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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

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Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CRITICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE, SUSTAINABILITY, PREFERENCE AND PERFORMANCE OF LIVESTOCK IN ASSAM
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2017-07) TALUKDAR, JUPI; SAHARIA, K. K.
    A “Critical Component Analysis of Climate, Sustainability, Preference and Performance of Livestock Sector in Assam” has been planned with a random sampling technique in Kamrup, Dibrugarh and Bongaigaon districts of Assam to fulfill the above specified reasons. The method of random sampling technique got established when the Deputy Commissioners of each district were discussed. Further after going to the Block office, the villages were also selected as per the directive and facilitations provided by the block/field officials. It was in the village where Snow Ball sampling method was adopted. Based on the needs PCA method was also applied for getting the information relating to the social dynamics of animal husbandry in the study. Data were collected in three sets of pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule containing the features of climate, sustainability, preference, and performance. Collection of data were done based on the person actually who is involved in farming, considering analysis on the basis of 20 per cent confidence level and then finding the critical factors, analysis were done. The data such collected were arranged, tabulated, and analyzed so as to arrive at useful conclusion and interpretation so that they become benchmark for animal husbandry policies with regard to production system, supply chain and promotional livestock rearing. Results showed that the average age of the respondents was around 39 years. A good number of the respondents (45.67 %) had medium family size as high as 66.00 per cent of the respondents had nuclear type of family. The average educational qualification of majority (44.33%) of the respondents was of lower primary level. Educational status of majority (63.00 %) of the other member of the family of the respondents was higher secondary level. Average 14.58 numbers of livestock in the pooled sample could be considered towards a healthy sign considering the fact that large majority of farm people in whole of the districts had landless to marginal categories of farmers. The average annual family income of the respondents was Rs.1, 62,095/- and majority of them fell in middle income group. The average respondents own income was found to be Rs.116393/- and majority of them fell in middle income group. Majority (74.00%) of the respondent’s received medium income of Rs 29056 from livestock farming. The major sources of personal income of the respondents was Agriculture (29.80%) followed by animal husbandry (22.18), business (10.55%), fishing (8.28), art and culture (7.37%) , handicraft (5.90%), transport of item (5.62%), services (5.48) and household items (4.82%). Food (35.36%) and Education (22.66 %) were the two main areas in which maximum expenditures were made by the respondents in this study. Most of the respondents were having medium social participation with 3.47 numbers of times per year with the society and bringing it at a reflection of development, proliferation or non-orthodox atmosphere among the people of the districts. Most of the respondents were having medium to higher level of extension contact with 7.07 numbers of times per year among the respondents in different districts, which was definitely an encouraging phenomenon. More than 80 per cent of the farmers were having awareness about different farm related problems. Farmers involved in mass media contact belonged mostly to medium level category with 6.62 average numbers of areas per year. Majority of the respondents (76%) were involved in progressive livestock rearing practice. Land ownership was the most preferred indicator of progressive livestock farming in all the three districts. Different indicators of progressive livestock farming can be listed from highest to lowest impact as follows- Land ownership (6.19%), Association with the society (5.97%), Innovativeness (5.95%), Ideal family members to help farming (5.76%), More time to spend with animals (5.75%), Entrepreneurship Habit (5.73%), concern for quality (5.58%), Enduring livestock keeping (5.55%), Leadership Quality (5.51%), Willingness of people for farm products (5.27%), Contact with extension worker (5.18%), Economic orientation (5.06%), Self employment (4.87%), Religious mindedness (4.85%), Good market (4.83%), Educational qualification (4.72%), Good size of the farm (4.50%), Keeping hope for future generation (4.44%), Mass media contact (2.65%) and Political affiliation (1.64%). Most of the farmers realizing factors that affected animal husbandry development belonged to medium group level. Flood has been recognized as the most important factor affecting Animal Husbandry in all the three districts. Different micro-climatic factors affecting animal husbandry can be ordered in terms of their impact as follows- Flood (6.09%), Less availability of grass (5.82%), Parasitic infestation (5.72%), Education (5.66%), Draught (5.56%), Increasing cost of animal husbandry (5.39%), High temperature (5.37%), Less per capita availability of land (5.16%), Misunderstanding with neighbors (5.03%), Low rainfall (4.96%), Land used for infrastructure (4.83%), Social standing (4.71%), Lack of technical people in field (3.82%), No departmental support (3.66%), Pollution in water (3.62%), Soil erosion (3.41%), Job in public/private sector (3.22%), Frequency of visiting dignitaries (3.15%), General atmosphere (2.95%), Pollution (2.88%), Traditional rituals and festivals (2.78%), More dust in air (2.34%), Vehicular traffic (2.11%), Stringent rules and regulations (1.77%). Cattle was the highest preferred species in all the three districts, Kamrup (70.00%), Dibrugarh (65.00%), Bongaigaon (62.00%) while Bee keeping remained the least preferred farming practice in all the cases. Number of years of involvement in farming by the farmers of the Dibrugarh district was highest against Kamrup district to be the lowest. The overall ranking of the six different livestock species in terms of their profitability was as follows, Cattle (1575.00), Pig (692.33), Goat (503.67), Buffalo (453.00), Sheep (128.67) and Bee keeping (95.33). Flood was regarded as the most serious problem by the respondents of Dibrugarh and Bongaigaon districts while the same for Kamrup was the scarcity of fodder. The average degrees of changing status of livestock farming were 2.56. This in equivalent value revealed that the sector was slowly progressing. Association of the respondent with the market of the district Kamrup was highest and for Bongaigaon was found to be the lowest. The price of the farm product of the district Kamrup was highest and for Bongaigaon was found to be the lowest and the mean prices in the three districts varied significantly from each other. The mean transaction in market among the respondents in the districts of Kamrup was significantly higher than that of Bongaigaon district but it was marginally lower than that of Dibrugarh district. Most of the respondents preferred to sell their livestock product and produces to whole sellers. The mean satisfaction of the Kamrup district was found to be highest and the same for Bogaigaon was the lowest. Whenever and wherever animal husbandry produces and products were traded, there was no difficulty in selling them off and as such the chance of spoilage was minimum. The local sources in different extent and that could be ranked (overall) in terms of the gradually decreasing local procurement as follows Cattle (79.49%), Pig (52.13%), Goat (47.50%), Honey bee (24.37%), Sheep (23.50%) and Buffalo (11.97%). Cattle enjoyed highest demand and high profit oriented, because of traditional more acceptance of cattle milk over the milk produced by other species. Majority of the changes taking place in livestock sector were in medium group of distribution i.e. 71.67%. Marketing (6.91%) is the highest degree of changes occurring in the livestock sector.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ANIMAL HUSBANDRY INDUCED MARKETING AND MARKET LED EXTENSION IN ASSAM
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) KHUMAN, L. SANATHOI; BORGOHAIN, A.
    The study focused on the present scenario of animal husbandry induced marketing and to ascertain the status of market led extension in Assam. The research work was carried out in the three different markets namely Guwahati, North Lakhimpur and Dibrugarh of state of Assam where 35 traders or producer cum traders and 70 consumers were interviewed from each market along with 35 each market operators in the 2nd phase at various seasons and times of the year including the major events and happenings to estimate the variations caused and hence making a sample size of 420 respondents. The relevant data to fulfill these objectives were collected through a pretested, reliable and valid interview schedule. The study revealed that average age of trader and consumer was 35.48 and 43.32 years with average family size of 4.29 and 3.55 numbers. Majority of trader and consumer had nuclear family type with educational level of middle and graduate level, major occupation as business and service, average annual income of Rs. 9,41,327 and Rs. 3,67,358, social participation of 1 and 1.25. ‘Average daily income from selling the livestock and poultry produce and products’ among trader was Rs. 17,055, experience in market was 11.5 years, played the role of salesman in the market. Average price of livestock and poultry price among trader in piglet was Rs.2,556 in milk per lit. was Rs.52 (Fresh), Rs.48-52 (Purabi, AMUL & Sudha), Paneer Rs.400/kg, Egg was Rs.6 (Table), Rs.10 (Local) & Rs.5 (Quail), Chicken was Rs200/kg (Broiler), Rs. 366/kg (Local) & Rs.467/duck, Pork Rs.260/kg and Chevon Rs.531/kg. Among consumer, in milk was Rs. 53/lit, Curd Rs.112/kg, Paneer Rs.411/kg, Egg Rs.6, Chicken Rs.206/kg (Broiler), Rs.350/kg (Local), Pork Rs. 257/kg and Chevon Rs.501/kg. In regards to to ‘Marketing fluctuations in quantum and profit of livestock and poultry produce and products’ among the trader, increase and decrease in sale of milk was 181 and 180 percent, 103 and 100 percent in piglet, 215 and 211 percent in egg, 359 and 211 percent in chicken, 256 and 256 percent in pork and 284 and 274 percent in chevon. In case of ‘Types of livestock and poultry produce and products sold and reason for selling’ among traders, average number of piglet sold was 10 numbers with