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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “VARIABILITY, CHARACTER ASSOCIATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS IN DESI COTTON (Gossypium arboreum L.)”
    (JAU,JUANAGDH, 2020-09) BANDARU MAHESH; Dr. M. G. Valu
    The experiment was carried out to assess variability, character association and diversity analysis in 50 genotypes of cotton grown in a randomized block design with three replications at Cotton Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during kharif 2019. The observations were recorded on 15 characters viz., days to first flowering, days to boll opening, plant height (cm), number of monopodia per plant, number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight (g), seed cotton yield per plant (g), ginning percentage (%), seed index (g), lint index (g), oil content (%), 2.5 % span length (mm), fibre fineness (mv) and fibre strength (g/tex). The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied. A wide range of variation was observed for important yield components. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed for number of bolls per plant followed by number of monopodia per plant, seed cotton yield per plant, lint index and number of sympodia per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for number of bolls per plant, number of monopodia per plant, seed cotton yield per plant, lint index and number of sympodia per plant.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON TEST DAY RECORDS TO PREDICT STANDARD LACTATION MILK YIELD USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN GIR COWS. 3033
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2020-02) SAVALIA KEYURKUMAR BABULAL; A. R. AHLAWAT
    he present study was carried out using data of first lactation monthly test-day milk yield (MTDY) and 300-day milk yield records of 513 Gir cows sired by 75 bulls spread over a period of 33 years (1986 to 2018), maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The overall least squares means for age at first calving (AFC), first lactation 300 day or less milk yield (FL300DMY) and first lactation length (FLL) were 1558.63 ± 23.30 days, 1506.36 ± 40.10 kg and 341.26 ± 6.62 days, respectively. Season of calving/birth had non-significant effect on AFC, FL300DMY and FLL. Period of calving/birth had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on AFC, FL300DMY and FLL. Age at first calving had non-significant influence on FL300DMY. While calf birth weight had significant (P<0.05) effect on FL300DMY. The overall least squares means for monthly test day milk yield (MTDMY) varied from 3.39 kg (MTDMY10) to 6.40  kg (MTDMY3). Only MTDMY3 (peak yield phase) was influenced significantly (P<0.05) due to variation of season of calving. The period of calving had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on all MTDMY. The AFC had significant (P<0.05) effect on MTMDY1, MTMDY2 and MTMDY5. However, calf birth weight had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on MTDMY1 and MTDMY2 while its effect was significant (P<0.05) on MTDMY4. The heritability estimates for FL300DMY, MTDMY and FLL were found to be 0.306 ± 0.139, 0.102 ± 0.117 (MTDMY10) to 0.657 ± 0.179 (MTDMY3) and 0.267 ± 0.135, respectively.The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlation among all the monthly test day milk yield ranged from 0.133 ± 0.440 to 0.996 ± 0.312 and 0.276 to 0.903 respectively, while between all MTDMY and FL300DMY were higher and positive ranged from 0.523 ± 0.324 to 0.991 ± 0.049 and 0.482 to 0.884, respectively. The optimum equation was developed for prediction of FL300DMY using monthly test days records. The optimum equation had total four variables (test days) viz. TD2 to TD5 for prediction of FL300DMY. This equation gave an accuracy of prediction of 76.02% by MLR and 87.69% by ANN model. It was inferred that FL300DMY could be predicted as early as 125th days of lactation with sufficiently higher degree of accuracy. The comparison between MLR and ANN revealed that ANN was better than MLR for prediction of FL300DMY in Gir cows.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON TEST DAY RECORDS TO PREDICT STANDARD LACTATION MILK YIELD USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN GIR COWS 3033
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2020-02) SAVALIA KEYURKUMAR BABULAL; A. R. AHLAWAT
