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Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...




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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Morphological and Molecular Cataloguing of Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) germplasm
    (2021-09-07) MOUNIKA, S; RAMANA, J. V.
    Forty-eight genotypes of mung bean collected from various different parts of the country were morphologically characterized using PPV & FRA DUS descriptors. The descriptors, plant habit, time of flowering, stem pubescence and pod pubescence, showed no variation among the genotypes in the studied twenty six descriptors. The characters like growth habit, stem colour, leaf colour, vein colour, leaf size, petiole colour, plant height, curvature of pod, pod position, pod colour, flower colour, days to maturity, seed colour, seed luster, seed size and seed colour showed variation and were recorded during different growth stages of crop. Thus, the present investigation clearly indicated the utilization of the PPV & FRA DUS descriptors for the purpose of registration, maintenance and protection of lines. In the study, for all the nine characters, the genotypic coefficients of variation was observed to be lower than the phenotypic coefficients of variation indicating the effect of environment. Wide genetic variability was observed for the characters viz., days to maturity, pod length and days to 50% flowering. High heritability along with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for clusters/plant, plant height, branches/plant, seeds/pods, pods/plant and yield/plant signifying the prevalence of additive gene action and hence further improvement may be done through simple selection procedures. The results of Mahalanobis D2 analysis indicated that among the forty eight genotypes there is presence of considerable genetic divergence and maximum contribution towards divergence was from the traits, branches/plant, yield, pods/ plant, plant height, clusters/plant, days to maturity, days to 50% flowering and seeds/pod. The forty-eight genotypes were grouped into tweleve clusters using Tocher’s method and the cluster I had the maximum number of eighteen genotypes with high intra-cluster distance. The clusters, III, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII were solitary clusters. The highest mean values for the yield/plant was recorded in cluster IX and the genotype present in this cluster can be effectively used for breeding programmes for yield improvement. xiv The forty-eight genotypes were studied with fifty SSR primers, out of which polymorphism was observed in six primers and the PIC value was higher for primer, MB-122, indicating its usefulness in characterization of the genotypes. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient values were ranged from 0.304 to 0.833 indicating that the material had vast genetic base. The forty-eight genotypes were grouped into nine major clusters using similarity coefficients. Cluster I was the largest cluster with thirty-eight genotypes. The similarity coefficient values were minimum between the genotypes, MGG-385 and LGG-617, while the genetic distance was maximum between the genotypes, EC-398885 and VGG 15-30, indicating their relatedness and diversity, thus which can be further exploited in the breeding programmes for the transgressive breeding and creation of variability.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-06) AJITHA, V; PADMA, V.
    African cultivated rice Oryza glaberrima is learnt to be a resource for many useful biotic and abiotic resistant genes which can be used in improvement of rice. In many studies O. glaberrima was reported to be resistant to bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) which causes severe infection in rainfed and irrigated conditions. The current study was aimed to identify sources of BB resistance in O. glaberrima accessions and introgress into elite rice cultivar Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64 background. Among 31 accessions of O. glaberrima, BB resistance was identified in 28 accessions. Genotyping of O. glaberrima accessions revealed the absence of known genes signifying the possibility of novel genes conferring bacterial blight resistance. Out of 28 BB resistant accessions of O. glaberrima, one accession EC861812 was screened for 10 different strains of Xoo, which showed resistance to moderate resistance to all strains, except PNT 09-1, indicating that the BB resistance is of broad-spectrum nature. In order to develop the interspecific segregating population to study the inheritance of BB resistance, the accession EC861812 (donor parent) was crossed with IR64 (susceptible to BB) and resistance was transferred to IR64 through backcross breeding. Inheritance studies conducted in segregating populations with BC1F2 (1.0 P value) and F3 (0.0027 P value) is fitting resistance to susceptible in 3:1 ratio indicating the possibility of single dominant gene inheritance. BB resistant plants of BC1F2 were backcrossed to IR64 and selfed to generate BC2F2 population. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery estimation was done in six selected resistant plants of BC2F2 population. A total of 70 parental polymorphic SSR markers present across all the 12 chromosomes were used for genotyping of six BC2F2 plants. Among the six BB resistant lines of BC2F2, four lines viz., 58*-4-14*-3-5 (84.5%), 58*-5-6*-3-6 (78.3%), 58*-5-6*-3-1 (71.9%) and 58*-5- 6*-3-3 (71.5%) had more than 70% recurrent parent genome. Agro morphological data of BC2F2 lines revealed that these lines performed better than the donor parent O. glaberrima in terms of reduced days to 50% flowering and decreased plant height. Data for yield traits was also recorded in 84 introgressed lines (ILs) from BC1F2:3 populations for the estimation of variability, heritability and genetic advance. Estimates of genetic variability revealed that the GCV and PCV were comparatively higher for number of tillers/hill, panicles/hill, yield/plant, spikelets/panicle and spikelet fertility indicating the possibility of getting good response to selection in these traits. High heritability combined with high genetic advance as per cent mean was observed for plant height, number of tillers/hill, number of panicles/hill, number of spikelets/panicle, spikelet fertility (%) and yield/plant (g). Among 84 ILs, three lines viz., 58*-1-18, 58*-9-5 and 58*-3-27 with mean yield performance of 9.2±0.21g, 8.2±0.21g and 7.5±0.21g, respectively, were promising since their mean yield was higher than donor O. glaberrima (EC861812) (7.5±0.21g) but lower than the recurrent parent IR64 (10.4±0.21g). The observed lower yield in the ILs compared to the recurrent parent might be due to the persistence of shattering and spikelet sterility. Among these three lines, 58*-1-18 recorded higher yield. However, further studies are required for molecular mapping of BB resistance using BB resistant introgression lines developed from this study. The BB resistant BC2F2 introgressed lines identified in the present study showed that the introgression was feasible in the cross between O. glaberrima and O. sativa and ILs will be useful as pre-breeding resources for the transfer of BB resistance into indica varieties for the development of resistant cultivars for sustainable management of bacterial blight in rice
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-06) AYESHA PARVEEN, P.; RAMANA, J.V.
    Gray mold (Botryotinia ricini) is one of the major constraints in castor production and severely affect the yield and quality. The primary targets of the pathogen are inflorescence and capsules. During plant-pathogen interaction, cuticle layer is involved leading to either resistance or susceptibility reaction. Hence, wax and cutin which are integral parts of cuticle play a major role in plant-pathogen interactions. Keeping in view the role of wax (waxy bloom) and cutin present on target sites (inflorescence and capsules) of fungal infection, present research was carried out at ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana for better understanding of waxy bloom of castor in plant pathogen interaction, molecular and biochemical mechanisms of resistance or susceptibility. This study would help in evolving gray mold disease resistance cultigens. The role of waxy bloom in disease development on capsules and spike is studied with twenty six genotypes under four categories having different intensities of waxy bloom (no bloom, single bloom, double bloom and triple bloom) in field, polyhouse, glass house (detached spike method) and growth chamber (detached capsule method) and disease severities were recorded. This study revealed that irrespective of the type of bloom, disease severity (intensity of infection) increased with increase in waxy bloom intensity level. Genotypes with high waxy bloom levels (RG-2944, RG-1645, RG-2717, DCS-9, JC-12, SKI-337, JI-96, JI-226, TMV-5, DCS-118, RG-1289 and DCH-519) had recorded high per cent disease severity (>40%) compared to genotypes with moderate to low waxy bloom levels (DPC-9, RG-1963, ICS-324, ICS-325, RG-1274, RG 3126, RG-61, RG-2465, DCS-107 and ICH-538) with low per cent disease severity (<30%). This was on contrary to normal protective barrier of wax against biotic and abiotic stresses. Similarly a rapid colorimetric method for quantification of wax from capsules of different waxy bloom genotypes also revealed that high