Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level.
Genesis of AAU -
The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati.
Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.
(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2021-12) CHANU, NIKITA THINGOM; Mahato, G.
The present study was conducted to know the hormonal and mineral status of captive Asian elephants of Assam under stress condition by evaluating the stress hormones and related haemato-biochemical parameters. The study areas were Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Orang National Park, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary as well as captive elephants of Sonapur (Guwahati-metro district) area. The captive elephants under different National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuary were considered as apparently healthy and their physiological parameters were considered as baseline values for the study. Those captive elephants maintained by private owners of Sonapur area were considered as stressed animals and the stress hormones were evaluated and compared with the free ranging captive elephants of different National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
The serum cortisol (nmol/L), T3 (nmol/L) and T4 (nmol/L) concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (g/dl), PCV (%), RBC (106/mm³), TLC (10³/mm³) and DLC (%) were also studied manually using standard protocols. Likewise, blood biochemical profiles viz. blood glucose (mg/dl), cholesterol (mg/dl), AST (U/L), ALT (U/L), total protein (g/dl), iron (μg/dl) and phosphorus (mg/dl) were estimated using different diagnostic kits.
The mean cortisol concentration was higher and T₃ and T₄ were in low level in elephants of experimental group (captive elephants of private owners) in comparison to the baseline values of free ranging captive elephants of different National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Increase in haemoglobin, PCV, RBC and neutrophils and decrease in lymphocytes were also recorded in experimental group of elephants in comparison to baseline value. Blood biochemical profiles revealed higher level of blood glucose, cholesterol and low level of total protein and iron in privately owned captive elephants.
Therapeutic management of stressed elephants was done with Vitamin C injection along with B-complex and liver tonics as supportive therapy. Following treatment, there was significant improvement (p<0.05) in the level of cortisol, T₃ and T₄ hormones. Haematological parameters viz, haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, TLC, neutrophils and lymphocytes showed significant differences (p<0.05) after treatment. Likewise, significant difference (p<0.05) were recorded in blood biochemical values of blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein, iron and phosphorus after treatment. The findings in the present study revealed that management of stress in captive elephants with vitamin C, B-complex vitamins and liver tonics were found to be effective.
An epidemiological investigation was carried out to study the occurrence of noncerebral
coenurosis in few goat rearing areas of undivided Kamrup district of Assam during
the period from August, 2016 to July, 2018.
In the present study, a total of 981 number of goats examined and out of which 53
animals were positive (5.40%), while the occurrence of cerebral coenurosis was recorded
only 1.33 per cent. The area wise survey under undivided Kamrup district, revealed highest
(7.23%) occurrence of non-cerebral coenurosis in Hajo area while goats from Khanapara
area recorded maximum (2.61%) cases of cerebral coenurosis. Non-cerebral coenurosis was
significantly (p<0.01) highest (10.27%) among goats of 2-3 years of age as compared to
other age groups while none of the cases could be recorded in goats below 6 months of age.
Similarly, the occurrence of cerebral coenurosis was also recorded highest in the age group
of 2-3 years (2.66%). Sex wise, the occurrence of non-cerebral coenurosis was significantly
(p<0.01) higher (8.10%) in female goats as compared to males (1.69%) in the present study.
Similarly, a higher percentage of females were also affected with cerebral coenurosis than
the male goats. A significantly (<0.01) higher occurrence of non-cerebral coenurosis was
recorded in female goats in the age group of 2 to 3 years (14.10%) as compared to males of
the same age group. Likewise the occurrence of cerebral coenurosis was also found to be
the highest in adult females in the age group of 2 to 3 years than the male goats.
Thigh region was found to be the most common site (26.42%) for predilection of
non-cerebral coenurus cysts from where maximum number of cysts were recovered which
had significantly (p<0.05) higher cyst volume, significantly (p<0.01) larger diameter with
significantly (p<0.01) maximum number of protoscolices per coenurus cyst, as compared to
other body locations while brain was the common site of predilection for cerebral coenurus
cysts in goats. Both non-cerebral and cerebral coenurus cysts found in the present study was
characterized by a thin transparent wall filled with a transluscent fluid of varying volume
with presence of numerous invaginated protoscolices, were arranged in clusters and found
to attach to the germinal membrane of the cyst wall. However, non-cerebral cyst was
additionally enclosed by an outer fibrous connective tissue capsule. Based on the keys and
guidelines of Soulsby (1982), the coenurus cysts recovered from the subcutaneous and
muscle tissues of goats and from brain in the present study, were tentatively identified as
Coenurus gaigeri and Coenurus cerebralis, respectively.
The mean (± SE) prepatent period of adult taeniids following experimental infection
of dogs with non-cerebral and cerebral coenurus cysts from goats, was found to be 60.20 ±
1.06 days (ranging between 57 to 63 days) and 56.80 ± 1.91 days (52 to 61 days),
respectively. Dogs infected with non-cerebral coenurus cyst resulted in development of
adult taeniids in the jejunum of small intestine from where, 32 numbers of parasites were
recovered with intact scolex with evidence of hyperaemia on the mucosa. Similarly, dogs
infected with cerebral cysts, also showed evidence of adult taeniids in the small intestine
particularly in the jejunum and ileum. The adult taeniids of dogs derived from both noncerebral
and cerebral origin, were whitish in colour, and measured 70 to 85 cm and 45 to 62
cm in length, respectively. The number of segments per worm from non-cerebral and
cerebral origin was ranging from 61 to 102 numbers and 45 to 73 numbers respectively. The
scolex of taeniid parasites derived from non-cerebral and cerebral origin was found to be
globular in shape with four cup shaped suckers along with a prominent rostellum with
double rows of rostellar hooks. The length of the large hooks in taeniids derived from
cerebral origin was significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to the large hooks of taeniids
derived from non-cerebral origin. Similarly, the length of the blade of large rostellar hooks
of taeniids from cerebral origin was also significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to the
blade length of taeniids from non-cerebral origin.