    The present study was carried out using data of first lactation monthly test-day milk yield (MTDY) and 300-day milk yield records of 513 Gir cows sired by 75 bulls spread over a period of 33 years (1986 to 2018), maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The overall least squares means for age at first calving (AFC), first lactation 300 day or less milk yield (FL300DMY) and first lactation length (FLL) were 1558.63 ± 23.30 days, 1506.36 ± 40.10 kg and 341.26 ± 6.62 days, respectively. Season of calving/birth had non-significant effect on AFC, FL300DMY and FLL. Period of calving/birth had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on AFC, FL300DMY and FLL. Age at first calving had non-significant influence on FL300DMY. While calf birth weight had significant (P<0.05) effect on FL300DMY. The overall least squares means for monthly test day milk yield (MTDMY) varied from 3.39 kg (MTDMY10) to 6.40  kg (MTDMY3). Only MTDMY3 (peak yield phase) was influenced significantly (P<0.05) due to variation of season of calving. The period of calving had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on all MTDMY. The AFC had significant (P<0.05) effect on MTMDY1, MTMDY2 and MTMDY5. However, calf birth weight had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on MTDMY1 and MTDMY2 while its effect was significant (P<0.05) on MTDMY4. The heritability estimates for FL300DMY, MTDMY and FLL were found to be 0.306 ± 0.139, 0.102 ± 0.117 (MTDMY10) to 0.657 ± 0.179 (MTDMY3) and 0.267 ± 0.135, respectively.The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlation among all the monthly test day milk yield ranged from 0.133 ± 0.440 to 0.996 ± 0.312 and 0.276 to 0.903 respectively, while between all MTDMY and FL300DMY were higher and positive ranged from 0.523 ± 0.324 to 0.991 ± 0.049 and 0.482 to 0.884, respectively. The optimum equation was developed for prediction of FL300DMY using monthly test days records. The optimum equation had total four variables (test days) viz. TD2 to TD5 for prediction of FL300DMY. This equation gave an accuracy of prediction of 76.02% by MLR and 87.69% by ANN model. It was inferred that FL300DMY could be predicted as early as 125th days of lactation with sufficiently higher degree of accuracy. The comparison between MLR and ANN revealed that ANN was better than MLR for prediction of FL300DMY in Gir cows.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY OF TRANSITION NUCLEAR PROTEINl AND PROTAMINEl GENES IN GIR CATTLE BY PCR RFLP 1869
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2014-07) Lalwani Deepali Hiteshbhai; Dr. P. H. Vataliya
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Comparison of Various Mexhods for the Estimation of Breeding Values in Gir Cattle 1674
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-11) SWAPNIL GIRISHKUMAR GAJJAR; Dr. P. H. VATALIYA
    A total of 1257 lactation records of 345 Gir cows sired by 52 Gir bulls maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, JAU, Junagadh from 1987-2010, were analyzed to compare various sire and cow evaluation methods for lactation milk yield (LMY) (standardized to 305-2X-ME basis and also to SLPY), lactation length (LL) and calving interval (CI). Earlier records (1965- 1985) were also collected to be partly used in some of the methods. Sire evaluation was done using conventional indices (viz. Modified Simple Daughter Average index, Equiparent index, Norton index, Rice index, Tomar index, Corrected Daughter Average index. Contemporary Comparison method and Corrected Contemporary Comparison method), Least Squares method (LS), Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) method and Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) method. Cow evaluation was done using LS, BLUP and AIREML methods. BLUP and AIREML models were constructed using univariate models, multivariate models (based on first lactation records) and multivariate repeatability models (based on all lactation records) using the three traits in all possible combinations. Criteria for comparison of all the models involved error variances to measure the efficiency of models. Additionally, coefficients of determination (%) i.e. R2 values and coefficients of variation (CV%) were used to measure the accuracy and stability of models, respectively for linear fixed and mixed models (LS, BLUP and AIREML). Among the conventional indices. Modified Simple Daughter Average index (I-l) was the most efficient method for sire evaluation for 305-DMY and LL followed by Corrected Daughter Average index (1-6). Sire rank correlations of breeding values for 305-DMY and LL by I-l and 1-6 were highly significant (P<0.01). For CI, 1-6 was the most efficient method followed by I-1. Among the linear fixed and mixed models, all