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Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Economics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) GAHLOT, DISHA; Kharkwal, Sheela
    Economics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan Disha Gahlot Dr. Sheela Kharkwal** (Research Scholar) (Major Advisor) ABSTRACT The present investigation has been undertaken in Jaipur district of Rajasthan with a view to identify the prevalent dairy marketing channels of milk in Jaipur district, factors affecting the farmer‘s choice of specific dairy outlet, economics of production and marketing of milk and constraints faced by farmers in production and marketing of milk. Total 80 milk producing farmers were selected through multistage purposive sampling method, from two rural and two peri-urban villages of Jaipur district for the detailed study. Primary data for agricultural year 2021-22 and secondary data on animal population, livestock holding, milk production and per capita availability of milk in Jaipur district were collected and submitted to various techniques and tools for drawing the results and relevant conclusions. The prevalent milk marketing channels in the study region were: channel-I (Producer – Consumer), channel II (Producer - Milk vendor Consumer) and channel- III (Producer – Collection centre – Co-operative milk plant – Consumer). Among these marketing channels, Channel-III was the most preferred channel of milk marketing, as it was opted by 47.50 per cent of the total farmers followed by Channel-I ( 28.75 %) and Channel-II (23.75 %). A multinomial logit (MNL) model was used to identify the factors affecting farmer‘s decision of choosing a particular milk-marketing outlet. Herd size, marketable surplus, caste categories, access to institutional credit, BPL economic class, income from livestock and breed type of animals were few significant factors observed in making a choice amongst the three milk marketing channel decisions. The total maintenance cost of local cow, crossbred and buffalo was ₹ 225.64, 364.52 and 379.81/day/animal, respectively and the gross returns per animal were estimated at ₹ 256.64, 467.07 and 566.19 per day per animal for local cow, crossbred and buffalo, respectively. The corresponding proceeds per rupee from local cow, crossbred and buffalo were 1.13, 1.28 and 1.49. The overall total maintenance cost of per SAUs (Standard Animal Units) of milch animal was estimated to be ₹ 264.69 /SAUs/ hh, while the gross returns were estimated to be ₹ 389.61 /SAUs/ hh. The overall proceeds per rupee from SAUs were calculated at 1.47. On the other hand, total marketing cost was estimated at ₹ 8.89/lit. in channel III followed by channel II (₹ 5.95/lit.) and channel I (₹ 4.01/lit.). The marketing margin was calculated as ₹ 3.18/ lit. in channel II and ₹ 4.97/lit. in channel III. The market efficiency of channel-I was highest at 11.48 per cent, followed by channel-II (5.30%) and channel-III (3.77%). The farmer‘s share in the consumer rupee was estimated at 91.29 percent in channel-I, 79.93 percent in channel-II and 73.60 per cent in channel –III. Among different constraints, untimely availability of quality feed and fodder was the most serious technical constraint, high cost of feed and fodder was the major financial problem faced by dairy farmer Inadequate market intelligence was the marketing problem while lack of knowledge about well designed dairy shed was the in management constraints faced by the sample respondents. The study submits that there is need to train dairy owners about scientific management practices in rearing of milch animals for better health, disease control, and performance. Feed quality testing laboratories must be setup to ensure the quality of feed, to enhance animal‘s productivity. Farmers should be made aware about quality parameters like fat percentage in the milk, or even provided with affordable fat testing kits through Pashu Vigyan Kendras/ KVKs, so that farmers can test milk at their level and be assured about the prices they receive in the collection centres. Institutional sources should provide easy and cheaper loans to farmers for purchasing animals up to certain limit without any collateral.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    An Economic Analysis of Integrated Farming Systems in Hisar District of Haryana
    (2022) Malik, Sumay; Shekhawat, P.S.