reason for selling being family business and high profit, while in case of milk it was 68 lit., chicken 64 kg, pork 149 kg, chevon 18 kg and egg was 1094 numbers and reason for selling being family business. In ‘Time for marketing for marketing of livestock produce and products’ among trader in case of piglet was 8-10 am, milk 4-6 pm, paneer, pork and chevon was 8-10 am, egg 4-6 pm and chicken 6 pm and after, while among consumers, in case of milk was 6-8 am, curd and chevon was 8-10 am, paneer 10-12 am and egg, chicken and pork was 6 pm and after and consumer mainly purchased for self rearing and consumption. Regarding, ‘Source of pprocurement of livestock and poultry produce and products’ among trader they always procured from middleman, vendor and wholesaler while mostly procured from farmer and occasionally procured from own farm, while among consumer, always procured from vendor and seller while occasionally from farmer. In case of to ‘Mode of transportation and distance taken for the livestock and poultry produce and products to reach the market’ among traders, the average distance and time required in piglet was 9.5 km and 0.3 hr, milk 14 km and 0.57 hr, egg 22 km and 0.82 hr, chicken 48.33 km and 2 hr, pork 29.67 km and 1.1 hr, chevon 47 km and 1.18 hr while mode of transportation were autovan, carrier van, tempo, bike. Major marketing channel present in the market was producer-wholesaler-retailer- consumer while minor marketing channel was producer-vendor-retailer-consumer. Both trader and consumer opined that middleman got the maximum benefit from the market. Both trader and consumer ranked 1st to ‘quality’ on basis of ‘Consumers’ preferences while purchasing the livestock and poultry produce and products’, while 2nd rank was ‘price’ in trader and ‘quantity’ and ‘cleanliness’ in consumer while 3rd was ‘availability on time’ in trader and ‘price’ in consumers. In regards to ‘Trustworthiness of the marketers’ in case of milk trader most trusted wholesaler while consumer most trusted producer, in paneer and pork trader trusted producer and consumer trusted seller, in curd consumer trusted producer, in egg trader trusted wholesaler and consumer trusted seller, in case of chicken and chevon, trader trusted vendor and consumer trusted seller while in piglet trader trusted producer. In regards to ‘Nature of amount of daily sale’, among average sale, local and outside sale, it was observed that in case piglet, it was 10, 5 and 5 numbers, milk was 68, 53 and 15 lit., in chicken was 64, 53 and 11 kg, in chevon was 18, 17 and 1 kg and egg was 1094, 993 and 101 numbers. In case of ‘market demand’ 86 percent of the total demand was served by local population while rest 14 percent was served by outside population. While in case of ‘Occasional/Seasonal variations in demand’ in milk, the demand increased during Lakshi Puja and Saraswati Puja, in piglet and chicken it was Winter, in pork it was Winter, Bihu and New year and in egg no such season, festival or occasion was reported. In regards to ‘Ancillary benefits and development from establishment of the market extent while transportation, quality of produce and products, local production, consumption rate, increase in nos. of employees, road and communication, regularity in supply and boost to local produces benefitted and developed to a moderate extent while among consumer opined that transportation, quantum of people, local production, consumption rate, market hours, increase in nos. of employees, regularity in supply and boost to local produces benefitted and developed to a large extent meanwhile banking, quality of produce and products, environment improvement, investment in market, road and communication, boost to local produces, government initiatives, association of NGOs & local bodies benefitted and developed to a moderate extent while price stability benefitted and developed to a least extent. In regards to ‘Additional livelihood activities promoted by livestock and poultry market’ among traders believed that ‘vegetable seller’ and among consumers believed that transport was promoted by livestock and poultry marketing. In ‘Presence of livestock and poultry market in the area’ both trader and consumer opined that livestock and poultry marketing was present in the area. While in case of ‘Creation of livestock and poultry market in the area’, majority of the trader agreed but consumer opined negatively to the statement. In regards to ‘Trend of livestock and poultry market’ according to trader was economic affluent while in consumer it was cosmopoliteness. The average value for ‘benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders’ among trader was 18.93 and majority were clubbed under medium group. In relational analysis it was observed that ‘age’, ‘family size’, ‘educational status’ and ‘experience in market’ were positively and highly significantly (P<0.01) correlated to Benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders. Further details were observed through multiple regression analysis where it was revealed that age, educational status and experience in market were found to be positively and significantly affected benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ECOPROSPECTING LOCAL CATTLE TO NAVIGATE CULTURAL VALUES IN LOWER ASSAM
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-01) HUSSAIN, LIAKOT; Borgohain, A.
