The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad.
The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966.
The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter.
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication.
Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers
1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country...
1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country...
1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country...
1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension...
1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted...
June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University...
June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)...
20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India...
1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State...
23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India...
July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture...
May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department...
7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga...
15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005...
26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007...
2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now...
serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...
India is predominantly an agricultural country and soils are poor in organic matter and plant nutrients. Present day’s scenario getting quality food products also a challenge because of indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers which are important inputs in present day farming creates depletion in soil fertility and causing water pollution. Fertilizers cause leaching out the nutrients from the soil surfaces, destroying the micro organisms and eco friendly insects. Moreover the cost of fertilizers also more expensive and need to depend on market. To avoid these problems instead of using chemical fertilizer use of farm yard manure (FYM) will not only reduces soil damage but also improves the soil structure.
Application of FYM increases the soil fertility. FYM contained almost all essential nutrients required for soil. The application of FYM in the field is carried out traditionally lead to uneven distribution, increases cost and labour requirement. Considering these aspects, as there is scope to work on spreading of FYM uniformly in the field level. The tractor mounted FYM spreader was developed in RARS, Tirupathi to pulverize and spread the FYM.
The developed machine consisted the manure tub, FYM conveyor unit, manure discharging gate, shredding and spreading unit. The designed conveyor unit consists of the rollers (diameter 150 mm and length 1800 mm) and spacers’ arrangement (diameter 63 mm and length 1700 mm) and manure discharge gate provided to change levels of opening from the bottom of conveyor belt. The designed shredding cum spreading unit is mainly consists of main frame, beating roller(one), beating elements (22) and spreading mechanism. The shredding unit is mounted on the mainframe. The main frame basic structure on which whole shredder unit was mounted, main frame was fabricated in rectangular shape with 63 mm iron L-angles of 1800 mm × 470 mm. Provision was made to the main frame unit to connect and disconnect from tractor three point hitch system, only when the shredding unit was operational in field. The beating roller consisted of 22 mild steel flanges arranged in four rows with equal spacing. Two
rows consist 6 flanges remaining rows with are 5 flanges at equal spacing. The beating roller diameter is 200 mm and length of 1800 mm. The beating elements flexible chains with 102 mm length flanges by using fasteners. The entire assembly was mounted on the main frame using thrust bearings at height of 300 mm. The shredder FYM material collected at bottom was further directed to the bottom and openings are designed in such way that the material is evenly spread on the field. All the components of FYM spreader system except conveyor assembly, were mounted on a rectangular housing and made to rest on the trailer connecting shank including gear box and related power transmission assembly. The overall dimensions were 1800 mm × 470 mm so as to house the component.
The developed tractor mounted FYM spreader was evaluated for field performance with the optimized variables derived from the experimental trials are the conveyor speed, bulk density and clod size distribution. The conveyor speed is 48 RPM, beating roller speed 255 rpm, bulk density and clod size distribution were observed as 0.503 g cm-3 and 57.66 % at 100 mm discharge gate opening with 4 chain links respectively. The discharge rate is 4.9 t/h at 100 mm manure discharge gate opening belt speed at 48 rpm. The spread quantity of 0.850 kg/m2 was obtained at forward speed of 3.2 Km h-1 and spread quantity is 1.51 kg/m2 was obtained at forward speed of 1.8 Km h-1. The width of operation was measured in the field and it was observed that width of the machine was 1800 mm. Theoretical field capacity found to vary from 0.36 and 0.54 ha h-1 and effective field capacity for each operation was calculated were 0.28 and 0.432 ha h-1. The cost of operation of the developed machine per ha is found to be Rs. 1465 which is 5.4 times less when compared with the traditional FYM spreading method. Moreover labour requirement reduced to great extent from twenty man days to two man days and operation drudgery of application was completely eliminated.
Key words: FYM Spreader, conveyor unit, manure discharge opening, shredder unit, beating elements, housing, discharge rate, bulk density, sieve analysis, spread quantity, cost of operation.
(Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, 2015) NKR GURUDATT MADDU; Dr. S. JOSEPH REDDY
On one side of the coin negative impacts coupled with escalating prices of mineral fertilizers and on other side high demands of nutrients to soil due to intense cultivars of high yielding varieties, the use of organic matter is necessary to meet the nutrient demands with low cost. In India application of farmyard manure (FYM) to the agricultural fields has been generally accepted practice, which improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Keeping in view the problems of not meeting the desired agronomic rates and disintegration of large manure un-decomposed clods during manual application of FYM to the field, a machine (FYM pulverizer cum spreader) was developed by RARS, Nandyal to pulverize and spread the manure simultaneously to the fields. Pulverization of large un-decomposed FYM clods to 0 to 40 mm size encourages the faster decomposition when hits the lands due to the more surface area exposed for the attack of microorganisms present in the soil, environment and FYM.
