ThesisItem Open AccessMARKETING PRACTICES OF GOAT AND CHEVON IN KAMRUP (METRO) DISTRICT OF ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2016-01) Ekka, Sushil; Roychoudhury, R.A study entitled “Marketing practices of goat and chevon in Kamrup (Metro) district of Assam”was conducted in order to explore the marketing of goats in kamrup (Metro) district and to asses the status of marketing of goat meat /chevon in an around Guwahati city. For the first purpose four goat markets viz Bhoothnath, Panikheti, Chandrapur and Sonapur were selected .From each of these four markets 30 buyers and 30 sellers were taken to make the sample size 240 and data were collected from them with the help of a specially prepared interview schedule. Similarly for the second purpose four meat markets were selected viz. Khanapara, Six mile, Beltola and Narengi. From each of these four meat markets 15 number of butchers were selected and from them data regarding identifying the marketing procedure of meat, edible and inedible by-products yield and value were collected. The study revealed that majority of the sellers sold goats of age groups of 6-12 months in all the markets as the consumers preferred meat of this age category due to tenderness of meat. The average market weight was found to increase with the advancement of age. In respect of seller category majority of the sellers were middlemen in Bhoothnath market whereas in other markets producers dominated the seller categories. On the other hand butchers were the majority buyers who visited the market regularly to meet their day-to-day demand of meat supply. So far as the transportation of animals was concerned mini truck/pickup van was used for transporting goats in the Bhoothnath market where goats were brought from different districts. Except this, Auto van was the most frequently used mode of transport in all the markets. In case of Bhoothnath and Panikheti market river route was also used. However in other markets bicycle/rickshaw was also a frequently used mode of transportation. Regarding marketing channel the most prevalent channel was producer-middleman-butcher-consumer in all the markets except Sonapur where the popular channel was producer-butcher-consumer. In respect of the criteria of price fixation of goats, the study revealed that majority of the sellers cited muscle thickness as the most important criterion for price fixation although a small number of them also mentioned status of castration as the basis of price fixation. The educational level of the sellers was also studied in the present study and it revealed that majority of the sellers read upto M.E. School and this business was yet to attract the educated unemployed youths. In the present study the average value for live weight, carcass weight; edible offals, head, shank and skin were significantly higher (P<0.01) in adult goats compared to the young group. The average live weights of young and adult goats were found to be 7.97±0.26 and 12.58±0.38 kg. The percent value of edible offals in adult group was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) than the young group of goats. The percent value of head was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in young groups of goats compared to the adult goats. The average live animal price of adult goats was significantly higher than the young animals. The study also revealed that 85.68 to 86.55 percent of the total sale proceeds were obtained from the carcass meat and 6.15 to 6.52 percent were obtained from edible offals. Therefore it was evident that only > 10% sale proceeds came from inedible offals. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF FEEDING SOLID STATE FERMENTED RATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF HAMPSHIRE PIGLETS(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Toi, Sudei Maia L.; Haque, AdibForty-eight Hampshire piglets of 2 weeks old were selected and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups viz. Group I (reared on conventional ration), and Group II (reared on solid-state fermented ration fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum). The final body weight of Group I and II at the end of the experiment was 13.13±0.13 and 13.30±0.13 kg respectively. The average total body weights gain of Group I and II piglets were 8.93±0.37 and 9.10±0.29 kg respectively and the average daily body weights gain of Group I and II piglets were 0.128±0.005 and 0.130±0.004 kg respectively. The body weights and body weight gains of the piglets in the control and experimental group did not differ significantly. The average feed intake per piglet was recorded as 25.16 and 25.70 kg for Group I and II respectively and the overall feed conversion efficiency of the piglets of Group I and Group II was worked out as 2.61±0.28 and 2.60±0.29 respectively. There was no significant