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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

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Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.


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Now showing 1 - 9 of 21
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2021) Dutta, Amrit; Rathi, Sunayana
    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) provides food for more than three billion people. Approximately 90% of rice production and consumption is reported in Asia. However, rice consumption may pose a greater threat because of the arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains and thus serves a vital source of arsenic (As) exposure in humans. Arsenic (As) is the 20th abundant component on the Earth’s crust and considered one of the most toxic metalloids. Based on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry list 2017, Arsenic (As) is amongst the most hazardous materials that could be poisonous to humans. In the present investigation, total arsenic accumulation in different part of rice plant (var. Ranjit) of two different locations (Nagajanka and Titabar) and different biochemical parameters associated with accumulation in rice plant was analysed. It was found that the arsenic (As) accumulation in roots ranged from 0.851 to 1.655 ppm, straw from 0.495 to 0.645 ppm, leaf from 0.426 to 0.640 ppm, husk from 0.162 to 0.213 ppm and grains from 0.094 to 0.147 ppm. With decreasing arsenic accumulation, the catalase activity increases significantly and ranges in the roots from 53.470 to 60.586 units/min/g fw and in the grains from 86.253 to 92.186 units/min/g fw. A significant decrease in the activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AOX) was observed which ranges in roots from 4.482 to 5.333 μmoles ascorbic acid disappeared /min/g fw and in grains ranges from 1.493 to 1.753 μmoles ascorbic acid disappeared /min/g fw. It was also observed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content in roots ranges from 0.122 to 0.151 μM/g fw and in grains ranges from 0.055 to 0.069 µμM/g fw; proline content in roots ranges from 82.309 to 95.592 μg/g fw and in grains ranges from 7.666 to 9.172 μg/g fw; malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots ranges from 3.066 to 3.311 μM/g fw and in grains ranges from 0.127 to 0.255 μM/g fw decreases significantly with decrease in the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice plant. In the present study it was concluded that the arsenic accumulation the rice grain (0.094 to 0.147 ppm) is below the permissible limit whereas in straw (0.495 to 0.645 ppm) it is above the permissible limit of 0.20-0.25 ppm (FAO, 2016). However, with decreasing arsenic (As) accumulation it was observed that catalase activity increases whereas ascorbic acid oxidase activity (AOX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content; proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreases significantly.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2021) Goswami, Naina; Das, Priyanka
    In the present study, factory tea waste and garden tea waste (pruned leaf) were collected from Cinnamara Tea Estate, Jorhat and tea garden of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for production of biochar and to extract crude TRIA and to know their properties and effects on plant growth, respectively. Garden tea waste (pruned leaf) was used for extraction ofcrude n-triacontanol (TRIA) using conventional Soxhlet extraction method. Yield of crude TRIA was 4.45%, on dry weight basis. The potential of crude n -triacontanol as a plant growth regulator for brinjal plant was explored and compared with the commercial TRIA (Miraculan). In terms of plant height, flower count, leaf count, chlorophyll content and mineral content (N%, P%, K%) of leaves, crude ntriacontanol extract (petroleum ether extract) showed better results than the control (distilled water). Factory tea waste was used for the production of biochar using pyrolysis. Biochar was produced by two method using charring device (Method 1) and muffle furnace (Method 2). The yield of biochar was from 71.07% to 77.21%. There were significant differences among the biochar prepared by the two methods regarding the physical and chemical properties. It was observed that the percent moisture content, bulk density, apparent water holding capacity of biochar prepared from charring device (Method 1) was 6.1%, 0.19 g/cm3, 80.17%, respectively and from the muffle furnace (Method 2) was 3.34%, 0.21g/cm3, 84.67%, respectively. Additionally, chemical properties like percent total carbon content, nitrogen content, phosphorus content, potassium content, cation exchange capacity, crude fibre and pH for method 1 was 50.9%, 3.94%, 0.0377%, 0.071%, 11.87 cmole/kg, 1.63% and 7.88 respectively and for the method 2 was 60.24%, 4.54%, 0.0441%, 0.073%, 15.77 cmole/kg, 1.13% and 7.9, respectively. The present study revealed that the waste leaves from the pruned branches possess plant growth promoting properties, which may be commercially exploited in the form of crude extract. Production of biochar using factory tea waste may also be a good option for carbon sequestration and also for soil application for crop growth.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Banik, Rajesh; Das, Priyanka