To meet the desired FYM application rates to the fields in required pulverized form, it is necessary to study the physical properties of manure affecting the performance of the machine and behavior of the machine at different component settings and operated under prescribed levels. Hence, a study was carried out on the performance evaluation of the FYM pulverizer cum spreader. The machine parameters with levels viz., feed control shutter opening (half open and full open), number of blades per flange of rotor (2, 3, and 6) and operational parameters viz., spreader peripheral velocity (4.72 ms-1, 6.92 ms-1and 7.86 ms-1) spreader forward speed of (2 Km h-1,3 Km h-1 and 5 Km h-1) were selected to study the effect on bulk density, clod size distribution and FYM application rate. Based on the study, the machine and operational parameters were optimized for minimum bulk density, higher percentage of 0 to 40 mm clod distribution and desired range of agronomic application rates.
The experiments were carried out at stationary condition as well as in field conditions. The experiments revealed that, the decrease in bulk density and increase in percentage of 0 to 40 mm clod size distribution was observed when the rotor peripheral velocity was increased from 4.72 ms-1 to 7.86 ms-1 and numbers of blades were increased from 2 to 6. The lowest bulk densities of 0.510 g cm-3and 0.515 g cm-3and higher 0 to 40 mm clod size percentages of 78.28 and 66.55 was recorded at peripheral velocity of 7.86 ms-1 and 3 number of blades for both half and full shutter opening of the machine respectively. The application rate was increased when rotor peripheral velocity increased and decreased with increase in forward speed. The agronomic application rates of 5.8 t ha-1and 12.6 t ha-1with minimum bulk density and higher percentage of 0 to 40 mm clod size distribution was observed at forward speed of 3 Km h-1, peripheral velocity of 7.86 ms-1 and 3 blades per flange of rotor at half shutter and full shutter opening.
A prototype FYM pulverizer cum spreader was developed and evaluated under field condition with the best optimized variables derived from the experimental trails. The bulk density, clod size distribution and application rate was observed as 0.512 g cm-3 & 0.521 g cm-3, 75.99 % & 64.45 % and 5.9 t ha-1 & 12.5 t ha-1 at half and full shutter opening area respectively. The cost of operation of FYM pulverizer cum spreader works out to be Rs.620 per acre when the machine is used for dry FYM pulverizing cum spreading operation. There was a saving of Rs.504 per acre over traditional method of spreading.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops of India in terms of area, production and consumer preference. Rice production in India crossed the mark of 100 million tons in 2011-12 accounting for 22.81% of global production in that year. In India, rice is an important ingredient of household food-basket, yet its yield level is low, stagnant and uncertain (Barah, 2009). The leading states in rice cultivation are Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. In Andhra Pradesh rice is largely grown in coastal districts, which contribute 60 percent of the state rice production. The research conducted at various locations revealed that late transplanting of the rice crop reduces the yield in the range of 30-60 percent. Direct seeding avoids three basic operations, namely, puddling (a process where soil is compacted to reduce water seepage), transplanting and standing water, thereby saving about 30% water (0.9 million liters of water/acre). Rice is directly seeding either through dry or wet (Pregerminated) seeding. These can be achived with mechanical seed drills operated with 31-40 hp tractors. Small and marginal land holding farmers feel it difficult to purchase 31-40 hp tractors. Seed drills are used to place the seeds continuously in furrows and maintain row to row spacing. The plants largely depend on solar radiation, temperature, available moisture and soil fertility for their growth and nutrition requirements. A dense population of crops may have limitations in the maximum availability of these factors. The research revealed that the ground wheel slip affects the dropping of seed in small tractor operated planter by changing the seed rate of the planter and ground wheel slip is high at low forward speed. Ground wheel slip can be eliminated by using the DC motor to operate the seed metering mechanism. DC motor could run at different rpm by varying the voltage of the battery and setting the tractor speeds at constant by using throttle lever (Hand accelerator). So there is dire need of small tractor operated planter for direct
Name of the Author : NIZAMPATNAM RAKESH
Title of the thesis : “DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION OF A SMALL TRACTOR
OPERATED SEED PLANTER FOR DIRECT
SOWING OF PADDY”
Degree to which it is submitted : Master of Technology
Faculty : Agricultural Engineering & Technology
Major field of study : FARM MACHINERY AND POWER
Major Advisor : Er. G. VEERA PRASAD
University : Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
Year of Submission : 2015
sowing of paddy suitable for small farm mechanization.