    The research study entitled “An Economic Analysis of Integrated Farming Systems in Hisar District of Haryana” was aimed to identify the different integrated farming systems, estimate the economics and analyze the income and employment generated through different integrated farming systems and also to identify major constraints associated with different components in the selected integrated farming systems. In this study, two blocks namely, Hisar I and Uklana were purposively selected on the basis of maximum and minimum gross irrigated area situation for the study. The random sampling technique was used for the selection of farmers. A sample of 80 households consisting of 40 each from maximum gross irrigated area (situation-I) and minimum gross irrigated (situation-II) were selected for the study. The results of the study showed that four integrated farming systems viz.; IFS-I: Crop + Dairy (C + D), IFS-II: Crop + Dairy + Poultry (C + D + P), IFS-III: Crop + Dairy + Vegetable (C + D + V) and IFS-IV: Crop + Dairy + Fishery (C + D + Fi.) were adopted by the respondents in situation-I while, three integrated farming systems viz.; IFS-I: Crop Dairy (C + D), IFS-II: Crop + Dairy + Poultry (C + D + P) and IFS-V: Crop + Dairy + Fruit (C + D + Fr.) were practiced by the selected farmers in situation-II. Under situation-I, IFS-I (Crop + Dairy) was being adopted by maximum number of farmers (i.e., 60 percent). The total costs per household per annum under situation-I was the highest (₹ 10172705) under IFS-II and it was lowest (₹ 980929) under IFS-I. In case of situation-II, it was maximum (₹ 7280083) in IFS-II and minimum (₹ 765291) in IFS-I. Under situation-I, return per rupee of investment was highest (₹ 1.59) under IFS-IV. While, in situation-II, on the basis of returns per rupee of investment, the most profitable integrated farming system was IFS-V i.e., ₹ 1.52. On per household per annum basis, employment generated under situation-I was maximum in IFS-III (976 man-days) and it was minimum (432 man days) in IFS-I. In case of situation-II, highest employment per household per annum was generated under IFS-V (674 man-days) and it was lowest in IFS-I (367 man-days). The major constraints reported by the respondents in situation-I for crop and dairy enterprises were high input cost (76.48 mean score) and high cost of feed and fodder (77.73 mean score), respectively. While, under situation-II, major constraint observed in crop enterprise was high input cost (76.10 mean score) and low price of milk (77.73 mean score) in dairy enterprise. Under poultry enterprise, high fluctuations in market prices of poultry birds (71.57 mean score) was observed as prime constraint in situation-I where as high cost of feed (72.50 mean score) was the major constraint under situation-II. The major constraint associated with vegetable component was high cost of labour (mean score of 79.60). The major problem in case of fishery enterprise under situation-I was high cost of fish feed (with 79.00 mean score). In case of fruit component, the prime constraint was high initial capital requirement (mean score of 79.92) in situation-II
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    An Economic Analysis of Production and Marketing of Muskmelon in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) MEENA, VIKASH KUMAR; Asiwal, R.C.
    The present investigation has been undertaken in Jaipur district of Rajasthan with a view to study about growth rates in area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district as well as in Rajasthan state, costs structures of muskmelon and marketing costs. margins and price spread in marketing of muskmelon and constraints faced by farmers in muskmelon cultivation. Total 80 muskmelon cultivators were selected randomly for detailed study. In the study area, one regulated market namely Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Muhana, Jaipur was purposively selected for the study and 6 village traders, 6 wholesalers cum commission agents and 8 retailers were selected for detailed study. Primary data for agricultural year 2020-21 and secondary data on area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district and in the Rajasthan state for period of 2010-11 to 2020-21 (i.e., 11 year) was collected and submitted to various techniques and tools for drawing the results and relevant conclusions. Results of growth rates showed that growth rates in area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district were found to be negative whereas, in Rajasthan state as a whole, growth trends were also found negative in area and production of muskmelon and it was observed as positive trend in productivity of muskmelon during the study period. The study of cost structure of muskmelon indicated that, on an average, total cost of cultivation of muskmelon was `72370.97 per hectare. It was highest (`75833.22per hectare) on medium farms and lowest (`68383.02per hectare) on small farms. Overall gross returns, net returns, farm business income and family labour income were ` 235834.48,`159849.63, `186295.56and `167607.82per hectare, respectively. Cost of production was highest (`740.18 per quintal) for small farmers and lowest (`715.94 per quintal) for medium farmers with an overall average of`726.50 per quintal. On an average, returns per rupee were ` 3.10. It was observed that the sample farmers adopted three marketing channels viz. Channel-I (Producer → Village trader → Wholesaler- cum- commission agent → Retailers → Consumer), Channel-II (Producer → Wholesaler- cum- commission agent → Retailers → Consumer) and Channel-III (Producer → Consumer) in sale of muskmelon. In sale of muskmelon, majority of farmers (56.25 per cent of total sample farmers) was sold their produce in channel-II followed by channel-I (30.00 per cent) and channel-III (13.75 per cent). Analysis of the study showed that, total marketing costs in sale of muskmelon were `357.45 and `323.74 per quintal in channel-I and channel-II, respectively, whereas, channel-III was found to be a direct channel. Marketing margins in sale of muskmelon were `450.84 per quintal (15.77 per cent) in channel-I and 351.73 per quintal (12.43 per cent) in channel-II. The price spread in channel-I was 808.29 per quintal, which was 28.27 per cent of price paid by consumer. Per quintal price spread in channel-II was `675.47 and it was 23.88 per cent of consumer’s price. There was no price spread in channel-III. The major problems faced by the farmers in production of muskmelon were lack of knowledge about plant protection chemicals, technical guidance unavailable at the time of sowing and unavailability and lack knowledge about grading and standardization, unavailability of quality seed variety, high rate of plant protection chemicals. Lack of irrigation facilities and high cost of labour. In case of marketing of muskmelon, prime problems faced by farmer were fluctuation in market price of the muskmelon,lack of storage facilities and low price of good quality product in the market, transportation facilities are very costly, lack of knowledge about market intelligence, unnecessary deduction in market at the time of selling, lack of export marketing in the locality
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    An Explanatory Analysis of International Agricultural Trade of India Along with a Glimpse of COVID-19
    (2022) SUMAN, JITENDRA; Shekhawat, P.S.