    Agriculture is the mainstay of the rural people for earning their livelihood and animal husbandry is a subsidiary occupation. Rain fed agro-ecosystem has a distinct place in Indian agriculture, occupying more than 50% of the cultivated area, contributing 44% of the food grains and supporting 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock population. Animal husbandry acts as the buffer in crop failure by providing the subsidiary income to the farming communities by sale of milk, meat, egg, hide, manure and sometimes living animals. The country among the largest population of cattle and buffaloes in the world and all the breeds are admired for their heat tolerance and inherent resistance to so many diseases including ability to thrive under different climatic condition. The contribution of livestock sector to the national economy in terms of GDP is 4.11 per cent and 25.60 per cent of total contribution of the agricultural sectors to GDP (19th Livestock Census, 2012). India with about 190 million cattle (as per 19th Livestock Census, 2012) has 14.50 per cent of the world cattle population of this 151 million are indigenous. Indigenous cattle are robust and resilient and are particularly suited to the climate and environment of their respective breeding tracts. Indigenous cattle can be improved with organized breeding programs, cultivated pastures, and silos for storage. Because stronger oxen would pull the plough faster, they could work multiple plots of land, allowing farmers to share their animals. Fewer healthy, well fed cows could provide Indians with more milk. Ecosystem, animal husbandry and sustainability have an inclusive relationship with far reaching impact on world civilization and cultural evolution. The draught bullocks are a main source of farm power for small farmer to certain extent for medium farmers and for certain operation with large farmer. Livestock sector not only provides essential proteins and nutritious human diet through milk, egg, meat etc. but livestock also provides raw materials and byproducts such as hides and skins, blood, bone, fat etc. which have huge economic importance. Women in the North East have a different status. Rural women form the most important productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India. Agriculture, the single largest production endeavor in India, contributing around 17.00 per cent of GDP, is increasingly becoming a female activity. The demand for meat and meat products is more in Assam and other North- Eastern States because of the higher tenancy towards non-vegetarian foods of the inhabitants of this region. Marketing comprises of the economic activities involving the movement of the produce from the point of production to the point of consumption. Apparently, it is known that local cattle are raised for purposes like drafting, ploughing, cart pulling, fertilizer, social-economic security and milk production for household consumption. But there might be some other unseen and unknown reasons as well. Therefore, to have an empirical study on utility pattern of indigenous cattle rearing by the farmers of lower Assam, the study on “Ecoprospecting Local Cattle to Navigate Cultural Values in Lower Assam’’ was undertaken. Keeping the topic of the study and its objectives in view, the present study was carried out in the ten lower Assam districts of the state namely, South Salmara- Mankachar, Dhubri, Goalpara, Bongaigaon, Baksa, Chirang, Barpeta, Nalbari, Darrang and Udalguri. From each of the selected district, two blocks were randomly selected and from where Twenty Five (25) local cattle rearing farmers representing each block were chosen as respondents. Thus, a total of 500 local cattle rearing farmers (fifty from each selected district) formed the sample size for the present investigation. By and large a random sampling technique was followed for the study. A pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule was used for data collection by the researcher personally and the responses were collected on the interview schedule comprising of independent and dependent variables. Based on the data collected and the results obtained the conclusions were drawn and findings were expressed.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AVENUES OF EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE FROM PIG FARMING IN AIZAWL, MIZORAM
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Fanai, Vanlalhmangaihi; Saharia, K. K.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ETHNICITY IN LIVESTOCK REARING AMONG THE NYISHI TRIBES OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Yadik, Nich; Borgohain, A.
    An investigation was undertaken to study the ethnicity in livestock rearing among the Nyishi Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh .Two predominantly Nyishi dominated districts namely Papum Pare and Lower Subansiri district were purposively selected. Four villages were selected and 15 respondents from each village were selected, making the sample size 120.Only the farmers having at least one animal were selected for the study in consultation with the officials of Department of Animal Husbandry, Veterinary and Dairy, Government of Arunachal Pradesh for the study purpose. Two sets of variables viz., independent and dependent variables were chosen for the study in consultation with available literature, faculties in college of veterinary science AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam. Data were collected by personally by interviewing the respondents. Study revealed that majority of the respondents, 65.84 per cent belonged to middle age group, and about 62.50 per cent of them were male and 100.00 per cent were married. Majority 75.83 per cent had nuclear family type with 70.80 per cent medium family size. Almost 54.20 per cent were illiterate educational level and majority 73.30 per cent of the respondents were involved in agriculture as their main occupation. Majority of the respondents 70.00 per cent had medium herd size of livestock other than mithun,75.83 per cent had medium mithun herd size .Most of them had medium family income (rupees 90000-190000) of which majority of the respondents 79.17 per cent belonged to medium category. Majority 85.00 per cent of the respondents had medium income from livestock (rupees 60000-90000).About 55.83 per cent of the respondents had medium extension contact and 62.50 per cent of the respondents had social participation. As regards to socio-cultural practices associated with livestock rearing, 100 per cent of the respondents used mithun and poultry during festivals, 100.00 per cent the respondents used mithun, pig and poultry during marriage, 100.00 per cent of respondents used poultry in rituals, 100.00 per cent in birth ceremony, 95.00 per cent of the respondents used mithun in barter system and 95.00 per cent of the respondents used mithun in legal laws. The study revealed that larger herd size enhances livelihood (89.17 per cent), more numbers of livestock increase social status (74.17 per cent), availability of transportation facilities enhances livestock rearing (77.50 per cent), animal husbandry provides supplementary income (76.66 per cent) and livestock provides social status (70.83) were the different type of assets which played major role in livelihood support of the farmers. As per the preferred means of identification of livestock in order to avoid disputes 60.00 per cent of the respondents responds practiced ear notching, followed by 50.08 per cent of the respondents by different colour pattern and 50.08 per cent by horn. Majority of the respondents 95.83 per cent preferred means of processing of livestock meat and followed 63 per cent by drying. In respect of ethno-veterinary practices leaves, roots and stems of different plants like garlic, guava, ginger, taro, mugorut, white seed, fern, banana etc were used by Nyishi tribe for treatment of different ailments of livestock. Constraints such as non availability of labourers, lack of fodder and good quality seed and lack of proper marketing channel has been identified as sever constraints perceived by the Nyishis’ in performing their livestock rearing practices.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    TRANSITION IN ETHNO-CULTURAL LIVESTOCK PREFERENCES AMONG FARMERS IN KAMRUP (R) DISTRICT OF ASSAM
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Das, Gayatri; Saharia, K. K.