difference in the feed conversion efficiency between the groups. The mean E. coli count of faecal samples of Group I and Group II at the beginning of the experiment (2nd week) was 5.90±0.02 and 5.90±0.02 log10cfu/g respectively. In the subsequent weeks the E. coli counts decreased in both Group I and Group II. The E. coli count of faecal samples of Group I and Group II at the end of the experiment was 5.77±0.02 and 5.63±0.02 log10cfu/g respectively. The results are supported by the findings of Canibe and Jensen (2003) and Hung et al. (2008) who reported that levels of E. coli in the faeces of the animals fed fermented feed is lower than the group fed conventional feed. The intestinal villi length of Group II piglet was longer than Group I. These results are in agreement with the findings of Feng et al. (2007) Wang et al. (2007) and Missotten et al. (2015) who reported that the group fed fermented feed showed larger villi length when compared with the piglets fed conventional feed. The economic analysis of production of Hampshire piglets of the two groups revealed that the Group I piglets could fetch a profit margin of Rs. 232.00 and Group II a margin of Rs. 240.00 per piglet. As the use of fermented feed in piglets from 2nd to 5th fortnight could not exhibit any significant influence in the growth performance the production economy has become less relevant. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF COMPLETE FEED BLOCK ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED CALVES UNDER FARM CONDITION(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) AHMED, REKIB UDDIN; Mili, Dulal ChandraTwenty (20) crossbred calves (Jersey× Assam Local) of both sexes in the age group of 8-10 months , weighing average body weight of 73.61±3.84 kg were randomly distributed into two groups control (T1) and treatment (T2) respectively with 10 animals in each group by using randomized block design (RBD). Control (T1) group was fed with standard feeding system (concentrate mixture, para grass and paddy straw) as per farm schedule and treatment (T2) group was fed with complete feed block having 60% roughages (para grass -50% and paddy straw-50%) , 30% concentrate mixture and 10 %molasses in the ratio 60: 30: 10. The two groups were fed the same concentrate mixture containing 16.64 per cent DCP and 70.40 per cent of TDN for 90 days. The average daily gain and FCE of different treatment groups were 188±0.01 and 217 ±0.01 gm ; 9.07±1.16 and 7.78±0..21 in control (T1) and treatment (T2) groups respectively. Significant (P<0.05) difference were observed in fifth and sixth fortnight in between the two treatment groups in respect of body weight gain per day and FCE. Significant (P<0.05) difference were observed in overall mean between the two treatment groups in respect of body weight gain per day. However, non-significant (P<0.05) difference was observed between the groups in respect of linear body measurement. Body measurements (body length, heart girth and height at withers) were apparently higher in treatment (T2) .DM intake was higher in treatment (T2) than the control (T1) group. Highly significant (P<0.01) difference were observed between the treatment at fourth, fifth and sixth fortnight as well as between the over all pooled means of the two groups in respect of dry matter intake . The blood constituent viz. serum glucose, serum total protein, hemoglobin, serum calcium were within the normal range for crossbred calves but were higher in treatment (T2) group. The cost per kg gain in body weight was lower (Rs. 65.32) in treatment (T2) group in comparison to control (T1) (Rs. 66.28). The result suggested that crossbred calves may be reared on feeding of complete feed block having 60% roughages (para grass -50% and paddy straw-50%) , 30% concentrate mixture and 10 %molasses in the ratio 60: 30: 10. with better growth performance and economic advantage of rearing calves. ThesisItem Open AccessPERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED (JERSEY X LOCAL) CATTLE IN EAST AND WEST SIANG DISTRICTS OA ARUNACHAL PRADESH(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) KAYE, MIKEN; Amonge, T. K.An investigation was undertaken to study the performance of crossbred (Jersey x Local) cattle of East and West Siang districts of Arunachal Pradesh from February 2017 to July 2017. One hundred twenty dairy farmers, 60 from each district headquarters, viz. Pasighat and Along, within a radius of 25 km were selected at random. In the present study, the data obtained from 340 crossbred cattle were analyzed for various productive and reproductive parameters and 200 fresh milk samples were collected to estimate the fat, SNF, protein per cent and specific gravity of milk. A separate diary was maintained to record the local fodders available at the farmers’ level in different seasons. In respect of socio-economic