    The research study entitled “An Explanatory Analysis of International Agricultural Trade of India along with a Glimpse of COVID-19” was aimed to study growth and instability in exports and imports, India‟s comparative advantages among exporters of major agricultural commodities, the bilateral trade flow of major agricultural commodities from India to major other partners, export demand and supply functions of selected major crops, factors affecting agricultural trade of India and also explore the quick glimpse of covid-19. The present study was based on the secondary data for the period 2001-02 to 2019-20. The data were collected from various sources like official website of APEDA, DGCI&S Kolkata, FAO and world bank etc. These data were analyzed through various statistical methods (i. e. exponential function, Cuddy-Della index, Balassa‟s index of Revealed Comparative Advantage, gravity model of trade, simultaneous equation model, Cob-Douglas production function and glimpse of COVID-19 also assessed on the basis of secondary data) for achieving the stated objectives. The results of the study revealed that all the agricultural commodities had significant growth in exports and imports at 1 per centlevel of significance during the study period 2001-02 to 2019-20. Agricultural commodities like basmati rice, non-basmati rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, guar, sesame, groundnut, castor oil, spices, coffee, vegetables, fruits, meat and edible meat offal, marine products and dairy products were registered high growth in exports as compared to pulses, oil meal, tea and cashew nut. Among the all selected commodities, cotton registered highest growth by 26.93 per cent in exports whereas, lowest growth observed by cashew nut at the rate of 4.03 per cent per annum during the study periods. In case of agricultural imports, vegetable oil was the largest imported commodity which registered growth by 12.76 per cent per annum. The highest growth in agricultural imports was reported by sugar at the rate of 22.56 per cent while, cotton registered lowest growth by 8.06 per cent during the periods. All the agricultural commodities were found significant growth in import at 1 per cent level of significance. The analysis of instability index showed that high degree of instability in agricultural exports registered by commodities like basmati rice, non-basmati rice, pulses, sugar, cotton, guar groundnut, oil meal and dairy products whereas, moderate degree of instability was found in exports of tobacco, sesame, castor oil, coffee, cashew nut, vegetables, meat and edible meat offal and marine products. The low degree of instability in export was reported by spices, tea and fruits during the study period 2001-02 to 2019-20. The instability index in imports of agricultural commodities revealed that fruits, pulses, alcoholic beverage, cotton, sugar and miscellaneous edible preparations had high instability whereas, vegetable oil, cashew nut and cocoa products indicated medium instability in imports. Only spices were observed low instability in imports during the periods. The study of India‟s comparative advantages among exporters of major agricultural commodities depicted that India was found to enjoy comparative advantages in exports of commodities like rice, pulses, sugar, guar, sesame, groundnut, castor oil, oil meal, spices, tea, coffee, cashew nut and marine products while, tobacco, vegetables, fruits and dairy products had registered as comparative disadvantage during the study periods. In case of cotton and meat and edible meat offal, export was found initially comparative disadvantage but later it was improved in India. The results of bilateral trade flows between India and other major continent‟s exporter indicated that agricultural GDP and per capita income was found positive and significant relationship with bilateral trade among all countries. While distance was found negative relationship with bilateral trade, Contiguous border did not have any major influenced on trade between India and Asian countries. Regional trading agreements substantially influence India‟s bilateral trade whereas India had not found any trade agreements between European countries during the study periods. The analysis of exports demand functions revealed that India‟s export price of tea, basmati rice, spices, sugar and cotton had significant relationship with exports demand. The world exports price was significantly affected export demand of tea, coffee, cashew nut, Sugar, fresh fruit and fresh vegetables. In case of coffee, basmati rice, spices, cashew nut, sugar and cotton, world real income had significant relationship with exports demand. While lagged export demand was found significant in case of export demand for basmati rice, tobacco and spices. The exports supply functions indicated that India‟s exports price of coffee, basmati rice, tobacco, cashew nut and sugar