Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level.
Genesis of AAU -
The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati.
Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.
A study on effect of machine vs manual plucking on quantitative and qualitative traits of tea shoot was undertaken during March-November, 2016 in Experimental Garden for Plantation Crops of the department of Tea Husbandry and Technology, AAU, Jorhat-13, Assam. The study was conducted with Randomised Block Design accommodating seven treatment combinations viz. Hand plucking from March to November (T1), One man operated machine plucking from March-November (T2), Two men operated machine plucking from March to November (T3), Hand plucking once from March-June and again from October to November and with one man operated machine plucking in between July-September (T4), Hand plucking from once March-June and again from October to November and two men operated machine plucking in between July-September (T5), Hand plucking from March-June followed by one man operated machine plucking from July to November (T6) and Hand plucking from March-June followed by two men operated machine plucking from July-November(T7). The plucking machine used in the study were Tea Leaf Harvester, Kisan Kraft KK-TH-525 as one man operated and Ochiai Hamono Kogyo 133-100 as two men operated machine. The result of the data on quantitative and qualitative traits including some economic important parameters were grouped into four flushing season. viz. first flush, second flush, rain flush, autumn flush. Quantitatively hand plucking from March-November (full season) gave significantly highest number of plucking round and also recorded the highest green leaf yield. On the other hand the lowest number of plucking round and hence the lowest green leaf yield observed in full season machine plucking of both the make studied. In case of quality parameters the two categories of plucked shoots considered were fine and coarse tea shoots. The highest percentage of fine tea shoots plucked throughout the full cropping season came from hand plucking modes. Two men operated machine when used for full season recorded the lowest fine shoots. The coarse plucked tea shoots which indicate poor quality accounted for the highest percentage in
case of machine plucking for the full season irrespective of the number of operators involved. With regard to dormancy index both manual plucking and machine plucking did not influence it significantly during first flush and second flush cropping season. However the later recorded higher value of dormancy index compared to the former ones as the cropping season advanced to rain flush and autumn flush. The machine plucking varied significantly the time required to complete the operation to the lowest value while the manual hand plucking took the highest time, Morever one man operated machine plucking involved the lowest man day throughout the full season of plucking. In respect the cost of plucking for full season the one man operated machine accounted for 50.24% of full season manual plucking. The two men operated machine incurred higher percentage of cost compared to the one man operated ones accounted for 71.37% of full season manual plucking.
(AAU, Jorhat, 2017-12) MISHRA, DHRUBAJYOTI; Saikia, Gautam K.
A field experiment entitled “Effect of biofertilizers on growth and development of nursery tea plants” was carried out at the Experimental Garden for Plantation Crops, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat in the year 2016 to study the effect of biofertilizer enriched subsoil as a sleeve media on growth and development of nursery tea plants, nutrient availability in sleeve mixture and nutrient uptake pattern by plants. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consisted of: T1 Control (Top soil + cowdung + SSP), T2 (Sub-soil + cowdung+ SSP), T3 (Sub-soil + cowdung + SSP + Microbial consortium), T4 (Sub-soil + cowdung + RP) and T5 (Sub-soil + cowdung + RP + Microbial consortium). The treatments were replicated four times. There were 25 plants in each replication and TV 23 was used as planting material. The microbial consortium was a combination of rhizobium, azotobacter, azospirillum and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Experimental findings revealed thatbiofertilizer enriched sleeve mixture influenced the growth characters of tea plants in terms of plant height, number of leaves and collar girth. Treatment with sub-soil + cowdung + SSP + Microbial consortium (T3) recorded the highest values for all these growth characters. This treatment also resulted in higher shoot: root ratio as well as highest fresh and dry weight of shoots among all the treatments. On the other hand, the root volume, fresh and dry weight of roots were also found to be highest under the treatment with Sub-soil + cowdung + RP + microbial consortium (T5). The highest microbial population was also found under the treatment with sub-soil + cowdung + SSP + microbial consortium (T3) which also recorded the highest values in terms of available nitrogen and phosphorus in soil. However, the effect of biofertilizer enriched sleeve mixture on available potassium in soil was non-significant. In terms of bacterial and fungal population and microbial biomass carbon, T3 (sub-soil + cowdung + SSP + microbial consortium) recorded the highest values. T3 also resulted in highest NPK content in leaves.
(AAU, Jorhat, 2019-07) Bordoloi, Shyamal Kishore; Deka, M.