sire and cow rank correlations of breeding values for the three traits were highly significant (P<0.01) except those with AIREML model (A- 13) which involved 305-DMY and CI. Repeatability AIREML model (A-S) which incorporated SLPY, LL and CI was the most accurate method of evaluation of animals (sire and cow) for LMY followed by AIREML model A-12 which involved 305-DMY and LL. A-12 was found to be most accurate method of evaluation of animals for LL. A-13 was the most accurate method for evaluation of animals for CI. LS was the most stable method for all the three traits. A-12 was the most efficient method for evaluation of animals for LMY and LL. A-S had relatively higher error variance than A-12. Most efficient method of evaluation of animals for CI was A-13. Sire rank correlations of breeding values for the three traits obtained by first lactation models with their respective all lactation models were highly significant (P<0.01) except those with A-13. Use of all lactation records instead of first lactation records lead to 33.17%, 40.48% and 21.67% gain in accuracies; 36.73%, 28.78% and 18.26% gain in stabilities and 21.38%, 37.64% and 26.50% gain in efficiencies for LMY, LL and Cl, respectively. Thus, AIREML repeatability model incorporating 305-DMY and LL is recommended for evaluation of animals for the production traits viz. lactation milk yield and lactation length, and AIREML repeatability model incorporating 305-DMY and CI is recommended for evaluation of animals for calving interval, a reproduction trait.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION TRAITS IN GIR CATTLE 1673
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-11) NIKHIL SHANTILAL DANGAR; Dr. P. H. VATALIYA
    The production and reproduction records on 228 Gir cows with 680 lactations sired by 52 bulls, maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, for 24 years (1987 - 2010) were studied. The data were analyzed to study the effect of period of calving, season of calving and parity as fixed effect and effect of sire as random effect on the production traits viz., lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length and dry period, and reproduction traits viz., calving interval and age at first calving. Least squares means for production traits viz., lactation niilk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length and dry period were 2276.60 ± 171.32 kg., 2115.89 ± 129.81 kg., 12.31 ± 0.51 kg., 328.27 ± 12.99 days and 109.81 ± 20.20 days, respectively. Least squares means for reproduction traits viz., calving interval and age at first calving were 456.36 ± 22.06 days and 1568.08 ± 39.82 days respectively. . I JLi|-LJLJi Ji.Ljt The analysis of variance revealed highly significant effect of period of calving on lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length, dry period and age at first calving. While non-significant effect was observed for calving interval. Season of calving did not affect significantly to all these traits under study, except dry period and animals calving during July- October had shorter dry period as compared to those calving in other seasons. Parity of calving highly significantly affected lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length, dry period and calving interval and significantly affected age at first calving. Lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length, dry period and age at first calving had periodic trend. Lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield and peak milk yield showed a significant drop during 1995-2002 and thereafter showed an increasing trend during 2003 - 2010. The Average lactation milk yield was rise to 2667.02 kg during 2007-10. Age at first calving had increasing periodic trend over the years rising from 1268.33 to 1787.96 days. Appropriate measures should be taken to improve the trait. Lactation milk yield, 300 days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length dry period and calving interval are affected by parity. There was significant drop in the lactation milk yield, 300-days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length and dry period after eighth parity. High heritability estimates for age at first calving (0.59 ± 0-07) and moderate heritability estimate for lactation milk yield (0.17 ± 0.04) and 300-days milk yield (0.20 ± 0.05) were obtained in present study, indicated more importance of additive genetic variance in phenotypic manifestation of these traits. The lower heritability estimates for rest of the traits viz., peak milk yield (0.11 ± 0.04), lactation length (0.04 ± 0.03), dry