condition of the farmers, in East Siang district, majority (50 % ) of the dairy farmers belonged to middle age group (35-49 years), majority (55%) of them were having medium sized families (4-7 members), majority (43%) of them were illiterate, and majority (48%) of them had medium (Rs.2,18,235- Rs. 3,62,852) annual income. Corresponding values for West Siang district were 55, 38, 45 and 73 per cent, respectively. In regards to housing and sanitation, majority (67%) of the cattle shed in East Siang were semi-pucca, 30 per cent kutcha and 3 per cent were pucca. Corresponding values for West Siang were 90, 3 and 7 per cent, respectively. In East Siang district, majority (80%) of the farms were located on plain area, 12 per cent on low lying area, 8 per cent on elevated area and corresponding values for West Siang were 50, 25, 22 per cent, respectively and 3 per cent were located on hillock area. In East Siang, majority (88%) of the animal sheds were constructed below 5 meters, 2 per cent within 5-10 meters, 7 per cent within 10-20 meters and 3 per cent above 20 meters from the human dwellings and corresponding values for West Siang were 95,0, 2 and 3 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (42%) of the wall of cattle shed were open type, 33 per cent closed (full wall), 23 per cent half wall without net and 2 per cent half wall with net and corresponding values for West Siang were 62, 23, 18 and 2 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (67%) of the dairy farmers used CGI sheet as roofing material and 33 per cent used thatch, and corresponding values for West Siang were 28 and 72 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (55%) of the floor of cattle shed was kutcha, 37 per cent concrete and 8 per cent wooden. The corresponding values for West Siang were 93, 3, and 0 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (85%) of the cattle shed had kutcha drain, 8 per cent had concrete drain and 7 per cent had no systematic drain as such and corresponding values for West Siang were 80, 17 and 3 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (95%) of the farmers disposed of the dung in open space while only 5 per cent used manure pit to dispose of the dung and corresponding values for West Siang were 95 and 5 per cent, respectively. In East Siang, majority (88%) of the dairy farmers followed stall feeding cum grazing while only 12 per cent followed stall feeding alone. Whereas, in West Siang, majority (98%) of the dairy farmers followed stall feeding, while only 2 per cent followed stall feeding cum grazing. Further, in East Siang, majority of the farmers (98%) fed their animals twice a day, while only 2 per cent of the farmers fed their animals thrice a day. Contrastingly, in West Siang, majority (85%) of the farmers fed their animals thrice a day, while only 15 per cent farmers fed their animals twice a day. Besides, those farmers who followed stall feeding cum grazing, majority (77%) of the farmers grazed their animals for 4-8 hours, 16 per grazed their animals for above 8 hours and 7 per cent of the farmers grazed their animals for 1-4 hours daily. In East Siang, farmers on an average fed 6.49±0.31 kg green fodder, 5.19±0.10 kg of dry fodder, and 4.8±0.97 kg concentrate feed per animal per day, the corresponding values for West Siang were 18.12±0.23, 5.44±0.11 and 4.55±0.15 kg, respectively. Ad libitum water was always provided to animals in both the districts throughout the day and night which was supplied from either govt. supply water, own farm tube well or well etc. In East Siang district, majority (58%) of the dairy farmers followed vaccination, while 42 per cent didn’t followed vaccination, majority (52%) of the dairy farmers practiced artificial insemination, while 48 per cent didn’t practiced artificial insemination and majority (63%) of the dairy farmers followed deworming, while 37 per cent didn’t followed deworming. Corresponding values for West Siang were 53, 47, 65, 35, 63 and 37 per cent, respectively. In regards to reproductive and productive traits of crossbred cows, in East Siang, the average age at first calving, inter calving period, service period, gestation period, lactation length, lactation yield, average daily milk yield and dry period were 1024.30±16.38 days, 394.41±4.03 days, 113.52±3.25 days, 280.89±0.10 days, 278.80±2.98 days, 1381.00±53.00 litres, 4.89±0.17 litres and 115.61±2.98 days, respectively. Corresponding values for West Siang were 1017.70±19.13 days, 420.40±7.17 days, 138.90±3.25 days, 281.80±0.33 days, 290.80±1.94 days, 1908.30±47.94 litres, 6.56±0.16 litres and 129.44±1.93 days, respectively.. Fat , SNF, protein and specific gravity content of milk were 4.89±0.15 per cent, 8.49±0.09 per cent, 3.101±0.04 per cent and 1.028±0.300, respectively and corresponding values for West Siang were 4.92±1.93 per cent, 8.59±0.08 