The PCR reaction targeting amplification CO1 and NAD1 gene of Taenia multiceps
yielded the expected 444 bp and 530 bp products in the present study. The pair wise
alignment of both the mitochondrial CO1 gene (CC_CO1, NC_CO1) sequences of cerebral
and non-cerebral cysts showed a similarity of 98-99% and 99-100%, respectively. The
phylogenetic analysis based on CO1 gene sequences revealed that the present isolates
(CC_CO1 and NC_CO1) were closely related to an isolate of Taenia multiceps reported
from China (Accession No. KX 547641.1) and showed 99.76% and 100% similarity,
respectively which they formed a single clad and thereby confirmed that both the isolates
belonged to Taenia multiceps. The NAD1 gene (CC_NAD1, NC_NAD1) sequences of both
type of cysts also showed similarity of 97-99% and 98-99%, respectively to the identical
sequences of Taenia multiceps in the GeneBank database and confirmed the identity of the
query sequence to be Taenia multiceps. The phylogenetic analysis of NAD1 sequences
revealed that the present isolate CC_NAD1 was closely related with a Greece isolate (Acc.
No. KR 604804.1), an Iranian isolate and two isolates from Turkey showing 99.22, 98.92,
98.60 and 98.00% similarity, with which it formed a single clad and thereby confirmed the
present isolate to be of Taenia multiceps. The other isolate, NC_NAD1, although showed
99.59% similarity with an isolate of T. multiceps from Greece (KR 604804.1) but it formed
a separate clad within the same cluster in the phylogenetic tree. Based on the phylogenetic
analysis of CO1 and NAD1 gene sequences, it can be concluded that Taenia multiceps is the
single valid species and the origin of both non-cerebral (Coenurus gaigeri) and cerebral
(Coenurus cerebralis) coenurus cysts in goats in the present study.
The molecular data based on CO1 and NAD1 sequences of both non-cerebral and
cerebral coenurus cysts in goats was reported for the first time from Assam, India.
(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2022-01) DAS, TINKU; Dutta, Jyoti B.
Rabies is one of the oldest known tropical viral zoonotic diseases caused by Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, affecting all warm-blooded mammals. Annually ~ 60,000 people succumb to rabies every year, out of which, India alone bears the burden of 36 per cent of the global cases. Even though most of these cases are canine-mediated, but there is no dearth of data regarding bats being one of the primary reservoirs of the virus. Several species of bat Lyssavirus have been documented and bat-transmitted rabies in humans has been regularly reported since the last century. In the present study, 34 bat samples belonging to nine species of bats were collected from eight districts of Assam, namely, Kamrup (M), Baksa, Chirang, Barpeta, Kokrajhar, Golaghat, North Lakhimpur and Dhemaji, and tested for the presence of bat Lyssavirus as per the OIE guidelines. The samples were subjected to Lateral Flow Assay (LFA), Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique (DFA), One-step PCR. None of the samples were positive for lyssavirus indicating absence of an active lyssaviral infection in the bats during the study period.
(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) MUKHERJEE, SHYAMANANDA; Mahato, G.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenic potential of Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) and bacterin vaccine and their comparison. Extractions were made from a highly pathogenic pig isolate of Pasteurella multocida of capsular type A. For the study, isolation of P. multocida was attempted from apparently healthy, ailing and dead pigs.
Following screening of the 171 field samples collected from various places, 17 (9.94 %) were found to be positive for P. multocida. Fourteen of the 17 isolates subjected to PCR targeting species-specific gene revealed a distinct band of 460 bp, which was a confirmation of the isolates as P. multocida. Among the confirmed P. multocida isolates, nine were identified as capsular type A (1044 bp), while the remaining five were capsular type D (657 bp), based on multiplex cap-PCR results, targeting hyaD-hyaC and dcbF genes, respectively.
Both OMVs and bacterin were extracted from the most pathogenic porcine isolate of P. multocida capsular type A selected on the basis of pathogenicity trial in mice.
Vaccines were prepared from the OMVs extract and bacterin of P. multocida and immunized to pigs. Following immunization with vaccines prepared from both the extracted OMVs and bacterin in natural host, pig through intramuscular (i/m) route, a gradual increase in the mean serum antibody titre was observed in both the immunized groups.
The vaccine prepared from the OMVs extract showed peak antibody titre on 60th day (6.40± 0.19) post-vaccination. On the other hand, the vaccine preparation with the bacterin extract showed peak titre on 28th day (6.10± 0.14) of post-immunization and no significant difference was observed between the vaccine preparations throughout the study period (upto 90 days). Based on the statistical analysis of the mean serum antibody titre at different days post-immunization with the two preparations, no significant difference was observed between the two vaccine preparations of P. multocida.
The post vaccinated serum samples collected on different days were subjected for protection test in mice. The result of passive mouse protection test revealed that the 21st and 28th day post vaccination serum sample (OMV vaccine) and 28th day serum sample (bacterin vaccine) produced (100%) protection in mice.