    ndia is predominantly an agrarian society where animal husbandry is an integral part of the agricultural system and as such helps forming the backbone of national economy. The scale of production in animal husbandry has been subsistent in nature and method of rearing, traditional in nature. Commercial or market oriented production systems have not developed much. The composition of livestock population of Assam consists of 63.3 percent cattle followed by goat (21 percent). Buffalo accounts for 5.8 percent while the share of pig is 8.62 percent and sheep is the lowest, i.e. 0.66 percent. Assam does not have any economically important breeds of livestock except the indigenous bullock (2.06 million) on which most of the agricultural operations depend. Because of constantly changing atmosphere in addition to many other factors, animal husbandry in the traditional society in the state has been in transition necessitating the preferences in the farmers’ priorities. therefore a study entitled as “Transition in ethno-cultural livestock preferences among farmers in Kamrup (Rural) district, Assam “was taken up to study with the objectives- (i) Personal profile and the traditional livestock reared by the farmers. (ii)The ethno-cultural values the farmers endow to livestock (iii) The change in number and pattern of animals reared and the transition, if any since the time of his/her father (iv) The reasons of perceived transition among the farmers in livestock rearing (v) The relationship among the ethno-cultural values, transitions of livestock rearing and the reasons behind such a situation. The study was conducted in four selected developmental blocks of Kamrup (Rural) District of Assam situated to the East, West, North and South directions from the headquarters. These four blocks were Bejera, Hajo, Rangia and Boko. Twenty five farmers having at least one milch cow were selected randomly as respondents from each of the blocks thus making the sample size 100. A pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule was used for data collection by the researcher personally and the responses were collected on the interview schedule comprising of independent and dependent variables. Based on the data collected and the results obtained the conclusions were drawn and findings were expressed. The salient findings were- Majority of the farmers belonged to middle age group (38-50 year), Majority of respondents were male (72.00 percent), Quite a high majority of the respondents were married (94.00 percent),Quite a good number of the respondents had low educational status (46.00 percent), Majority (79.00 percent) of the respondents had medium sized families (4-7 number) Majority of the respondents belonged to nuclear family type (84.00 per cent), Majority (51.00 percent) of the respondents were medium land holders (3-5 bighas), Quite a good number had agriculture as their primary occupation (43.00 percent), Majority (81.00 percent) of the respondents belonged to middle income group (Rs.48,000-217000) of family income from all source, Majority (83.00 percent) of the respondents belonged to middle income group of (Rs. 4000 to 10,000) of family income from animal husbandry or livestock sector, A good number of the respondents (49.00 per cent) had medium (Rs. 3000- to Rs. 5000/-) respondent’s own monthly income, Majority of farmers (75.00 per cent) had maintained medium herd size (3-6 numbers) presently. Majority of farmers (77.00 percent) had maintained medium herd size (2-3 numbers of equivalent cattle units) 5 yrs. back. Quite a good number (47.00 percent) respondents had medium level of social participation. Majority of farmer (54.00 per cent) were categorized ABSTRACT in medium extension contact, Among the farmers, 34.00 per cent respondents had high level of exposure to various information sources. Highest respondents (6.08 percent) reared livestock for agricultural purposes mainly for draft and manure. Cattle were highly preferred (40.83 percent) among the various farm animals, Majority (87.00 percent) of farmers had kutcha type of house, Majority of farmers (61.00 per cent) were categorized in medium risk orientation group towards animal husbandry practices. Quite a good number (49.00 percent) had medium level of attitude towards animal husbandry. Highest respondents (4.73 percent) kept animals let loose throughout the day &gave shelter at night, Highest respondents (8.90 percent) fed colostrum to the new born calves followed by regular vaccination against infectious diseases. In ‘t ‘test mean number of livestock between the two phases of study i.e. five years back and at the time of conducting the study, significantly differed and showed increase from earlier,(6.84 p=<.01),In relational analysis age of the respondents was positively and high significantly related (r=0.29, p=<.01)to mass media exposure. Whereas it was positively and significantly correlated (r=0.20,p=<.05) with earlier (5 years back) herd size , Educational qualification had positive and high significantly related (r=0.31,p=<.01) to annual family income from all