was 0.67 to 1.97 per cent and 5.37 to 6.13 per cent recorded from 50 to 65 DAS in IPM module and farmer practices, respectively. The per cent green boll damage was 1.98 to 2.23 per cent and 10.83 to 16.20 per cent recorded from 120 to 150 DAS in IPM module and farmer practices, respectively. Seed cotton yields during 2020-21 & 2021-22 were recorded at 3321 kg/ha and 3455 kg/ha in the IPM module, respectively. Further coming to farmer practices during 2020-21 & 2021-22, it was 1778 kg/ha and 1870 kg/ha seed cotton yield, respectively. Considering the Incremental Cost-Benefit Ratio (ICBR) of both the treatments against pink bollworm in cotton showed that the yield increased over control was 1564 kg/ha and net realization was 73,720 Rs./ha recorded in the IPM module as compared to farmer practices
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT OF HABITAT MANIPULATION ON INSECT PESTS OF GROUNDNUT AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES 3652
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-12) BHUVA TILAKRAJ SAVAJIBHAI; Dr. K. P. Baraiya; 2010120014
    A field experiment entitled “Impact of habitat manipulation on insect pests of groundnut and their natural enemies” was conducted at Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India during kharif-2021. Groundnut was raised with different intercrops viz., maize, marigold, pigeon pea, sesame, moth bean and sunflower in ration of 3:1. Incidence of aphid, jassids, thrips, S. litura and H. armigera as well as natural enemies like coccinelldis and spiders was rescorded at standard meteorological week (SMW) wise among different intercropping systems in large plot technique. All the pests population commenced from the 28th SMW. The population of aphid reached peak level (0.89, 2.10, 1.71, 2.47, 3.23, 1.09 and 4.44 average aphid index in groundnut + maize, groundnut + marigold, groundnut + pigeon pea, groundnut + sesame, groundnut + moth bean, groundnut + sunflower and sole groundnut, respectively.) in 31st SMW. The relationship between aphids and weather parameters indicated that among all other parameters the wind speed showed highly significant to significant positive correlation with aphid population and minimum temperature, evening relative humidity and rainfall showed non-significant positive correlation with aphids. While, maximum temperature, temperature fluctuation, morning relative humidity, relative humidity fluctuation, bright and sunshine hours and evaporation had non significant negatively correlated with aphid population. Peak jassid population (1.36, 1.63, 3.67, 2.01, 2.48, 3.02 and 4.22 jassids/ three compound leaves) was recorded in the 36th SMW. However, the jassids population showed that almost all intercropping systems had non significant positive correlation with morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity and evaporation. While, almost all intercropping systems had non significant negative correlation with maximum temperature, minimum temperature, temperature fluctuation, relative humidity fluctuation, bright sunshine hours, rain fall and wind speed. The peak thrips population observed at the 32nd SMW. The relationship between thrips populations and weather parameters revealed that almost all intercropping systems showed highly significant to significant positive correlation with thrips population except groundnut + pigeon pea and groundnut + sunflower which showed non significant negative correlation. On the other hand, all other weather parameters Abstract showed non significant negative correlation with all intercropping systems except maximum temperature, temperature fluctuation, relative humidity fluctuation, wind speed and evaporation which had non significant to significant positive correlation. S. litura population reached at peak level during the 36th SMW. The S. litura population indicted that almost all intercropping systems had non significant positive correlation with morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity, bright sunshine hours and rain fall while maximum temperature, minimum temperature, temperature fluctuation relative humidity fluctuation, wind speed and evaporation had non significant negative correlation. The peak population of H. armigera was recorded in the 32 nd SMW. The correlation studies between weather parameters and H. armigera revealed that almost all intercropping combination were non significantly positive correlated with evening relative humidity, rain fall and wind speed while all other weather parameters were non significantly correlated viz., maximum temperature, minimum temperature, temperature fluctuation morning relative humidity, relative humidity fluctuation, bright sunshine hours and evaporation respectively. Coccinellids population found highest during the 32nd SMW. The correlation studies between weather parameters and coccinellids population showcased that almost all intercropping systems had significant negative correlation with morning relative humidity while wind speed had significant positive correlation. Besides, maximum temperature, temperature fluctuation, relative humidity fluctuation, evaporation had non significant positive correlation with all intercropping systems while all remaining weather parameters had non significant negative correlation viz., minimum temperature, evening relative humidity, bright sunshine hours and rainfall. Spider activity commenced from the 28th SMW and its peak population was recorded in the 36 th SMW. The spider population revealed that almost all intercropping systems had non significant negative correlation with maximum temperature, minimum temperature, temperature fluctuation, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity, bright sunshine hours, rainfall, wind speed and evaporation except relative humidity fluctuation which had mom significant positive correlation. Based on findings on effect of habitat manipulation on insect pests of groundnut revealed that groundnut intercropped with maize found out to be best treatment for supressing aphid population and overall sucking pests infesting groundnut as that same intercropping system recorded highest coccinellids population which directly suppress the aphids by predation. In case of defoliators, groundnut intercropped with sunflower depicted best results for supressing overall defoliators. On the other hand, groundnut intercropped with maize depicted highest coccinellids and groundnut intercropped with pigeon pea had highest spider population. The investigation on efficacy of biopesticides on major insect pests of groundnut revealed that Lecanicillium lecanii 1.15 WP 0.003 per cent found out to be most effective for suppressing overall major insect pests of groundnut which also reported highest pod yield and ICBR which was followed by Beauveria bassiana 1.15 WP 0.003 per cent.