The present study was conducted on the “Development and performance evaluation of a small tractor operated seed planter for direct sowing of paddy” which was carried out at College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. An attempt was made to development of seed planter with battery drive and evaluated for its performance with ground wheel drive i.e. seed rate, seed damage, field efficiency, fuel consumption, seed to seed spacing, depth of sowing etc and compared with planter operated with ground wheel. Working width of developed seed planter is 1.25 m, spacing between two furrow openers are 25 cm and no. of furrow openers are five. L3S2D1 setting was selected for the seed planter as it providing recommended seed rate with minimum damage. Effective field capacities of the developed seed planter with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 0.301 ha h-1 and 0.299 ha h-1 respectively. The fuel consumption of tractor for sowing of seed with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 1.87 and 0.89 l h-1 respectively. Seed miss index was zero for battery drive and ground wheel drive due to picking of 3 no. of seeds per each cell and vibration of the implement was less at constant forward. The spacing between seed to seed for planter with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 23.2 cm and 25.1 cm respectively. Depth of sowing for seed planter with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 5.4 cm and 5.5 cm respectively. Germination of seeds for planter with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 97% and 96% respectively. Plant population in one square meter for planter with battery drive and ground wheel drive was 34 and 32 respectively. Cost of operation for developed planter, local seed drill and manual transplanting was Rs. 950, 1440 and Rs. 2665 respectively. Finally it concluded the seed planter with battery drive with L3S2D1 setting is suitable for direct sowing of paddy.
Keywords: Seed planter, Battery drive and Ground wheel drive, seed to seed spacing, field efficiency
Sowing is one of the most important operations in crop production. The time and method of sowing decisively influence the germination and hence production. Sowing at optimum depth and time is essential which will affect the yield of the crop. Sowing in late season will decrease yield about 35%. With the present day advanced agronomic practices, seed genetics and on- farm technology to deliver optimal yield while using fewer resources, precision planting is not out of place. Although many planters having different seed metering mechanisms i.e. inclined plate, cup feed type and roller with cells on periphery for the application of single seed at a time has been developed, their performance is not up to the mark due to nonperformance in obtaining required spacing for irregular shaped seed crops like Paddy, Maize, Black gram etc. It is a well-known fact that the bulk of agricultural production in the India is in the hands of the small holder farmers who depend very much on tools with very low mechanical advantage. Most of the commercial equipment available in market are very expensive to procure and manage by the small holder farmer. A study was taken up to develop a manual planter suitable for different crops without changing metering mechanism and to evaluate its performance. The planter was developed at workshop, Department of Farm Machinery and Power, College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. The planter was evaluated in the field at College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla as per BIS test code IS 6316: 1993 for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy. The cost of operation of the planter was compared with manual sowing cost. The capacity of planter was found to be 2.25, 2.87 and 1.91 kg h-1 for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The planter capacity is more for red gram compared with Bengal gram and paddy. The seed rate required for planter was observed to be 30.67 kg ha-1, 24.76 kg ha-1 and 36.26 kg ha-1 for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The planter requires less seed rate than manual sowing. The seed damage was found to be 1.96 %, 1.41 % and 0.89 % for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The seed damage was due to size of the groove on metering cone and rupture of the seed between hopper and metering cone. The missing rate was found to be
4.38 %, 2.94 % and 3.67 % for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. It was also observed that missing rate is less for red gram compared to Bengal gram and paddy. The effective field capacity of the planter was found to be 0.081 ha h-1, 0.152 ha h-1 and 0.059 ha h-1 for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The field efficiency was found to be 77.33 %, 81.06 % and 78.66 % for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The depth of sowing was found to be 0.0410 m, 0.0362 m and 0.0355 m for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The seed to seed spacing was found to be 0.2820 m, 0.2742 m and 0.2664 m for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. This variation is due to some early dropping of seed from hopper sometimes at edges of metered cone to furrow openers. The germination was found to be 96, 98 and 98% for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The number of plants per square metre was found to be 30, 26 and 47 for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The number of plants per square metre was more for paddy than Bengal gram and red gram. The cost of planter was found to be Rs. 4500 with an operating cost of Rs. 41.34 per hour. The cost of operation was found to be Rs. 474.99, Rs. 271.60 and Rs. 700.29 per ha for Bengal gram, red gram and paddy respectively. The cost of sowing for red gram was found to be less with planter than compared to other crops. The cost of sowing was less with planter compared to manual sowing in all the crops. Finally it was concluded that the seed rate requirement of the planter was less compared to traditional method of sowing. The cost of sowing was less with the planter compared to traditional methods of sowing. The planter is useful equipment for small and marginal farmers who cannot afford large machinery. Key words: Development, Evaluation, Bengal gram, Red gram, Paddy, Planter, Operating cost.