sources and mass media exposure ,Whereas it had positive and significant correlation (r=0.20,p=<.05) with earlier (5 years back) herd size. Family size was found to be positively and high significantly related(r=0.27, p=<.01) to land holding, whereas it was found to be negatively and high significantly related to mass media exposure, Land holding was positively and high significantly related to occupation and risk orientation, Annual family income from all sources was found to be positively and high significantly related to educational qualification , Annual family income from livestock was positively and high significantly related to with annual family income from all sources, Social participation was positively and high significantly (r=0.31, p=<.01) related to annual family income from all sources, herd size, preference of livestock ,Mass media exposure was positively and high significantly related to age, educational qualification and social participation, whereas it had significant correlation with respondent own income per month ,Risk orientation was positively and high significantly related (r=0.25, p=<.01)to land holding ,Purpose of livestock rearing was positively and high significantly related to respondent own income per month, Preferences of livestock was positively and highly significantly(r=0.18, p=<.01) related to annual family income from all sources and annual family income from livestock, Herd size (5 yrs. earlier) was positively and high significantly(r=0.79, p=<.01) related to herd size (at the time of data collection). Whereas it had significant correlation with Age, Educational qualification, annual family income from all sources and Social participation, In multiple regression out of 12 independent variables, family size, occupation, Extension contact, and risk orientation had positive and significant influence on purpose of livestock rearing. The coefficient of determination R square =0.98, indicating that 98.00 percent variation in the purpose of livestock rearing was explained by 12 independent variables taken together. ‘F’ value for R= 4.41** which is highly significant.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ISSUES AROUND NIANG MEGHA BREED OF PIG REARING IN MEGHALAYA
    (College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2016-07) Suchiang, Rimiki; Ray, M. N.
    A research study was undertaken to study the issues regarding Niang megha breed of pig in two purposively selected districts of Meghalaya namely, East Khasi Hills and West Khasi Hills district. From each district four villages were purposively selected and from each village 15 Niang megha farmers were randomly selected making the total sample size to 120. Two sets of variables viz., independent and dependent were chosen for the study in consultation with available literature and experts of the field. Data were collected by personally interviewing the selected respondents with the reliable and valid interview schedule. The respondents were interviewed personally at their residence/ farm during the month of November 2015 to April 2016. The study revealed that the average age of the respondents was around 43 years. Majority of the respondents read up to primary school (30.84%), had nuclear families (60.83%) with mean family size of about 7 and were married (90.00%). Agriculture was their primary occupation with their mean annual income from pig farming being Rs. 11336 and mean annual income from all sources being Rs. 76,847. Most of them had medium experience of rearing Niang megha, with an average of about 34 years with about 4 numbers of pigs and mostly rearing for both breeding and fattening purpose (63.33%). Most of them had medium level of social participation (71.66%) and extension contact (68.33%). Majority of the respondents’ attitude towards piggery enterprise was neutral with medium level of liking towards information source. A total of 8 green forages and 10 medicinal herbs were identified which were used for feeding and treatment of Niang megha respectively. Most of them reared their pigs in semi-intensive system (55.84%), mostly hiring a boar for breeding purpose (44.17%). Most of them feed their pigs with garbage feeds (84.17%) and most of them had weaned (45.83%) and castrated their pigs (59.17%) and sometimes treated and dewormed them (48.33%). The common marketing channel of pigs was through local trader and the piglets were normally bought through the co-farmers and the common mode of marketing pork was through local trader. A total of fourteen constraints were identified through Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) technique, where high cost of feed was found to occupy the Rank 1 among the constraints in both the districts with a rank correlation coefficient of 0.70** and 0.95** in East Khasi Hills and West Khasi Hills district respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PROGRESSIVE POULTRY REARING VENTURES IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF MEGHALAYA
    (College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2016-07) Pyrtuh, Riwanki; RAY, M. N.