    Rice is the most important food crop of the world after wheat. South East Asian countries are heavily reliant upon rice for their dietary energy supply. 70% of total arable agricultural land of India lies under the rice cultivation. In North Eastern region, rice is the main staple food and in Assam there are several traditional rice based processed products which are also largely used as food. These are bhoja chaul, sandah guri, korai, popped rice, flaked rice, puffed rice, komal chaul (soft rice) and hurum. The moisture content, on wet basis varied from 5.83-11.61%. on dry weight basis, the crude protein content of different rice products ranged from 7.74-9.40%, the lowest in puffed rice and the highest in popped rice. The total ash content was determined on dry weight basis and it ranged in between 0.61-4.33%. The crude fiber percentage was the highest (1.04%) in bhoja chaul and sandah guri and the lowest (0.63%) in popped rice. The crude fat content is the lowest in hurum (0.11%) and the highest in korai (0.31%). The total carbohydrate percentage of these traditional rice products ranged between 49.33-67.55% and the highest in sandah and the lowest in flaked rice. The total starch content (on dry weight basis) was found to be the highest (58.08%) in popped rice and the lowest (39.37%) in korai, whereas, the resistant starch content was found to be highest (5.42%) in sandah and the lowest (3.24%) in puffed rice. The present study indicated that the rice based traditional processed products of Assam are good sources of carbohydrate, proteins and crude fiber. The said products are having good amount of resistant starch, which is very much useful for the better health. In future, further studies are required for the determination of other nutrients such as different micronutrients, and physical properties of the rice based traditional products of Assam, that may reveal useful information for the human health.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Phytochemical Characterization of Some Ginger Cultivars from Tripura
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Nandy, Pratul Kumar; Baruah, A.M.
    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), under the family Zingiberaceae, is one of the most famous spices all over the world. It is commonly known as Ada (Assamese and Bengali name), originated from South East Asia. Ginger plants are used for thousands of years in Indian health care systems for their biological activities. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, and vomiting. Ginger with spicy, penetrating, pungent, and slightly biting flavor finds extensive use in foods. The present study was carried out to investigate the some major secondary phytochemicals of four different ginger cultivars from Tripura. The moisture content was highest in Gandacherra cultivar (86.167g/100g) and lowest in Satpara cultivar (82.580g/100g). Total phenol content was highest in Belonia cultivar (0.733g/100g) and lowest in Gandacherra cultivar (0.395g/100g).The total flavonoid content was highest in Satpara cultivar (0.379g/100g) and lowest in Gandacherra cultivar (0.103g/100g). The total tannin content was highest in Belonia cultivar (4.237g/100g) and lowest in Satpara cultivar (2.793g/100g).The total soluble sugar content was highest in Gandacherra cultivar (2.760g/100g) and lowest in Dharmanagar cultivar (1.243g/100g). The total crude fat content was highest in Satpara cultivar (8.267g/100g) and lowest in Dharmanagar cultivar (6.967g/100g). The total crude fiber content was highest in Satpara cultivar (6.040g/100g) and lowest in Gandacherra cultivar (4.685g/100g). The antioxidant activity (by DPPH, 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazide) reveals that the IC50 was highest in Gandacherra cultivar (0.853μg/ml) and lowest in Belonia cultivar (0.809 μg/ml). The total oil content was highest in Dharmanagar cultivar (4.180ml/100g) and lowest in Gandacherra cultivar (3.275ml/100g). The highest acid value was recorded in Belonia cultivar (19.635μg KOH/mg fat) and the lowest acid value was recorded in Gandacherra cultivar (11.220μg KOH/mg fat). The highest iodine value was observed in Belonia cultivar (71.063g I2/100g fat) and the lowest iodine value was observed in Dharmanagar cultivar (64.719g I2/100g fat). The highest saponification value is observed in the Gandacherra and Satpara cultivar (196.350 mg KOH/g fat) and the lowest saponification value was observed in Belonia cultivar (168.300 mg KOH/g fat).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on chemical composition and medicinal property of Amomum aromaticum Roxb.- a rare species of cardamom found in North East India
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Das, Poulami; Kandali, R.