The experiment entitled “Effect of different implements for improving the productivity and quality of Sugarcane ratoons (Sacharum officinarum L.)” was conducted during Eksali, 2014 on red sandy loam soils of Agricultural Research Station, Basanthpur, Medak Dist. The treatment includes conventional and mechanical management practices of sugarcane ratoon laid in four replications.
The field performance of different ratoon implements (Disc off barrier, Ratoon manager, Mini rotoweeder, Ridger, Mini plough, Conventional plough and Harvester) was evaluated in three village viz., Basanthpur, Kalbemal and Madgi of Medak District. Among the three villages, Basanthpur village had recorded highest values for all the ratoon implements. The effective field capacity of the disc off barrier, Ratoon manager, Mini rotoweeder, Ridger, Mini plough, Conventional plough and Harvester in Basanthpur are 0.18 ha h-1,0.45ha h-1, 0.31 ha h-1, 0.04ha h-1,0.088 ha h-1, 0.02 ha h-1, 0.34 ha h-1 respectively , with a fuel consumption of 0.013m3ha-1,0.0152 m3ha-1, 0.018 m3ha-1,0.015 m3ha-1, 0.0125 m3ha-1 , 00 m3ha-1,0.020 m3ha-1respectively.
Biometric observations of growth parameters, yield attributes and yield were recorded and analysed. Accordingly, the effect of different implements on soil parameters and root growth was also recorded. Significantly highest and at par tiller number at 75 and 120 DAP, plant heights, millable canes, single cane weight, cane yield, sugar yield and cane girth(96.750, 162.91, 333.60, 102.280, 1.39, 148.46, 19.80,
Name of the Author : BASIREDDY VENNELA
Title of the thesis : “EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IMPLEMENTS
FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTIVITY
AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE
Degree to which it is submitted
: Master of Technology
Faculty : Agricultural Engineering
Major field of study : FARM MACHINERY AND POWER
Major Advisor : Dr.AUM SARMA
University : Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University
Year of Submission : 2015
2.97) were recorded in T6 (Improved method running with stubble shaver + disc off barrier + inter cultivation by tractor + mechanical harvesting) and T5(83.15, 152.07, 319.04, 99.643,1.36, 136.82,18.54, 2.88) (Improved method running with stubble shaver + intercultivation by tractor + manual harvesting) treatments. While, significantly lowest and at par crop parameters were noted with T1 (Conventional with manual shaving + inter cultivation by draught animal + manual harvesting) and T2 (Conventional with manual shaving + inter cultivation by tractor + manual harvesting) treatments.
Higher root mass of 205.69 – 211.36 g was recorded in T4, T5 and T6 treatments which involve the use of stubble shaver, disc off barrower and a ratoon manager. On the other side, the conventional treatments in which shaving was done manually has registered a root mass of 171.65 – 188.97 g. Maximum decrease of 1.38 gm cm-3 in bulk densitywas observed in T6 while the minimum was observed in T1. On the other hand, the pore space was maximum (38.85%) in T6 and minimum in T1 (31.62%).
The crop fetched maximum gross and net returns of Rs.385996 and 263108 ha-1 respectively due to T6. Whereas, the minimum gross returns of Rs. 275600 and 168820ha-1, respectively were obtained due to T1. Therefore, ratoon management with stubble shaving, disc off barring followed by intercultivation by tractor and mechanical harvesting was foundeconomical with a benefit cost ratio of 2.14 followed by T5 with a benefit cost ratio of 2.08.