    The poultry rearing is the most dynamic venture in animal husbandry playing a vital role for socio-economic development of the country. It also plays a significant role in supplementing family income, employment generation, enhances nutrition and alleviates poverty. Thus the study had been conceptualized with the overall objective to study on “Progressive Poultry Rearing Ventures in Selected Districts of Meghalaya”. The study was carried out in two purposively selected districts of Meghalaya viz. East Khasi Hills district and South West Khasi Hills district. Mawphlang block from East Khasi Hills district and Mawkyrwat block from South West Khasi Hills district were purposively selected considering their poultry population. Six villages from each of the two selected blocks were randomly selected and ten poultry farmers were again randomly selected to make the sample size 120. Data on socio-personal and psychological profile of poultry farmers, the factors and areas influencing poultry rearing in the districts, the changes occurred in poultry rearing in recent years, the progressive economic and social contribution of poultry rearing to the family and society respectively and the poultry farmers’ contribution to the local markets were gathered by the researcher through personal interview method. The study revealed that majority of the respondents were of middle age (64 per cent), married (95 per cent), males (52 per cent) and having a nuclear type (95 per cent) of family. Majority of the respondents had medium sized family with a highly significant difference between the two blocks (‘t’ value= 2.019*, p<0.05). A large number of the respondents could read and write (40 per cent), were daily wage earners (56 per cent) in occupation with an average annual income of Rs 80, 483.33 from all sources (82 per cent) and an average of Rs 6883.33 as annual income from poultry (92 per cent). Majority (95 per cent) of the respondents had medium flock size with a highly significant difference between the two blocks (t= 2.18*, p<0.05). Majority of the respondents had medium length of experience (69 per cent) in poultry rearing with medium level of training (93 per cent). All the respondents utilized their income from poultry for day-to-day household upkeep. They had also utilized their income from poultry in the fields of education (54.78 per cent), health care (49.80 per cent), sustaining of poultry production (34.03 per cent) and in agricultural activities (2.49 per cent) in a mutually exclusive manner. Majority of the respondents had medium level of social participation (92 per cent), extension contact (84 per cent) and mass media exposure (58 per cent). Majority of the respondents had neutral attitude (78 per cent) towards poultry rearing with medium level of economic motivation (68 per cent). In respect of changes in poultry rearing, there was a reduction in the number of respondents who were found to practice free range system whereas there was an increase in the number of respondents who practiced backyard and intensive system of rearing. In case of floor material, there was an increase in the number of respondents who used concrete. There was an increase in the number of respondents who used GI sheet as roofing material as well as a combination of concrete and wire net as side wall construction. Similarly the number of respondents using plastic-make as feeding trough and commercial feed also increased. The number of respondents who adopted improved variety of chicken also increased. In respect of source of chicks, there was an increase in the number of respondents who procured chicks through private dealers and Government schemes. The number of respondents who vaccinated, de-wormed, provided treatment, buried the dead birds and kept records also showed a markedly upward trend. Majority of the respondents (64 per cent) fell under the medium category of perception in respect of factors and areas that influenced poultry rearing and agreed that ‘finance’ (86.00%), ‘diseases’ (81.00%), ‘Government policies of helping farmers’ (42.00%), ‘knowledge on scientific practices’ (38.00%) and ‘training on poultry rearing’ (59.00%) had ‘very much’ influenced on poultry rearing. Majority of the respondents (76 per cent) had medium level of perception with respect to the economic and social contribution of poultry rearing to their family and society respectively. There was highly significant difference between the two blocks in economic and social contribution of poultry rearing to their family and society respectively. (‘t’ value= 3.12**, p<0.01). Further majority of the respondents felt that poultry rearing had ‘very much’ contributed to their family in terms of ‘Increase in family income’. Similarly, majority of the respondents (74 per cent) fell in medium category with respect to their perceived contribution of poultry rearing to the local markets and perceived that the item ‘Enhances employment opportunities’ (86.00%) had ‘very much’ contribution to the local markets. In relational analysis, educational status (‘r’=0.20*) and extension contact (‘r’= 0.23*) had positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation with the factors and areas affecting poultry rearing. Further, annual income from all sources (‘r’=0.35**), mass media exposure (‘r’=0.36**) and economic motivation (‘r’=0.38**) had positive and highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with the factors and areas affecting poultry rearing. In regression analysis, experience in poultry rearing and economic motivation had a positive and significant (p<0.05) influence on the factors and areas affecting poultry rearing.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GEODYNAMICS AND TRIBAL LIVESTOCK FARM WOMEN’S TRANSITION IN ASSAM
    (Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2017-07) JOHARI, MONOSRI; SAHARIA, K. K.