per cent, 3.09±0.03 per cent and 1.038±0.003, respectively. Inter calving period, service period, lactation length, lactation yield, average daily milk yield and dry period differed significantly (P<0.01) between the two districts. On the hand, there was no significant difference with regards to age at first calving, gestation period, fat, SNF, protein per cent and specific gravity of milk. Lactation order was found to have non-significant effect on fat, SNF, protein per cent and specific gravity of milk. Stage of lactation had highly significant effect on fat per cent of milk, whereas, it had non-significant effect on SNF, protein per cent and specific gravity of milk. In regards to marketing of milk and milk products, producer to consumer was the most common marketing channel observed in both the districts. In East Siang district, milk was sold on an average Rs. 50.00 -60.00 per litre , majority (98%) of the farmers sold the milk to the consumer households, majority (75%) of the farmers practiced conversion of milk to other products, majority (93%) of the farmers used bicycle for transportation. Corresponding values for West Siang were Rs. 60.00-100.00, 95 , 60, 85 per cent respectively. In regards to the local fodders, the species available were more or less similar in both the districts. The species generally found and normally fed the cattle were grasses and shrubs such as Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conizoid, Setaria palmifolia, Imperata cylidrica, Polygonum sp., Bidens pilosa, Manihot esculenta, Urena lobata, Pteris semipinnata, Brachiaria sp. and tree leaves such as Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Castanopsis sp., Ficus auriculata, Bambusa sp., Arenga pnnata, Debregesia sp., Bauhinia purpurea, Kydia glabrescens, Alpinia sp., Ficus sp., Gmelina arborea, Trema orientalis, Ficus hirta, Ficus sp., Ficus sp.. In regards to constraints faced by the dairy farmers, East Siang district, majority (76.70%) of the farmers mentioned that shortage of green fodder during winter, price of milk (48%), disease incidence (38%), cost of feed (25%), lack of suitable land for farm (25%), problem with neighbours (23%), scarcity of water (17%), lack of grazing land (13%), availability of hired labour (10%), price and problem in collection of straw (10%) and inadequate breeding facilities (8%) as the major constraints faced by them. Corresponding values for West Siang were 52, 9, 35, 40, 50, 13, 8, 42, 12, 42 and 42 per cent respectively. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF THERMAL STRESS ON CERTAIN PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF HAMPSHIRE SOWS(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) RAJ, M. MONISH; Saharia, JitendraPig husbandry plays an important role in the development of Indian meat industry. Pig farming is an important aspect in Northeastern region of India because pig farming mainly constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they play an important role in survival of rural and tribal people. Pigs lack proper thermoregulatory mechanism as other livestock making it difficult to rear them in hot and humid condition like Assam. Present study was undertaken to study the effect of thermal stress of both summer and winter on performance of Hampshire sows. In present study, Twelve Pregnant sows, six each in summer and in winter were taken for study under standard feeding and managemental system of the farm. The study was carried out in two phases i.e. phase I: Summer (June to August 2016) and phase II: Winter (December 2016 to February 2017). Mean temperature, relative humidity and THI both in outdoor and indoor environment were taken into account. Results showed that ambient temperature ranged from 13.39 ± 0.28 to 30.87 ± 0.23, relative humidity ranged from 87.96 ± 0.79 to 91.90 ± 0.46 and THI from 61.81 ± 0.27 to 84.10 ± 0.30. In summer season, the mean rectal temperatures (°F) of the sows in morning and evening were 102.39 ± 0.04 and 102.54 ± 0.03 in June, 102.41 ± 0.04 and 102.61 ± 0.03 in July and 102.45 ± 0.03 and 102.65 ± 0.04 in August respectively. In winter season, the mean rectal temperature (°F) of the sows in morning and evening were 102.07 ± 0.05 and 102.18 ± 0.05 in December, 101.91 ± 0.04 and 102.15 ± 0.05 in January and 102.11 ± 0.04 and 102.29 ± 0.03 in February respectively. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) difference in rectal temperature between summer and winter seasons. In summer season, the mean respiration rate (breaths/min.) of the sow in morning and evening were 57.79 ± 0.63 and 62.47 ± 0.66 in June , 61.18 ± 0.52 and 65.54 ± 0.42 in July and 65.63 ± 0.45 and 68.90 ± 0.44 in August respectively. In winter season, the mean respiration rate (breaths/min.) of the sows in morning and evening were 39.5 ± 0.66 and 44.88 ± 0.64 in December, 42.65 ± 0.51 and 48.51 ± 0.57 in January and 39.38 ± 0.49 and 43.85 ± 0.42 in February respectively. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) difference in respiration rates between summer and winter seasons. In summer season, the mean pulse rate (beats/min.) of the sows in morning and evening were 83.40 ± 0.93 and 88.92 ± 1.02 in June, 83.06 ± 0.91 and 91.31 ± 1.22 in July and 85.11 ± 0.79 and 90.42 ± 0.81 in August respectively. In winter season, the mean pulse rates (beats/min.) of the sows in morning and evening were 78.21 ± 0.52 and 82.78 ± 0.51 in December, 78.53 ± 0.37 and 82.65 ± 0.32 in January and 78.75 ± 0.43 and 83.03 ± 0.38 in February respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that mean pulse rate was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in summer than in winter season. The overall average of serum cortisol concentration (nmol/l) in summer and winter were 284.42 ± 2.26 and 162.5 ± 2.47 respectively. On statistical analysis, it was revealed that there is highly significant (P < 0.01) difference in cortisol concentration between summer and winter season. The overall average of serum progesterone (ng/ml) concentration in summer and winter were 19.13±1.09 and 20.35±1.14 respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference between serum progesterone concentration in summer and in winter seasons. Average litter size at birth was found to be 7.83 ± 0.65 and 9.53 ± 0.33 for summer and winter respectively. Average litter weight (kg) at birth was found to be 9.75 ± 0.16 and 12.5 ± 0.93 in summer and winter respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) average litter weight and average litter size at birth in winter seasons than in summer season. Average litter size at weaning was found to be 7.17 ± 0.40 and ABSTRACT 6.83 ± 0.31 in summer and winter respectively. Statistically no significant difference was found in average litter size at weaning between summer and winter season. Average litter weight (kg) at weaning was found to be 68.43 ± 0.47 and 65.27 ± 0.62 in summer and winter respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) average litter weight in winter seasons than in summer season. The overall feed consumption (kg) and FCE of sow was recorded to be 33.39 ± 0.16 and 37.6 ± 0.24 and 5.02 ± 0.05 and 4.61 ± 0.06 for summer and winter respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there is significantly higher (P < 0.01) feed consumption and FCE in winter seasons than in summer season. From the present study it was concluded that the pregnant Hampshire sows experience severe heat stress in summer season which affects feed consumption and the productive performance of the sows. However, winter season is found to have no effect of thermal stress on the pregnant Hampshire sows. Further experiments on the line with more animals will be helpful to support the trial. ThesisItem Open AccessPERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED SHEEP OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Tsering, Karmu; Roychoudhury, R.The present investigation was undertaken to study the performance of crossbred sheep of Arunachal Pradesh under semi intensive system of management at the Regional Sheep Breeding Farm, Sangti in the West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh from March 2016 to February 2017 by studying the following performance attributes: body weight at different ages, conformation traits, reproductive traits, wool traits and mortality pattern with its causes. The average body weight of male sheep at birth, 3, 6 and 12 months was 2.74 ± 0.03, 14.78 ± 0.16, 18.87 ± 0.17 and 25.27 ± 0.49 cm. The corresponding value for female was 2.22 ± 0.04, 13.63 ± 0.11, 17.59 ± 0.15 and 22.74 ± 0.31 cm. The average body length, heart girth, height at wither, head length and tail length of male sheep at 3, 6 and 12 months was 36.26 ± 0.28, 41.53 ± 0.29 and 49.45 ± 0.27 cm; 55.13 ± 0.36, 55.97± 0.31 and 64.71± 0.40 cm; 46.60 ± 0.25, 52.91 ± 0.36 and 55.94 ± 0.35 cm; 13.56 ± 0.21, 17.28 ± 0.15 and 20.46 ± 0.15 cm and 17.28 ± 0.15, 19.06 ± 0.14 and 21.06 ± 0.18 cm respectively. The corresponding value for female sheep was 33.16 ± 0.12, 41.26 ± 0.23 and 41.99 ± 0.10 cm; 54.38 ± 0.26, 55.19 ± 0.21 and 64.07 ± 0.32 cm; 46.00 ± 0.31, 51.74 ± 0.19 and 54.24 ± 0.31 cm; 11.88 ± 0.13, 14.88 ± 0.11 and 18.27 ± 0.16 cm and 16.61 ± 0.13, 16.77 ± 0.08 and 19.36 ± 0.09 cm respectively. There was highly significant (P<0.01) difference between male and female sheep in respect to body and head length at 3 months. At the age of 6 months, highly significant difference between sexes was observed in height at wither and head length while it was significant in heart girth. On the other hand at 12 months of age highly significant difference was observed in body length, height at wither, head length and tail length due to sex. The