The study entitled “Scope of Augmenting Farmers’ Income in Small Tea Plantations- A case study in Titabar Sub Division of Jorhat district” was undertaken with the following objectives: 1. To study the socio-economic status of the small tea growers 2. To examine the existing farming systems and utilization of resources 3. To identify the constraints and measures for augmenting the farm income. The present study was conducted in Titabar Sub division of Jorhat district, which include two development blocks viz. Titabar development block and Jorhat East development block. The sample selection was done using Stratified Random Sampling technique, for which information was collected from Primary sources and Secondary sources. Primary data were collected through interview technique with structured interview schedule prepared by the researcher. The socio economic status study of the small tea growers revealed that major section of the farmers belong to the age group 15-60 years (62.85%) where involvement of male was found to be highest (59.11%) and most of the farmers had educational qualification of HS standard (37.34%) where females constitute the highest (51.91%). The study on farming systems revealed that in the study area the researcher found five types farming systems viz. Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Plantation crops excluding tea (FS-I), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Plantation crops excluding tea, Fishery (FS-II), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Fishery (FS-III), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops (FS-IV) and Tea, Plantation crops excluding tea (FS-V). Among the farming systems the no. of respondents was found to be highest in FS-I and lowest in FS-IV. The variable cost involved in various farming systems was found to be highest in FS-II (Rs. 163946.96 farm-1yr-1) and was lowest in FS-IV (Rs. 52420.20 farm-1yr-1) whereas after doing ANOVA single factor analysis of the Benefit Cost ratios, it was found that FS-II has the highest mean value (2.92) and FS-IV has the lowest mean (0.89) which was due to variation in inclusion of different components in the farming systems. Studying the various constraints, it was found that the number of physical constraints were highest and social constraints were lowest, from where it can be analysed that there is a great scope of overcoming the constraints as major constraints was found under physical category which can be rectified by following proper farming practices. Small tea growers of the study area had a wide scope of augmenting the income from their limited farm resources by following proper cultivation practices, moving towards organic tea cultivation, forming farmer producer company through which they can collectively bargain for inputs and sell the tea in a common platform. Involving high yielding varieties of other components, crop rotation, diversification of enterprise, proper utilization of fallow land and market consciousness can help in increasing the income from the other components other than tea.
The present work was design to study “Production Behaviour Acreage Response and Marketing of Potato in Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam”. Potato is one of the most important and widely cultivated vegetable crops of Assam and ranks fourth in terms of acreage under individual crop in the state. It is one of the important cash crops grown in the Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam. The study reflected that per hectare potato cultivation cost was found to be highest for LBVZ of Assam (Rs. 70362.08) and the lowest was observed for NBPZ (Rs. 69755.20). Similarly, Gross income of the farmers was observed to be highest for LBVZ (Rs. 124032.20) and the lowest was recorded for CBVZ (Rs. 123718.00), Similarly, Net Income was observed to be highest for NBPZ (Rs. 54229.27) and the recorded lowest production was observed in CBVZ (Rs. 53360.95) of Assam. Potato productivity was found to be highest for size group III farmers (232.24 qtls) of LBVZ of Assam and the lowest productivity was also recorded for LBVZ of size group I farmers (223.90 qtls). On the other hand, per quintals potato production cost was found to be highest for size group III farmers (Rs. 325.03) of CBVZ among all the zones and lowest was recorded for size group I farmers (Rs. 291.63) of LBVZ of Assam. Among all the zones, both in LBVZ and NBPZ most of the input variables had found positive and significant influence on the output. Because of this reason, most of the commercial potato growers were concentrated to these zones of Assam. The growth rate of area and production and productivity analysis reflected that Barpeta, Kokrajhar and Sonitpur district was recorded for positive growth rate in area under the crop. Barpeta, Kamrup, Kokrajhar, Darrang, Sonitpur and Nagaon districts were recorded for positive growth rate in production and Goalpara, Dhubri, Kamrup, Kokrajhar, Dibrugarh, Darrang Sonitpur and Nagaon districts were recorded for positive growth rate in productivity of the crop. Major changes in area instability occurred in CBVZ (-44.00) along with high instability in yield (-61.24). Acreage analysis reflected that Barpeta, Goalpara, Dhubri, Nalbari, Jorhat and Darrang districts were recorded for positive and significant lag acreage under the crop. The short run and long run price elasticities were found negative for most of the districts indicated that one rupee increase in price of potato would leads to decrease area under the crop simultaneously. The disposal pattern of potato was found increasing with increase size groups of farmers in all the zones of Brahmaputra Valley. The price spread analysis indicated that producer received highest share in channel-I and lowest in channel-III.