    Wild cardamom (Ammomum aromaticum Roxb.) has been recently discovered in large patches of forests of Tripura by forest department during 2014-15. It is popularly known by the local tribals as „Beering‟ in their vernacular language, whose stump is used in the local culinaries to induce aroma to the dishes. Botanically it belongs to Zingiberaceae family. Processed dry fruit is the economic produce which can be used largely as spice because of its sweet aroma and in the ayurvedic medicine because of its medicinal value. As per the available literature it is mentioned to be found in the eastern Himalayan track and Chittagong hill track. It is typically found in patches along the banks of streams and streamlets. It is a notified forest product and can be collected by the forest dwellers and after being processed (drying) on desi bhatta can be sold out to the authorized traders who are dealing with aromatic oils and medicinal products. The present investigation was intended to study the chemical composition and medicinal property of A. aromaticum Roxb.- a rare species of cardamom found in North East India. The plant materials were collected from forest of Tripura- Kunjaban village, Kalyanpur block, Khowai district and authenticated. The morphological data were taken from the mature plant to narrate the botanical information. Leaf and seed samples of this species were analysed for total alkaloids and total phenolics. The essential oil was extracted from seed and the volatile components were identified. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the plant extracts were determined. From the results of the present investigation it was observed that a significant variation in the total phenolic content in the leaf and seed was obtained which were 12.7 mg/g and 10.1 mg/g, respectively. The alkaloid content of the leaf was found to be 1.27 g/100g and in case of seed it was 4.2 g/100g on dry weight basis. The essential oil was extracted from both dried & raw capsules of the matured plant by hydro-distillation method. The fresh moisture content in capsules at harvest was 75 per cent and the moisture content reduced to 14 per cent in case of seeds which were sundried for 10 days. The essential oil content in seeds of A. aromaticum was found to be 2.0ml/100g in raw fresh capsules and 1.0 ml/100g in sun dried capsules. GC-MS analysis of essential oil revealed the presence of components such as. Myrcenol, D-limonene, P-mentha-1- en-9-ol, Linalool, Isopulegol, P-menth-8-en-1-ol, Linalyl acetate, Sabinene hydrate, α- terpineol, Eucalyptol, Terpinyl acetate, Menthol, Nanocosane and 2,3- pinanediol. In addition, a few new components have also been detected such as 4,6 di-tertbutylresorcinol, 5-iodo-2,7-dioxa-tricyclo{4,3,1,0(3,8)}decane, triacontane, 1 monolinoleoyl glycerol, trimethyl silyl ether, eicosanoic acid, di-N-decylsulfone and Pentatriacontane. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of leaf and seeds of A. aromaticum Roxb was evaluated against. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The essential oil extracted from the seeds did not show any antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis. The hydrodistilled volatile oil from seeds and ethanol extracts of the seeds and leaves did not show antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, the methanol extract of seeds showed potential antimicrobial activity against these human pathogens. The antibiotic streptomycin was used as positive control and 80 % methanol was used as negative control in this experiment. The zone of inhibition for E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis. was found to be 15.2 mm, 17.4 mm and 14.5 mm, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined in the methanol extract obtained from both leaf and seed of this species. Both the extracts showed antioxidant activity. The percent inhibition of DPPH was observed to be 74.1 for seed extract and 60.8 for leaf extract. The IC50 value for leaf and seed extract were 0.815μg/ml, 0.641μg/ml respectively. Moreover, the genomic DNA was extracted from the mature fresh leaf tissues of A. aromaticum Roxb and the extraction procedure was standardized. The quantity of the extracted DNA as determined by “Nanodrop-1000” (make: thermo-scientific) was 1282.09 ng/μl. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined from the ratio of optical density at 260 and 280 nm respectively which was found to be 1.79 (A260:280). Vast medicinal plant resources of North East India have not been fully identified, inventoried and characterized. It is of utmost importance that these should be characterized and evaluated in the light of modern scientific approaches, which may lead to the development of some new drug molecules that can combat various side effects of the commercially available synthetic drugs, and thereby reducing the cost of medication. So a detail study about this traditionally underutilized herbal spice species- Amomum aromaticum Roxb. will help to develop new drugs and a number of herbal tonic or feed additives. More studies will be required to find out the favourable conditions to achieve the full potential of the plant in order to establish this plant as one of the important spice species.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Aparajita (Clitoria ternatea Linn.) against rice pathogens
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2018-07) Debnath, Abhijit; Kandali, R.
    Clitoria ternatea Linn. commonly known as butterfly pea and Aparajita belongs to the family fabaceae. It was originated from tropical Asia and afterwards widely distributed to African countries. Generally it is grown as ornamental plant due to its attractive flower colour. In traditional ayurvedic medicine, it has been used for centuries as a memory enhancer, antistress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, tranquillizing and sedative agent. The tribal people of Tripura use leaf and root part of Aparajita against urinary tract infections due to its antimicrobial property. The present investigation was intended to study the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Clitoria ternatea Linn against rice pathogens. The plant materials were collected from Jagduar, Teok, Jorhat, Assam and Matabari, Gomati District, Tripura and authenticated. The morphological data were taken from the mature plant to narrate the botanical information. Leaf, stem and twig samples of this species were analyzed for total alkaloids, total phenolics and total terpenoid content by standard protocol. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic plant extract has been tested against some rice pathogens by poison food technique and the natural food colorant from the flower of C. ternatea L extracted. From the results of the present investigation it was observed that the difference in plant morphological characteristics in the two samples was not significant and found statistically at par. The variation in moisture content on fresh weight basis between the two samples viz. Assam (S1) and Tripura (S2) of Clitoria ternatea L. was not significant. On the other hand, the highest moisture content on dry weight basis was found in flower of S1 collected from Assam which was 13.70% while the leaf recorded the lowest 8.82% of moisture. The total phenolics content recorded in the leaf were 1.524g/100g and 1.277g/100g, in stem 0.706g/100g and 0.682g/100g, and in twig 1.110g/100g and 1.209g/100g in S1 and S2 sample, respectively. The alkaloid content of the leaf was found to be 1.000g/100g and 0.875g/100g, in stem 0.753g/100g and 0.627g/100g, and in twig 1.627g/100g and 1.253g/100g in S1 and S2 sample, respectively. By the qualitative test it was observed that the terpenoid was absent in leaf, stem, and twig in the both Assam (S1) and Tripura (S2) sample but was present in flower of both the sample although the variation was not significant. The total terpenoid content of flower was found to be 0.698g/100g and 0.675g/100g in Assam (S1) and Tripura (S2) sample respectively. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic plant extracts of Clitoria ternatea L. was evaluated against Magnaporthe grisea, Drechslera oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Sarocladium oryzae and Fusarium sp. Although the methanolic plant extract of C. ternatea L could not inhibit the mycelia growth of Drechslera oryzae but the extract proved effective in inhibiting the growth of other remaining pathogens viz Magnaporthe grisea, Rhizoctonia solani, Sarocladium oryzae and Fusarium sp.. Highest inhibition of growth was recorded in Rhizoctonia solani. The natural food colorant has been extracted from Clitoria ternatea L. flower. Variation in color has