    Different ethnic groups of farm women in hilly tracks of Assam are trying to earn their livelihood against all hopes. The study was conducted in the two hill districts of Assam namely, the Karbi Anglong and the Dima Hasao district with the displaced women numbering 200 to find out the frequency of social displacement and hardship, knowing the status of animal health, disease distribution and resilience in terms of changing role, strategies adopted to combat with dynamics of geo and socio-ecological systems and working out a pro-poor value chains: market access and sustainability. The relevant data to fulfil these objectives were collected through a pretested, reliable and valid interview schedule. The study revealed that the average age of the respondents was about 37.72 years with education level up to middle school having about 4-5 number family size and the order of concentration of occupation was agriculture, followed by animal husbandry, business, weaving and craft. Majority of the displaced women were Dimasas and Karbis. Best thing in their earlier place of stay was rearing of livestock was easier and better while the new place had good road connection. The frequency of social displacement in terms of distance (k.m.) varied from about 3 Km to 200 Km and length of time of displacement in terms of years varied from 4-28 years The features of earlier place were “Earlier livestock could be reared in zero inputs”, “There was a sense of community care for the livestock while letting the animals loose or bringing them back home. Hardships faced due to displacement were “The total agricultural land has become lesser causing food crisis for livestock”, “There is always a danger of predators, their number is more now” and “Production and productivity of the available land are lesser affecting food availability for livestock”. All the respondents had “free access to community land” and had “fully settled” down in new place. Majority of the respondents had medium level of land used for housing, for growing staple crop and vegetables but there were marked variations in land use pattern in construction of livestock shed. Condition of respondents’ house and animal/poultry shed were “man and animals share same courtyard”, “kaccha floor”, “wooden planked floor”, “animal sheds are at a distance from main house”, “iron sheet roof” and “thatched roof”. Majority of the respondents’ reason of displacement were “For better mobility of men and works”, “Communal clash” and “Landslide”. The average score on number of times per year animals suffered from diseases was 2.07 with occurrence of “FMD”, “Humpsore”, “Mastitis” and “Parasitic infestation” in cattle, “FMD”, “Humpsore”, “Calf scour”, and “Parasitic infestation” in buffalo, “Contagious ecthyma”, “Goat pox”, “Mastitis”, “Enterotoxaemia”, “Mange” and “Parasitic infestation” in goat, “Swine fever”, “Scrotal hernia”, “Piglet anaemia” and “Piglet diarrhoea” in pig , “Ranikhet”, “Cocciodiosis” and “Fowl Pox” in local chicken and Duck plague in duck . Only sometimes doctors were called mostly local treatment was given by the displaced farm women. Those treatment were Hanserong (Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves and seed is boiled and its water is mixed with rice grain and then fed to the bird for treating fever and diarrhoea”, “Turmeric paste is mixed with rice grain and then fed to the bird during fever”, “Distill wine is given to the bird when they suffer from fever”, “Kerosene mixed with rice and fed to the bird for treating fever”, “Mishimao (Clerodendrum infortunatum) leaves cook along with the feed and fed to pig during fever”, “Dry fish were fed to the cow during bloat”, “Crushed chilly applied on the eye during infection”, “Jackfruit leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were fed during abdominal pain in goat”,“ Raw turmeric and salt applied in the affected area during scabies in goat”, “Chilly and tamarind were applied in the tongue during F.M.D”, “Salt and chilly rubbed in the tongue during F.M.D”, “Misaghi leaves (Sarcochlamys culcherrima) and banana flower cooked along with the feed and fed to pig for treating diarrhoea”, “Opium (Papaver somniferum) leaves rolled in the tender banana leaves and then fed to cow for curing diarrhoea”, “Guava (Psidium gujava) and (Paederia foetida) leaves were fed during diarrhoea in goat, cow and buffalo” and “Crushed mugungrema (Blumea lanceolaria) leaves were mixed with mud and then applied on the wound in buffalo, goat and pig”. Roles women played were “Preparation and collection of feed for livestock”, “Caring of disease animals”, “Milking of animal”, “Bring the animals from grazing area in evening”, “Separation of sick animals”, “Pregnant animals are taken care of by women with full efficiency”, “Cleaning of feed mangers and water troughs occasionally” and “Cleaning of animals shed occasionally”. Roles women play when livestock died were “Throw the bird in forest”, “Clean the place where bird or animal was found dead”, “Bury the bird in ground” and “Consume the bird if large”. For animal health “Only kitchen wastes are provided to animals once in the evening”, “No feed supplement is given to animals”, “Animals go out and come in at their own free choice regularly” and “Separation of sick animals”. For animal resilience the displaced farm women “Kept the animals together in safer place whenever required”, “Maintained regularity in free grazing”, “Provided supplementary feed when in scarcity” and “Taking special care for pregnant animals in feeding and husbandry practices”. Efforts taken by displaced farm women to combat with geo and socio-ecological change were “The houses have been made in accordance with the social needs and demands”, “Now a days livestock remain under observation even when they graze freely”, “Increased the number of livestock reared so that income is increased” and “The house making is in accordance with the geo-ecological location”. Effects on livestock and their produces/ products were there was increase in “Scope of self -employment”, “Transport and communication for livestock and products”, “Interest of youths for livestock rearing”, “Socialization by women for different official and organizational activities” and “Cost of production per unit”. Problems of farm women rearing livestock were “Lack of market information”, “Lack of business management skills”, “Economic problem”, “Medicines and vaccines are costly”, “Lack of easy approach to veterinarian”, “Insufficient access to capital and credit”, “High cost of animal feed”, “Less training on scientific training”, “Limited access to extension service” and “Transportation cost”. Measures adopted with excess produces or the limited produces for value addition and better remuneration “smoke pork”, “smoke carabeef”, “smoke chicken”, “smoke fish” and “fermented fish” product were prepared. Issues distressing women farmers’ access to market were “Insufficient access to capital and credit”, “Lack of market information”, “Lack of business management skills among women farmers” and “Arranging one vehicle for the sale of one’s own products is not economic and other women do not come together”. For sustainability steps was taken only in social dimension “Gender equality”, “Status equality”, and “Community relationship”.