quantities of wax (1.50-3.00ug/mg) were extracted from genotypes viz., RG-2944, RG-1645, RG-2717, DCS-9, JC-12, SKI-337, JI-96, JI-226, TMV-5, DCS-118, RG-1289 and DCH-519 having xiii high per cent disease severity (40-95%) and low quantities of wax (0-1.50ug/mg) were extracted from genotypes viz., DPC-9, RG-1963, ICS-324, ICS-325, RG-1274, RG 3126, RG-61, RG-2465, DCS-107 and ICH-538 with low per cent disease severity (1-40%). This confirms the influence of high wax levels in promoting infection. There is increase in severity of infection with increase in wax levels/intensities on capsules. No bloom types like DPC-9, RG-1963, ICS-324 and ICS-325 that do not show wax visually recorded minimal infection because they do contain wax in low quantities (0.10-0.70 ug/mg) as evident from colorimetric method. Conidial germination of Botryotinia ricini in eight wax-cutin fractions/monomers (unidentified) obtained through HPLC of wax extracted from capsules revealed that out of eight fractions, fraction-I had significant role in promoting germination. The conidial germination tests of fraction- I revealed that conidia in sucrose + wax-cutin fraction-I produced longer germ tubes compared to sucrose alone or wax-cutin fraction- I alone representing fast growth and development of pathogen in sucrose + wax-cutin fraction-I. As the pathogen Botryotinia ricini targets the spike and capsule, twenty six waxy bloom castor genotypes were characterized based on spike and capsule characters viz. spike compactness, capsule type, waxy bloom intensity on capsules, capsule spine length, spine texture, spine density where each character is given numerical rating/score representing its state and correlated with per cent disease severity in vivo (field and polyhouse) and in vitro (detached spike and capsule techniques) screenings. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis using SPSS software revealed that there was significant positive correlation between per cent disease severity (intensity of infection) in various screenings with characters like capsule type, capsule waxy bloom, spine texture, spine length at 0.01 level (2-tailed) with correlation coefficients greater than 0.5. However, spike compactness and spine density showed non-significant correlation with per cent intensity of infection at 0.01 level (2-tailed) with correlation coefficients less than 0.5. The study revealed that high waxy bloom on capsules, spiny capsule, long spine length and smooth spine texture increased the severity of infection. However, characters like capsule type, spine length, spine texture role majorly depends on other disease causing factors like host resistance, waxy bloom intensity, environmental factors favoring the disease, inoculum load, nutrient availability. Molecular variability analysis of wax and cutin biosynthesis genes among the selected panel of genotypes with different waxy bloom levels was carried at genomic and transcript level. Out of the sixteen primers that were designed using PRIMER3, eleven primers viz., CYP 86 A4, MYB 106, SHN 1, ASAT 1, CER 4, KCS 1, LACS 3, MAH 1, MYB 96 and WIN 1 gave monomorphic bands with DNA of twenty six genotypes. The result indicated that there was no qualitative change in wax and cutin biosynthesis genes at the DNA level in terms of the size of the genes. There was no change in the wax and its monomers which leads to variation in wax levels among selected panel of genotypes as these genes encode the enzymes involved in synthesis of very long chain fatty acids and their derivatives (primary and secondary alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters) that help in wax and cutin biosynthesis. The five DNA primers (ABCG-32, ABCG11, ABCG 12, CER1 and WSD 1) designed from the genome sequence of Hale variety of castor available in public domain were not informative to draw valid conclusion at DNA level. xiv Variability at transcript level of wax and cutin biosynthesis genes in genotypes having different levels of waxy bloom intensity failed to give satisfactory results. The cDNAs from twenty six waxy bloom genotypes were not amplified with the primers that gave monomorphic bands with genomic DNA using gradient PCR. Hence, the variability analysis at transcript/gene expression level needs to be further studied and experimented with new genes related to wax and cutin biosynthesis apart from the ones studied here. The same genes can also be studied again by redesigning the primers as the castor (Ricinus communis) genome is not completely annotated. This could also be the major reason for failure of amplification. This study needs to be further investigated to derive confirmative results.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-03) SAILEELA, M; LAL AHAMED, M.