period (0.12 ± 0.04) and calving interval (0.06 ± 0.03) were observed in present study. The repeatability estimates for lactation milk yield, 300- days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length, dry period and calving interval were found to be 0.45 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.04, 0.21 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.04, 0.32 ± 0.04 and 0.23 ± 0.04 respectively. Highly significant (P<0.01) phenotypic correlations were observed between lactation milk yield and 300 days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length which were 0.901 ± 0.015, 0.684 ± 0.095 and 0.74 ± 0.137 respectively. Phenotypic correlations between lactation milk yield and age at first calving, calving interval and dry period were 0.158 i 0.179, 0.338 i 0.283 and -0.155 ± 0.223, respectively, which were non significant (P>0.05). Phenotypic correlations of 300 days milk yield with peak rnilk yield and lactation length were 0.808 ± 0.066 and 0.456 ± 0.209, respectively, which were highly significant (P<0.01). Phenotypic correlations between 300 days milk yield and dry period, cadving interval and age at first calving were nonsignificant (P>0.05) and were -0.183 ± 0.217, 0.171 ± 0.269 and 0.114 ± 0.178, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of peak milk yield with lactation length, calving interval, dry period and age at first calving were non-significant (P>0.05) and were 0.225 ± 0.295, 0.079 ± 0.309, -0.147 ± 0.255 and 0.104 ± 0.200, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between lactation length and dry period, calving interval and age at first calving were non-significant (P>0.05) and were -0.065 ± 0.346, 0.501 ± 0.432 and 0.191 ± 0.234, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of dry period with calving interval was highly significant (P<0.01) and was 0.520 ± 0.178. Phenotypic correlations of dry period with age at first calving was 0.021 ± 0.195, which was non-significant (P>0.05). Genetic correlations of lactation milk yield vj^ith 300 days milk yield, peak milk yield and lactation length were 0.985 ± 0.015, 0.813 ± 0.095 and 0.839 ± 0.137, respectively, which were highly significant (P<0.01). Genetic correlations of lactation milk yield with dry period, calving interval and age at first calving were non-significant (P>0.05) and were -0.454 ± 0.223, - 0.003 ± 0.283 and 0.144 ± 0.179, respectively. Genetic correlations between 300 days milk yield and lactation length and peak milk yield were 0.744 ± 0.209 and 0.868 + 0.066, respectively, which were highly significant (P<0.01). Genetic correlations between 300 days milk yield and calving interval, dry period and age at first calving were non significant (P>0.05) and were -0.100 ± 0.269, -0.472 ± 0.217 and 0.006 ± 0.178, respectively. Genetic correlation of peak milk yield with lactation length was 0.606 ± 0.295, which was highly significant (P<0.01). Genetic correlation of peak milk yield with age at first calving, dry period and calving interval were non-significant (P>0.05) and were 0.069 ± 0.200, -0.382 ± 0.255 and -0.009 ± 0.309, respectively. Genetic correlation between lactation length and dry period, calving interval and age at first calving were -0.518 + 0.346, 0.016 ± 0.432 and 0.752 + 0.234, respectively, which were non-significant (P>0.05). Genetic correlation of dry period with calving interval was 0.712 ± 0.178, which was highly significant (P<0.01). Genetic correlation of dry period with age at first calving was 0.058 ± 0.195, which was non-significant (P>0.05). Environmental correlation of lactation milk yield with 300 days milk yield, peak milk yield, lactation length, dry period, age at first calving and calving interval were 0.795 ± 0.015, 0.606 ±
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CLOSED HERD OF GIR CATTLE IN ITS NATIVE TRACT”
    (JAU,JUNAGADH) CHANDANI N. PANDAVADARA; Dr. P. U. GAJABHIYE
    KEY WORDS: Gir cattle, First lactation length, First lactation yield, First 300 day lactation yield, First lactation monthly peak yield, First lactation yield per day of lactation length, First lactation yield per day of calving interval, Age at first calving, First calving interval and First dry period, Reproduction traits, Effect of non-genetic factors, Calving interval, Heritability, Genetic correlations, Phenotypic correlations, Pooled parity, Lactation length, Lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, Monthly peak yield, Repeatability, Genetic trend. The production and reproduction records on 700 Gir cows with 3236 lactations sired by 57 bulls maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh for the period of 1965 to 2016 (51 Years) ware studied. The overall least squares means of first lactation length, first lactation yield, first 300 day lactation yield, first monthly peak yield, first lactation length per day of lactation yield, first lactation length per day of calving interval, age at first calving, first calving interval and first dry period were 308.9 + 8.4 days, 1809.8 + 43.06 Lit, 1809.8 + 43.06 Lit, 243.0 + 5.84 Lit, 5.7 ± 0.11 Lit, 3.7 ± 0.15 Lit, 1570.0 ± 16.93 days, 456.2 ± 17.53 days and 104.0 ± 6.59 days respectively. Season of calving had significant effect on first lactation length and first monthly peak yield while lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, first lactation length per day of lactation yield and first lactation length per day of calving interval had no significant effect. Period of calving had significant effect on first monthly peak yield, first lactation length per day of lactation yield, first lactation length per day of calving interval and age at first caving. First lactation length and first lactation yield were significantly affected by Age at first calving. Heritability of first lactation length, first lactation yield, first 300 day lactation yield, first monthly peak yield, first lactation length per day of lactation yield, first lactation length per day of calving interval, age at first calving, first calving interval and first dry period were 0.328 ± 0.116, 0.188 ± 0.096, 0.22 ± 0.100, 0.26 ± 0.108, 0.18 ± 0.096, 0.16 ± 0.15, 0.06 ± 0.144, 0.156 ± 0.092 and 0.12 ± 0.088 , respectively. Genetic correlation of lactation length with lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, monthly peak yield, calving interval, dry period, lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were 0.166 ± 0.325, 0.039 ± 0.323, -0.519 ± 0.275, 0.544 ± 0.290, 0.088 ± 0.400, -0.324 ± 0.341 and -0.312 ± 0.332 respectively while phenotypic correlation were 0.596, 0.362, 0.074, 0.339, -0.045, -0.041 and 0.169, respectively. Genetic correlation of lactation yield with300 day lactation yield, monthly peak yield, calving interval, dry period, lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were 1.010 ± 0.046, 0.834 ± 0.159, 0.626 ± 0.354, 0.866 ± 0.507, 0.927 ± 0.197 and 0.896 ± 0.229 respectively while Phenotypic correlations were 0.877, 0.636, 0.263, -0.005, 0.554 and 0.496 respectively. Genetic correlation of 300 day lactation yield with monthly peak yield, calving interval, dry period, lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were 0.858 ± 0.166, 0.479 ± 0.369, 0.930 ± 0.494, 0.920 ± 0.134 and 1.012 ± 0.165 respectively while Phenotypic correlations were 0.743, 0.185, -0.023, 0.691 and 0.597 respectively. Genetic correlation of monthly peak yield with calving interval, dry period, lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were -0.241 ± 0.380, 0.596 ± 0.434, 0.837 ± 0.158 and 0.840 ± 0.218 respectively while Phenotypic correlations were 0.064, 0.005, 0.654 and 0.478. Genetic correlation of calving interval with dry period, lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were 0.720 ± 0.333, 0.550 ± 0.412 and 0.101 ± 0.454 respectively while Phenotypic correlations were 0.471, 0.107 and 0.462. Genetic correlation of dry period with lactation yield per day of lactation length and lactation yield per day of calving interval were 0.961 ± 0.521 and 0.635 ± 0.479 While Phenotypic correlations were 0.007 and 0.095. Genetic correlation of lactation yield per day of lactation length with lactation yield per day of calving interval was 1.319 ± 0.248 and phenotypic correlation was 0.537 The overall means for lactation length, lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, monthly peak yield were 308.95 ± 8.43 days, 1933.32 ± 63.01 Lit, , 1820.99 ± 48.77 Lit, 276.68 ± 5.75 Lit. in 1 to 10 pool parity data analysis. Lactation length, lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, monthly peak yield were highly significantly affected by season of calving and period of calving. The repeatability estimates of Lactation length, lactation yield, 300 day lactation yield, monthly peak yield were 0.1301, 0.0195, 0.1342 and 0.1216. Lactation length, lactation yield and 300 day lactation yield were significantly affected by calving intervals. Genetic trend of First lactation yield estimated using sire breeding values of 57 sires over a period of 51 years using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method indicated that there was positive trend of improvement of 7.22 lit of FLY for every five year.