had significant relationship with exports supply, whereas, exports supply in case of tea, spices, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables and cotton had insignificant relationship. Supply shock had significant relationship with export supply of spices, cashew nuts, sugar, fresh fruits and cotton, while relationship with exports supply was found insignificantly in case of tea, coffee, basmati rice, tobacco and fresh vegetables. Demand pressure recorded as negative and significant relationship with exports supply of tea, fresh fruits and fresh vegetables, whereas it was found positive and significant relationship with export supply for basmati rice and tobacco. Time variable was found positive and significant relationship in case of tea and sugar while, it had negative and significant relationship for cashew nuts. Further, lagged dependent variable (supply of previous year) had significantly affected the exports supply of basmati rice, spices and fresh vegetables. The analysis of factors affecting in agricultural export depicted that agricultural GDP and agricultural production index had positive and significantly affected agricultural exports, while inflation rate was found negative and significant relationship with agricultural export. Agricultural imports, exchange rate and per capita income was found insignificant during the study period 2001-02 to 2019-20. The study on glimpse of covid-19 during pandemic periods showed that the value of India‟s agricultural exports was increased i.e., ` 3.05 lakh crore in 2020-21 against the ` 2.56 lakh crore in the year previous year 2019-20. This indicated that India‟s agricultural exports were surpassed the pandemic COVID-19 and agricultural sector was more resilient against COVID-19 pandemic.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    An Economic Analysis of Integrated Farming Systems in Hisar District of Haryana
    (2022) Malik, Sumay; P.S. Shekhawat
    ABSTRACT The research study entitled “An Economic Analysis of Integrated Farming Systems in Hisar District of Haryana” was aimed to identify the different integrated farming systems, estimate the economics and analyze the income and employment generated through different integrated farming systems and also to identify major constraints associated with different components in the selected integrated farming systems. In this study, two blocks namely, Hisar I and Uklana were purposively selected on the basis of maximum and minimum gross irrigated area situation for the study. The random sampling technique was used for the selection of farmers. A sample of 80 households consisting of 40 each from maximum gross irrigated area (situation-I) and minimum gross irrigated (situation-II) were selected for the study. The results of the study showed that four integrated farming systems viz.; IFS-I: Crop + Dairy (C + D), IFS-II: Crop + Dairy + Poultry (C + D + P), IFS-III: Crop + Dairy + Vegetable (C + D + V) and IFS-IV: Crop + Dairy + Fishery (C + D + Fi.) were adopted by the respondents in situation-I while, three integrated farming systems viz.; IFS-I: Crop+ Dairy (C + D), IFS-II: Crop + Dairy + Poultry (C + D + P) and IFS-V: Crop + Dairy + Fruit (C + D + Fr.) were practiced by the selected farmers in situation-II. Under situation-I, IFS-I (Crop + Dairy) was being adopted by maximum number of farmers (i.e., 60 percent). The total costs per household per annum under situation-I was the highest (₹ 10172705) under IFS-II and it was lowest (₹ 980929) under IFS-I. In case of situation-II, it was maximum (₹ 7280083) in IFS-II and minimum (₹ 765291) in IFS-I. Under situation-I, return per rupee of investment was highest (₹ 1.59) under IFS-IV. While, in situation-II, on the basis of returns per rupee of investment, the most profitable integrated farming system was IFS-V i.e., ₹ 1.52. On per household per annum basis, employment generated under situation-I was maximum in IFS-III (976 man-days) and it was minimum (432 man-days) in IFS-I. In case of situation-II, highest employment per household per annum was generated under IFS-V (674 man-days) and it was lowest in IFS-I (367 man-days). The major constraints reported by the respondents in situation-I for crop and dairy enterprises were high input cost (76.48 mean score) and high cost of feed and fodder (77.73 mean score), respectively. While, under situation-II, major constraint observed in crop enterprise was high input cost (76.10 mean score) and low price of milk (77.73 mean score) in dairy enterprise. Under poultry enterprise, high fluctuations in market prices of poultry birds (71.57 mean score) was observed as prime constraint in situation-I where as high cost of feed (72.50 mean score) was the major constraint under situation-II. The major constraint associated with vegetable component was high cost of labour (mean score of 79.60). The major problem in case of fishery enterprise under situation-I was high cost of fish feed (with 79.00 mean score). In case of fruit component, the prime constraint was high initial capital requirement (mean score of 79.92) in situation-II.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    An Economic Analysis of Production and Marketing of Muskmelon in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) MEENA, VIKASH KUMAR; R.C. Asiwal