been observed at different pH. The changes in pH were brought about by adding lemon juice and alkali extracted from vimkol. To immobilize the color on to edible inert carrier food material, glucose powder was effective in color immobilization. Further studies will be required for assessing mode of antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract on the plant pathogens, which will open an interesting area to manage various diseases in crop plants under organic cultivation. More studies will be required to find out the efficacy of the plant extract against other pests. The study further suggested that some of the plant extracts possess compounds with bioactivity properties that could be used as active principles or agents in new drugs for the therapy of infectious diseases. The food colour extracted from the flower of C. ternatea L. could be an ideal natural colorant for the food industry in future.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2020-10) Baruah, Madhusmita; Das, Priyanka
    Rice, though rich in carbohydrates and proteins, lacks micronutrients like iron and zinc. Considering several disadvantages of fortification of iron in food, emphasis is given on biofortification of iron in plants, including rice grains. Though, there exists threat of iron toxicity in some of the rice varieties grown in lowland acid soils of this region, the present study was conducted to know the effect of two different levels of soil iron content on some biochemical parameters including grain iron content of rice plant. Three rice varieties, including two popular varieties of Assam, Ranjit and Mahsuri, and one traditional pigmented variety Kajoli chakua were cultivated in pots at two different levels of iron: marked as control and treated; in which DTPA extractable iron content of soil were 159.40 mg/kg and 182.35 mg/kg, respectively. Within the range of soil DTPA extractable iron content (159.40 mg/kg - 182.35 mg/kg), iron toxicity was not observed. The analysis revealed that the iron content, chlorophyll content of leaves and the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase varied significantly at different growth stages. Among the three rice varieties, uptake of iron in rice leaves and grains were found in the order Ranjit > Kajoli chakua > Mahsuri. The iron content of brown rice significantly differed according to its position on the rachis, the order being: top primary rachis > top secondary rachis > middle primary rachis > middle secondary rachis > bottom primary rachis > bottom secondary rachis. The iron content of brown rice of all the three varieties increased significantly (more than 100 % than that of control) in plants grown in soils of higher iron content. Specific activity of all the three enzymes showed that higher the iron content, more the specific activity. Considering initial iron status of the soil, application of iron solution of suitable concentration may be advocated for increasing grain iron content of these three rice varieties.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2020-07) Kalita, Rekhashree; Thakuria, R. K.
    A field experiment entitled “Resource use efficiency in winter rice (Oryza sativa L.) unde r SRI concept as influenced by microclimate ” was carried out during the year 2016 and 2017 at the farmer‟s field located at Nepalikhuti Village (Lat. 26066ʹ99ʹʹ N, Long. 93068ʹ26ʹʹE) in Bokakhat sub-division of Golaghat district, Assam to study the performance of winter rice with respect to production maximization, resource use efficiency and economic return under varied microclimatic regime imposed by methods of crop establishment, dates of transplanting and hill densities. The experiment was comprised of 24 treatment combinations with two crop establishments viz. C1: System of Rice Intensification (SRI), C2 : Conventional; three dates of transplanting viz. D1 : 26th June, D2 : 10th July, D3 : 25th July and four hill densities viz. H1 : 20 cm x 15 cm (i.e. 33 hills m-2); H2 : 20 cm x 20 cm (i.e. 25 hills m-2); H3: 20 cm x 25 cm (i.e. 20 hills m-2); H4 : 25 cm x 25 cm (i.e. 16 hills m-2), laid out in a factorial split-plot design with crop establishment methods and dates of transplanting in the main plots and hill densities in the sub plots and were replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam; acidic in reaction; medium in organic carbon