average age of puberty for male and female sheep was found to be 192 ± 6.17 and 329.8 ± 5.55 days respectively and the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.01). The average age at first fertile service, gestation period, service period, duration of estrus, length of the oestrous cycle were 469.32 ± 10.25 days, 146.84 ± 0.48 days, 78.36 ± 1.85 days, 29.28 ± 0.96 hours and 16.68 ± 0.20 days respectively. Only single type of lambing was observed. The average fibre length, staple length and fibre yield of male sheep at 12 months was 7.76 ± 0.13 cm, 5.89 ± 0.16 cm and 1.49 ± 0.04 kg and female sheep was 7.54 ± 0.12 cm, 6.07 ± 0.17 cm and 0.79 ± 0.02 kg respectively. The difference between the male and female animals was found to be highly significant for fibre yield, whereas non significant for fibre length and staple length. There was a significant (P<0.001) positive correlation of body weight with the body length, heart girth, height at withers, head length and tail length in both the male and female sheep at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. The overall mortality of the sheep up to 6 months of age in the farm was found to be 48.91 percent which was mostly due to pneumonia (25.55%). More animals died during winter season (34.36%) at the pre weaning stage (35.24%). ThesisItem Open AccessGROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ASSAM LOCAL GOATS UNDER INTENSIVE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) HOQUE, JEHERUL; Sarma, N. K.An experiment was conducted to study the growth response, efficiency of feed conversion, carcass characteristics and meat quality parameter and the cost of production of Assam local goats under different system of management. Twenty goats of one month of age, were randomly selected in village Lachima of Nalbari district, Assam. The goats were randomly divided in two groups comprising of ten kids in each group viz, T0 (Control group) Where goats were reared under extensive system of management with traditional grazing and browsing and T1 (Experimental group) where goats were reared under intensive system of management with ad lib. concentrate and fodder feeding. The average initial (1 month of age) and final (6 months of age) body weight of the goats during the experimental periods under the control and treatment groups were 2.90±0.03 kg and 2.89±0.04 kg and 10.36±0.26 kg and 16.05±0.53 kg respectively. Highly significant difference (P<0.01) in body weight changes were observed between the control and treatment group from 3rd week of the experiment to the 22nd week or till the end of the experiment. The average final body length, height at wither and heart girth of the goats at 6 months of age under the control and treatment groups were 42.44±0.34 and 51.31±1.25, 41.29±0.37 and 49.68±1.06 and 48.29±0.31 and 57.69±1.35 centimetre respectively. Overall changed in body measurement showed highly significant difference between the groups in most of the months. The feed conversion efficiency on DM basis was recorded as 3.49 in the treatment group. No mortality was recorded in both control and treatment group during the experimental period. The average carcass weights in control and treatment groups were 4.89±0.11 and 8.33±0.34 kg respectively, while the dressing percentages were 44.00 and 49.95 in control and treatment group respectively. Highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed in carcass weight and dressing percentage between control and treatment group. Highly significant difference (P<0.01) was also observed in non-carcass components (weight of heart, drainable blood, fore shank, lung and trachea and skin). Weight of prime cuts (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, flank and neck) also revealed highly significant (P <0.01) difference between control and treatment group. Following sensory assessment, there were highly significant (P<0.01) difference for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. However, significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in flavour and texture between the control and treatment group. The total cost of raising the goats in control and treatment groups were Rs 535.00 and Rs 150.00 while the cost per kg live weight in control and treatment groups were Rs 14.47 and Rs 33.20 respectively. The total incomes by selling meat in control and treatment groups were Rs 1980.00 and Rs 3524.00 respectively. Thus the net income was recorded Rs 1830.00 and Rs 2989.00 in control and treatment groups, respectively. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF FEDDING COMPLETE FEED BLOCK AND PROBIOTICS SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF KIDS(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-01) Rabidas, Amit; Haque, AdibTwenty four weaned male 3 month old kids were randomly assigned to four groups of six kids each viz. Control (T0), (T1), (T2) and (T3) receiving 250gm concentrate along with ad lib green grass, 250 gm concentrate supplemented with probiotics and ad lib green grass, block alone and block supplemented with probiotics respectively. The average initial body weights were 5.25 ± 0.24, 5.76 ± 0.20, 5.52 ± 0.20 and 5.71 ± 0.24 kg for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively and the corresponding figures at the completion of 12th week were 7.67 ± 0.16, 8.39 ± 0.15, and 7.95 ± 0.22 and 8.51 ± 0.24 kg. Increase in body weights of the four groups, up to 4th week post weaning did not show any statistical difference. From 5th to 12th week, T1 and T3 groups showed significantly (P<0.01) higher weights than the T0 and T2 group. This may be attributed to weaning shock in the kids upto 4th week. The overall means of body weights were 6.34 ± 0.10, 6.94 ± 1.10, and 6.57 ± 0.09 and 7.01 ± 1.12 kg for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The total body weight gains for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups as 2.42 ± 0.12, 2.63 ± 0.06, 2.43 ± 0.21 and 2.80 ± 0.01 kg respectively. The corresponding values for daily body weight gains were recorded as 0.026 ± 0.01, 0.029 ± 0.006, 0.027 ± 0.002 and 0.03 ± 0.0001 g. T1 and T3 showed significantly (P<0.01) higher body weight gains than T0 and T2. However, T2 did not exhibit any significant differences in weekly body weight gains with T0. The 12th week body weight gains were 0.251±0.004, 0.279±0.014, 0.263 ± 0.030 and 0.289 ± 0.021 kg for T0, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. From 5th to 12th week, T1 and T3 groups showed significantly (P<0.01) higher gains than the T0 and T2 group. The overall means of body weight gain were observed as 0.201 ± 0.003, 0.219 ± 0.003, 0.203 ± 0.005 and 0.232 ± 0.002 kg for T0, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The Initial body length of T0, T1, T2 and T3 were recorded were 37.60 ± 0.91, 37.87 ± 0.81, and 37.69 ± 0.55 and 37.91 ± 0.89 cm respectively and the corresponding final values were 44.50 ± 0.17, 44.81 ± 0.51, and 44.77 ± 0.21 and 44.99 ± 0.56 cm. The overall means were 41.18 ± 0.67, 44.81 ± 0.61, and 44.77 ± 0.66 and 44.99 ± 0.62 cm for T0, T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Initial heights of T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 33.92±1.19, 34.17 ± 0.98, and 34.02 ±1.14 and 34.34 ± 1.04 cm respectively. The heights noted at 12th week were 36.27 ±1.19, 36.69 ± 0.86, 36.57 ± 0.96 and 36.70 ± 0.94 cm and the overall means were 35.21 ± 0.21, 35.44 ± 0.22, 35.36 ± 0.22 and 35.56 ± 0.22. Initial heart girth of T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 43.88 ± 1.48, 43.73 ± 0.83, 43.67 ± 1.42 and 43.93 ± 0.53 cm respectively and the values at 12th week were 46.26 ±1.48, 46.64 ± 0.82, 46.45 ± 1.14 and 46.85 ± 0.51 cm. The corresponding overall means were 45.14 ± 0.21, 45.50 ± 0.24, 45.32 ± 0.23 and 45.66 ± 0.24 cm. The 1st week feed consumption of T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 1.123 ± 0.14, 1.181 ± 0.22, 1.178 ± 0.19 and 1.194 ± 0.18 kg respectively and the corresponding values at 12th week were 2.874 ± 0.14, 3.091 ± 0.19, 2.901 ± 0.19 and 3.161 ± 0.19 kg. The total feed consumed was calculated as 23.742 ± 0.02, 25.886 ± 0.08, and 24.201 ± 0.02 and 26.629 ± 0.22 kg for T0, T1 T2 and T3 respectively. Initial feed conversion efficiency in T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 7.959±0.17, 7.801 ± 0.53, 7.853 ± 0.27 and 7.803 ± 0.24 respectively and the corresponding values at 12th week were 11.45 ± 0.17, 11.031 ± 0.53, 11.078 ± 0.22 and 10.937 ± 0.24. The overall feed conversion efficiency was 9.724 ± 0.03, 9.396 ± 0.11, 9.565 ± 0.09 and 9.297 ± 0.05 for T0, T1 T2 and T3 respectively. Cost of feeding per kid in T0, T1, T2 and T3 was Rs. 456.065, 483.365, 483.365 and 491.48. Again, the costs of feeding per kg weight gain for the corresponding groups were Rs. 188.45, 183.78, 182.59, 175.52. The profit derived from T0, T1, T2 and T3 was Rs. 2343.94, 2816.64, 2656.30, and 3008.52. Supplementation of probiotics had a significant influence on the body weights and body weight gain and feeding of ration in the form of blocks resulted in apparent growth improvement which in turn could influence the goat production economy. ThesisItem Open AccessGROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PIGS IN RESPONSE TO SEASONAL STRESS UNDER VARYING DIETARY ENERGY LEVELS(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) PATHAK, PRASANTA KUMAR; Roychoudhury, R.Eighteen weaned piglets (at 56 days) from each of the two different genetic groups viz. Hampshire and Hampshire x Local irrespective of sex were selected and randomly divided into three dietary groups viz. Gr.I, Gr.II and Gr.III consisting of 6 animals of almost similar body weight in each experimental group for winter months in 1st phase and summer months in 2nd phase to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers as well as most suitable germplasm in terms of growth performance under the agro-climatic condition of Assam. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration in the growth performance of pigs in different seasons. A total of 3 rations were prepared for grower and finisher stage as per the NRC feeding standard for pig (NRC, 1998). The ration having 110, 100 and 90 per cent energy of NRC (1998) designated as high energy (HE), medium energy (ME) and low energy (LE), respectively. The ME, LE and HE treatment were represented three dietary groups of pigs i.e. Gr.I, Gr.II and Gr.III, respectively for both winter and summer. The Gr.I (ME) was considered as control group for both winter and summer season. Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) was calculated out from the data of ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH). The physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded following conventional methods in two phases in a month i.e., consecutively for three days in a week in each animal and twice daily at 8:30 A.M. and 5:30 P.M. for a period of 12 months. About 5 ml of blood was collected from each experimental animal aseptically at 15 days interval for the whole experimental period. The level of thermal stress related blood hormones such as triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol were estimated by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The animals were weighed in the morning before feeding and watering at fortnightly intervals. The linear body measurements of the animals were recorded at monthly intervals. The feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and economics of feeding were also recorded. The ambient temperature was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the evening (23.60-29.51 0C) than in the morning (20.02-28.03 0C). The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 0C) were above the comfort zone for pigs (22 0C). The significantly (P<0.01) higher RH (%) was recorded in outdoor environment (87.26-91.10%) and in the morning time (86.60-91.10%). The THI during the study period was found to be indicative of thermal stress to the experimental animals during summer (79.55 – 82.56) as compared to the winter seasons. Physiological parameters viz., RR and RT were significantly (P<0.01) higher in summer season (43.75-72.12 breaths/min. and 102.29-103.23 0F/min.) than the winter season and non-significantly higher values were recorded in Hampshire as compared to Hampshire x Local during summer season. It was also found that the significantly (P<0.01) lower RR as well as RT was recorded in the pigs fed with high energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum T3 and T4 concentrations were significantly (P<0.01) lower during summer as compared to winter in both Hampshire and Hampshire x Local pigs, while both the genetic groups showed significantly (P<0.01) higher concentration of serum cortisol during summer season. It was also observed that thyroid hormone and cortisol concentrations were maintained in groups of pig fed HE diet during summer. The average body weight was significantly (P<0.01) higher in winter and Hampshire pigs attained higher body wt. but observed that Hampshire pigs shed more body wt. in summer as compared to crossbred. It was also recorded that energy level of diet had significant (P<0.01) influence on the body weight gain and minimizes the production losses in terms of body wt. gain during summer. The coefficient of correlation of linear body measurements with the body weight of experimental pigs was found to be positively correlated and found that linear body measurements were in progressively increasing trend along with increase in body weight. The study also revealed higher FCE during winter season and Hampshire x Local pigs had higher FCE. The lower feed intake and higher FCE was recorded in HE incorporated group. The present study revealed that the cost of concentrate feed decreased along with reduction in the energy level of the diet. The cost of feeding per kg body weight gain was higher in summer than winter season and lower cost of feeding per kg gain was recorded in HE incorporated group. On the basis of this finding it can be concluded that winter is the best time for raising growing-finishing pigs. During summer most of the time the state remains under tropical high heat and humid dominance which may drastically affect the production and eventually economy of pig farming. From the present observation, it is suggested that Hampshire x local pigs may rear economically in the agro-climatic condition of Assam and increasing the energy density of diet can also help to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.