    Abstract The present investigation has been undertaken in Jaipur district of Rajasthan with a view to study about growth rates in area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district as well as in Rajasthan state, costs structures of muskmelon and marketing costs. margins and price spread in marketing of muskmelon and constraints faced by farmers in muskmelon cultivation. Total 80 muskmelon cultivators were selected randomly for detailed study. In the study area, one regulated market namely Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Muhana, Jaipur was purposively selected for the study and 6 village traders, 6 wholesalers cum commission agents and 8 retailers were selected for detailed study. Primary data for agricultural year 2020-21 and secondary data on area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district and in the Rajasthan state for period of 2010-11 to 2020-21 (i.e., 11 year) was collected and submitted to various techniques and tools for drawing the results and relevant conclusions. Results of growth rates showed that growth rates in area, production and productivity of muskmelon in Jaipur district were found to be negative whereas, in Rajasthan state as a whole, growth trends were also found negative in area and production of muskmelon and it was observed as positive trend in productivity of muskmelon during the study period. *Post Graduate, Department of Agricultural Economics,S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Jaipur **Thesis submitted to Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner, Jaipur in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture in the subject of Agricultural Economics under the supervision of Dr.R.C. Asiwal, Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture, Lalsot,S.K.N. Agriculture University, Jobner, Jaipur The study of cost structure of muskmelon indicated that, on an average, total cost of cultivation of muskmelon was `72370.97 per hectare. It was highest (`75833.22per hectare) on medium farms and lowest (`68383.02per hectare) on small farms. Overall gross returns, net returns, farm business income and family labour income were ` 235834.48,`159849.63, `186295.56and `167607.82per hectare, respectively. Cost of production was highest (`740.18 per quintal) for small farmers and lowest (`715.94 per quintal) for medium farmers with an overall average of`726.50 per quintal. On an average, returns per rupee were ` 3.10. It was observed that the sample farmers adopted three marketing channels viz. Channel-I (Producer → Village trader → Wholesaler- cum- commission agent → Retailers → Consumer), Channel-II (Producer → Wholesaler- cum- commission agent → Retailers → Consumer) and Channel-III (Producer → Consumer) in sale of muskmelon. In sale of muskmelon, majority of farmers (56.25 per cent of total sample farmers) was sold their produce in channel-II followed by channel-I (30.00 per cent) and channel-III (13.75 per cent). Analysis of the study showed that, total marketing costs in sale of muskmelon were `357.45 and `323.74 per quintal in channel-I and channel-II, respectively, whereas, channel-III was found to be a direct channel. Marketing margins in sale of muskmelon were `450.84 per quintal (15.77 per cent) in channel-I and 351.73 per quintal (12.43 per cent) in channel-II. The price spread in channel-I was 808.29 per quintal, which was 28.27 per cent of price paid by consumer. Per quintal price spread in channel-II was `675.47 and it was 23.88 per cent of consumer’s price. There was no price spread in channel-III. The major problems faced by the farmers in production of muskmelon were lack of knowledge about plant protection chemicals, technical guidance unavailable at the time of sowing and unavailability and lack knowledge about grading and standardization, unavailability of quality seed variety, high rate of plant protection chemicals. Lack of irrigation facilities and high cost of labour. In case of marketing of muskmelon, prime problems faced by farmer were fluctuation in market price of the muskmelon,lack of storage facilities and low price of good quality product in the market, transportation facilities are very costly, lack of knowledge about market intelligence, unnecessary deduction in market at the time of selling, lack of export marketing in the locality.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Economic Analysis of Fennel Crop Production in Nagaur District of Rajasthan
    (2021) Choudhary, Praveen; Sheela, Kharkwal
  • ThesisItemOpen Access