    The present study was conducted to study the variability in Sclerotium rolfsii isolates of Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh using morphological characters and molecular markers like ITS, RAPD and ISSR. A roving survey was conducted to record incidence of collar rot disease in the fields of chickpea in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh during rabi 2019 - 2020. The disease incidence range was 7.5% to 19.5% with an average of 12.57% in the Kurnool district. 33 villages diseased samples were collected and 18 S. rolfsii isolates were isolated. They were designated as KCSR 1 to KCSR 18. The isolates varied in their morphological characters viz., mycelia growth rate (15.2mm/day to 25mm/day), colony colour (pure white to dull white), mycelia appearance and dispersion (mat to flower ; compact and fluffy). These were grouped into moderate, fast and very fast based on mycelial growth rate and the isolates, KCSR 11 and KCSR 16, were identified as fast and slow growing isolates, respectively. Further, sclerotial traits like sclerotia initiation (5 to 10 days), 100 sclerotia weight (40 to 320mg), number of sclerotia (25 to 124 ), sclerotia colour (black in KCSR16 golden brown in KCSR 18 and light brown to dark brown in remaining isolates) and site of sclerotial production (KCSR 12 - peripheral, KCSR 16 - top of petriplate, remaining isolates - peripheral, scattered, clustered at centre and to sides of plate) showed sufficient variability indicating their usefulness in characterization. Among the isolates, KCSR 16 is unique from others in having low growth rate, high test weight, black coloured sclerotia and sclerotial arrangement on top of plate. The isolate, KCSR 16, recorded high aggressiveness on susceptible chickpea variety, L550, by recording disease incidence of 95.67% in 8 days.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-03) ALEENA, D; V. PADMA
    Nellore Mahsuri (NLR 34449), is a high yielding, blast resistant, popular variety developed from the cross IR 72/BPT 5204 in the year 2009 by Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, possessing, medium-slender grain type which is a desirable trait but susceptible to bacterial blight disease. The present study was designed and executed to improve NLR 34449 for durable resistance against a major biotic stress bacterial blight by incorporating three bacterial blight resistant genes viz., Xa21, xa13 and xa5 into NLR 34449 using Improved Samba Mahsuri as the donor which is a high-yielding fine-grain type bacterial blight resistant variety. Foreground selection of the target resistance genes was done using PCR-based molecular markers, specific for the genes, while 127 SSR markers equally distributed all over the 12 chromosomes of rice were used for target recurrent parent genome recovery (i.e., background selection) through marker-assisted backcross breeding and marker-assisted pedigree breeding. At BC2F2, generation, a total of five plants (NLR-87-35-102, NLR-87-21-103, NLR-87-53-104, NLR-87-13-105 and NLR-87-10-106) were found to be homozygous resistant for all the three target genes xv 25 Improved versions of NLR 34449 viz., F4, BC1F3, BC2F2 plants were developed and evaluated for their resistance against bacterial blight, blast and for key agro-morphological traits. All the selected backcross and pedigree derived lines were observed to show better performance under target biotic stresses, BB and blast as compared to NLR 34449 and were equivalent to the parent variety in terms of grain type. Based on the stringent phenotypic screening along with evaluation for key agro-morphological traits, a solitary BC2F2 plant, viz., NLR-87-10-106 was identified to be better than the recurrent parent, NLR 34449 in terms of yield and other key agro-morphological traits. The significant achievement of the study is the improvement of BB and blast stress resistance in the genetic background of NLR 34449, without any loss of the premium grain quality attributes with marginal improvement in yield attributes.