and available N; low in available P2O5 and K2O. The phenological study revealed that SRI crops required significantly lesser days to attain various phenophases viz. MTS, panicle emergence, flowering and physiological maturity as compared to the conventional crops in both the years of investigation. On the other hand, both early transplantation (26th June) and lower hill density (16 hills m-2) took more days for attainment of different phenophases. Among the different growth and physiological parameters viz. plant height, tillers m-2, leaf area, dry matter production, LAI, chlorophyll content, CGR, RGR and NAR; the highest had been recorded by SRI with an exception of lower magnitude of leaf area, LAI and chlorophyll content at the tillering stage. Similar results were also observed in case of lower hill density showing better growth and physiological parameters. The early transplanting showed significant improvement in growth parameters, however, failed to show any significance with respect to physiological parameters viz. CGR, RGR and NAR. SRI portrayed lower magnitude of microclimatic parameters such as light intensity, light transmission ratio (LTR), AGDD throughout the crop growth, and AIPAR, AHTU and APTU at maturity. However, comparatively higher RUE (1.37 g MJ-1) and HUE (2.48 kg ha-1 0d) was recorded under SRI method. Throughout the crop growth, early crops recorded highest value of AGDD, and lowest value of light intensity and LTR. In both the years, superior values of AIPAR and APTU were found in early 29 crops; however, improved HUE of 2.16 kg ha-1 0d and RUE of 1.22 g MJ-1 were noticed in 2016 and 2017, respectively. In case of hill density, increased value of light intensity and LTR were recorded with increase in hill density and highest were observed at higher hill density of 33 hills m-2, whereas higher AGDD, AIPAR, AHTU, APTU, RUE and HUE were found in lower density (16 hills m-2). Marked variation with respect to yield attributes was observed due to methods of crop establishment. Significantly higher numbers of panicles m-2, longer panicle length, more filled grains panicle-1 and heavier test weight were registered in SRI. Improvement in yield attributes was also observed in early transplantation as well as under reduced hill density. The results from the pooled data revealed that SRI recorded significantly the higher grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of 57.13 q ha-1, 61.43 q ha-1 and 48.15 per cent, respectively, compared to conventional method. In case of date of transplanting, higher grain yield of 56.51 q ha-1 along with 62.00 q ha-1 of straw yield and 47.60 per cent of harvest index was documented in early date of 26th June. Further, crops raised under lower hill density of 16 hills m-2 showed significant improvement in terms of grain yield (56.75 q ha-1), straw yield (61.83 q ha-1) and harvest index (48.01%). The water use studies revealed comparatively higher magnitude of consumptive use (CU) of water (535.43 to 543.76 mm) and WUE (10.20 to 10.95 kg ha-1mm-1) in SRI than that of conventional method during transplanting to maturity stage. It was observed that the quantum of CU coupled with WUE were maximum in early transplanting (26th June) which got reduced with delaying of dates. Further, the lowest hill density (16 hills m-2) recorded the maximum quantum of CU and an increased magnitude of WUE in 2016 and 2017 as well. Results showed more quantum of CO2 efflux of 5935.42 to 6082.47 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 in 2016 and 2017, respectively in SRI whereas conventional establishment recorded 5481.31 and 5626.03 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 during the respective years of investigation. In 2016, highest efflux (5816.50 mg CO2 m-2d-1) was recorded in 10th July planting, which was comparable to late planting (25th July) and significantly superior to the early one. However, in 2017, maximum emission of (5972.25 mg CO2 m-2d-1) was registered in late planting which was followed by 10th July and lastly by 26th June planting. Moreover, CO2 emission was found to be increasing significantly with the increase of hill density the maximum release of 6102.28 to 6247.78 mg CO2 m-2d-1 was recorded at highest density i.e. 33 hills m-2. The N, P, K and total uptake was found to be significantly more under SRI. The crop transplanted