Key words: Ratoon Sugarcane, ratoon implements, crop parameters, field
performance, cost of economics
(Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, 2015) ANIL KUMAR, DHYAVA; Dr. B. SANJEEVA REDDY
Agricultural technologies aid in improvising agricultural production in developing countries, and should be considered as an essential input to growth of agriculture. In development of agricultural process over a period of time, energy and mechanization played a key role in Indian agriculture, during which farm power availability increased from about 0.293 kW ha-1 in 1960-61 to 1.841 kW ha-1 in 2012-13. Agriculture plays a two-sided role as energy user as well as producer, because it uses different types of commercial and non-commercial energies in direct and indirect forms. However, the energy use pattern for unit operations of crop production varies under different agro climatic zones and across various farm categories. The use of various machines in a given crop production zone depends on the cropping pattern, availability of power sources, matching implements and machinery and also on socioeconomic status of the farmers. The structure of various power source use pattern in Indian agriculture has experienced a marked shift from animate to mechanical sources since, four decades due to introduction of various types of machines. Hence, this study attempts to assess energy utilization pattern for cotton and maize crops under dryland situations.
For this study, two clusters were selected for each cotton and maize crops and in a given cluster three categories of farmers ten each were selected randomly for survey based on their farm holding size. Field survey data was collected face to face interview format for each crop. The survey was conducted using pre-prepared questionnaire which consists of relevant questions to get appropriate data from individual farmers. Data on energy used from different direct sources of energy (human, animal and mechanical) and their use pattern in different operations for cotton and maize cultivation from land preparation to harvesting were collected from the selected respondents. Similarly, the data on input sources like seed, fertilizer and plant protection chemicals used were also
Name of the Author : DHYAVA ANIL KUMAR
Title of the thesis : “ENERGY UTILIZATION PATTERN IN DRYLAND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF COTTON AND MAIZE MECHANIZATION”
Degree to which it is submitted : Master of Technology
Faculty : Agricultural Engineering & Technology
Major field of study : FARM MACHINERY AND POWER
Major Advisor : Dr. B. SANJEEVA REDDY
University : Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Year of Submission : 2015
collected for determining total energy consumption in production process of both the crops. For converting collected data of different power sources and inputs into energy units, different energy conversion coefficients were used. Energy use efficiencies, mechanization index and cost of energy were also analysed for cotton and maize crops. The mechanization pattern in cotton and maize crop production clusters were compared with the custom hiring centers (CHC’s) groups of farmers of Ranga Reddy district, who got the packaged machinery under subsidy scheme from Department of Agriculture.
The results of the study revealed that, the highest energy utilization for crop production was observed in medium size farm holdings and lowest in case of small size farm holdings for both the crops, due to more use of power sources and inputs. Among field operations, land preparation consumed maximum energy across all categories of farmers and fertilizer was observed as the dominant source of input energy for cotton (46.0 to 71.1%) and maize (49.1 to 61.3%). Intercultural and weeding and harvesting / picking operations were carried out by animate sources of energy mostly in the clusters. The cost of production was observed to be highest in medium size farm holding (`38133 ha-1) for CC1 and large size farm holding `39273 ha-1 for cotton production. Large size farm holding `36582 ha-1 exhibited highest cost of production in MC1 cluster and in cluster MC2 there is not much significant difference among these farm categories. The cost of energy for land preparation was observed as lowest in the range of `3.00 to 3.8 per MJ and cost of energy forhuman and animal dependent operations were little more than the machinery involved operations. The correlation ‘r’ values of area under crop shows significant relationship with total energy input for both crop and productivity was also significant with total energy input. A positive correlation was observed between farming experience and cost of production in cotton crop; energy and cost of production in case of maize crop.
The highest energy ratio values for CC1 and CC2 were 4.57 and 4.27 by large and small farmers, respectively in cotton and for maize clusters MC1 and MC2 were 5.12 and 4.53 by large farmers. Machinery energy ratio and mechanization index values were lowest in case of small farmers in all the clusters, which indicates that small farmers face difficulty in use of machinery for crop production due to financial constraints. Mechanization index values indicated that, these clusters were poorly mechanized, which causes stagnation in crop productivity. The cotton – CHC groups utilized more tractor hours (800 h/annum) than maize CHC groups as well as normal cluster farmers. Except in maize planting and harvesting, CHCs were not able to extend mechanization activities to operations such as interculture and weeding, spraying etc., which mostly are carried by animate power sources. Any machinery supplied under subsidy scheme need through performance checks, model wise at random by experienced third party agencies under field conditions to avoid financial burden on the farmers and as well as weed out poor quality manufacturers. The proven tillage implements / machinery slowly need to be restricted in government subsidy schemes. Periodic thorough scrutiny is essential to include upcoming machinery into the subsidy category to spread the mechanization activities across various operations uniformly. More emphasis needs to be given for small farm mechanization in dryland regions with appropriate policy frame work to promote suitable power sources and matching machinery.