early showed comparatively better result in respect of NPK uptake barring the K- uptake by straw. In the case of hill density, the higher density 30 recorded significantly lower uptake of nutrient, and with the reduction of density, uptake increased and reached the maximum at the lowest density i.e. 16 hills m-2. There were no such significant variations in available N, P and K status at harvest barring N (289.59 kg ha-1) and P2O5 (28.37 kg ha-1) in 2017, where SRI as a crop establishment method observed to be better. Correlation study on pooled data showed that grain yield was strongly correlated with LAI, chlorophyll content in all the stages, and RUE and HUE at harvest. On the other hand, significant but negative relationship was noticed with LTR in MTS and AHTU at harvest. Similar correlation pattern was also recorded in cases of straw yield, panicles m-2, filled grains panicle-1, test weight and harvest index. The seven models of significant linear relationship for yield and yield attributes with microclimatic parameters showed that the value of high determining factors (R2) for combination of microclimatic parameters to explain the variability in grain yield, straw yield, panicles m-2, panicle length, filled grains panicle-1, test weight and harvest index were 0.987, 0.995, 0.947, 0.954, 0.991, 0874 and 0.926, respectively. A magnitude of 98.7 per cent variation in grain yield was found to be predicted collectively by chlorophyll content and LTR at MTS, and AGDD and RUE at maturity. At MTS, chlorophyll content, LTR and AGDD was found to be critical influencer whereas at maturity, AGDD and HUE were significant predictive factors of yield determining parameters and yield. Amongst all, RUE was found to be outstanding as the most determining factor for predicting yield attributes and yield followed by chlorophyll content and LTR at MTS and, AGDD and HUE at maturity. On the economic analysis of different treatments, maximum net return (` 90,703.73) along with the highest net return per rupee invested (2.06) was obtained by the crop transplanted on 26th June with a spacing of 25cm x 25cm (16 hills m-2) under SRI establishment method.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2020-09) Mondal, Partha; Baruah, A.M.
    Nutritional and anti-nutritional profiling of lentil (Lens culinaris) cultivars of Assam and West Bengal were studied from dehusked seed flour. Cultivars were collected from Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Shillongoni (cultivars of Assam); Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalya; Regional Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Majhian and local farmers (cultivars of West Bengal). During this study moisture, starch, crude protein, total soluble protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash content, minerals (P, Ca, K, Fe, Na), water-soluble vitamins, total phenolics, tannin, saponin, phytic acid content was estimated. As lentil is a pulse crop, protein is the major nutritional ingredient, fractionation of total soluble protein also done. From this study, biochemical constituents like moisture content (12.55-13.43 g %) on fresh weight basis, starch (44.80-52.70 g %),crude protein (21.59-36.00 g %), soluble protein (19.05-35.82 g %), crude fat (0.50-1.42 g %), crude fibre (0.71-1.12 g %), ash content (2.17-2.84 g %), minerals viz. Ca (24.11-29.60 mg %), Na (25.50-26.62 mg %), Fe (6.00-7.26 mg %), P (274.57-305.72 mg %), K (749.49-768.50 mg %) and ascorbic acid (4.08-4.40 mg %) were estimated on dry weight basis. Further, fractionation of protein on the basis of solubility, albumin (9.05-17.86 g %), globulin (54.12-63.84 g %), glutelin (13.77-26.62 g %), prolamin (1.91-3.99g %) were found on dry wt. basis. From UHPLC analysis some B vitamins were estimated. Anti-nutritional factors like phenol (0.12-0.20 mg/g gallic acid equivalent), tannins (5.29- 7.52 mg/g), phytic acid (8.41-9.37 mg/g), saponin (2.78-4.87 mg/g) content were calculated on dry weight basis. The nutrient contents of the cultivars under study found to contain appreciable amount and comparable with other cultivars of lentil grown in India. On the other hand, the anti-nutritional constituents of the cultivars were found within the limits of lentil. Therefore, all those selected cultivars could be recommended for cultivation from nutritional point of view.