ThesisItem EmbargoMolecular signature on phloem sap of the enhanced host susceptible phase to Liphaphis erysimi in Brassica species.(College of Post Graduste Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, 2022-12) Devi, Ahanthem Malini; Mondal, Hossain AliThe importance of oil and by-products from oilseeds crop in the lives of humans and cattle cannot be underestimate as oilseed crops are lucrative crop with great potential for enhancing human diets, preventing hunger and food insecurity. However, oil seed crops like rapeseed-mustard are extremely susceptible to aphid attack mainly mustard aphid (Liphaphis erysimi) and it serves at the key limiting factor in achieving a surplus productivity with reported losses in yield up to 90%. Mustard aphid is exclusively phloem feeders and they utilized their highly specialized mouthparts to suck and ingest simple sugars, proteins, and amino acids enriched phloem sap from plant sieve elements. The precise access of the host plant's Sieve Element (SE) cell by the aphid stylet is a crucial factor for clonal proliferation. The objective of the present study was to identify optimized factors enhancing host susceptibility toward aphid clonal proliferation and uncover molecular signature of the aphid herbivore phloem sap in comparison to control. Among the 5, 10 and 20 aphid releases on random leaf foliage in B-9, B-54, Pusa Bold, Rohini, RGN-384 and RMM-09-10 revealed that ten aphids enhanced host susceptibility as compared to other aphid doses except in RMM-09-10. It was also recorded that aphid inoculum at 6 AM enhanced host susceptibility in comparison to 6 PM aphid release. Moreover, Relative humidity was a modulating factor in enhancing host susceptibility and 95% RH was the most effective over 70% and 50% RH. Among temperature, 160C and 220C promoted aphid clonal proliferation in comparison to 280C and 340C. The age of the plant was also a factor in modulating host susceptibility. From the present study, an initial aphid inoculum (10), timing of aphid release (6 AM), humidity (95% RH), temperature (220C) and age of plant enhanced host susceptibility towards aphid clonal proliferation. The maximum absorbance of phloem exudate was evidenced from 4 number of leaves, 0.5mM EDTA concentration and 12 hours dark mediated phloem sap isolation without compromising secondary induced stress. The absorbance of aphid herbivore phloem sap at 215 nm is significantly higher in Rohini, RGN-384 and RMM-09-10 but remains same in B-9, B-54 and Pusa Bold. The absorbance of aphid herbivore phloem sap at 260nm is significantly higher in B-9, Rohini and RGN-384 and significantly lower in B-54, Pusa Bold and RMM-09-10. The absorbance of aphid herbivore phloem sap at 280nm is significantly higher in B-9, Rohini and RGN-384 and significantly lower in Pusa Bold and RMM 09-10 but remains same in B-54. The GC-MS analysis of aphid herbivore phloem exudates isolated at the earliest and significant time point identified several reported antimicrobial compounds which shows that aphid herbivore targets on the in-built anti-microbial defense in the phloem sap and upon aphid herbivore, the anti-microbial metabolites concentration was reduced. This finding initiated extended curiosity about the microbiota enrichment from the aphid herbivore phloem exudates. The further study indicated that aphid herbivore enriched phloem microbiota at the earliest and significant host susceptible phase. One of the identified metabolites, dodecanoic acid (DA) showed an anti-biotic effect on aphid herbivore mediated phloem microbiota. The crucial findings from the present study indicated that aphid herbivore reduce the anti-microbial concentration in the phloem sap at the earliest and significant time point which coincided to the enhanced host susceptibility. Therefore, aphid herbivore mediated microbiota inoculum in the phloem sap is a novel phenomenon being reported for the first time in plant-aphid interaction biology. ThesisItem EmbargoEvaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes of North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) for traits associated with anaerobic germination.(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural Univerity, Imphal, 2022-10) Afeefa C. H.; Laloo, BingialaDirect seeding is recently becoming increasingly popular among rice producers because of its ease of cultivation, economic benefits, early crop maturity, and greater yield. However, around one-third of all rice produced globally is grown in flood-prone locations, making flooding the third biggest source of stress that impedes rice production. Anaerobic germination (AG) which refers to a seed's innate ability to germinate under oxygen deficiency by acquiring the necessary energy through anaerobic respiration is a crucial characteristic for enhancing direst seeded rice. Reports of high yielding varieties tolerant to anaerobic germination are few, hence it is important to evaluate the rice genetic diversity to develop variety with these characteristics. It would also enable flooding the field during the earliest stages of germination as a successful weed control technique. In the present study, a set of 60 rice genotypes, which were collected from different parts of the North Eastern Hill Region was screened for various traits associated with anaerobic germination. A preliminary nursery evaluation of morphological traits showed significant variation among the set of genotypes for all the traits (speed of germination, germination percentage, visual scoring of seedling vigour, shoot length, thickness of stem, number of leaves, leaf area index). Anaerobic experiment was designed to screen the genotypes under the anaerobic condition with 8 cm of submergence as well as a controlled set-up. The observations were recorded till 21 days after sowing. All the morpho-physiological parameters (seedling vigour index, germination percentage, speed of germination, survival percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, number of leaves) showed high significant genotype x treatment (anaerobic and control conditions) interaction suggesting that there is a significant variance in the genotypes with respect to submergence. The correlation study did not reveal significant correlation between traits under nursery and anaerobic condition except for shoot length (r=0.43) and number of leaves (r=0.32). Amongst the traits studied under anaerobic treatment, seedling vigour index-II showed significant and positive correlation with 11 other anaerobic traits namely seedling vigour index-I (r= 0.94), speed of germination (r= 0.88), survival percentage (r=0.84), germination percentage (r= 0.79), relative germination percentage (r= 0.46), number of leaves (r= 0.43), fresh weight (r= 0.38), dry weight (r= 0.34), root length (r=0.33), plant portion above water (r = 0.32) and shoot length (r = 0.31). PCA registered a cumulative variation of 63.3 % from the first two PCs, with PC1 accounting for 42.9% and PC2 accounting for 20.4 % of the total variation. Based on PCA, contrasting genotypes were identified, where four were identified as tolerant (Lakang Baso, Sahbhangi Dhan, CAUS 107 and CAUS 123) and the rest as susceptible (BLM, Chakhao Poireiton, Phourel and Mailung). The alpha amylase and peroxidase enzyme activity in the selected genotypes showed significant and considerable variation among genotypes. The tolerant genotypes showed higher alpha amylase activity with an average of 228.51 μmol/min as compared to the susceptible ones (77.15 μmol/min). The correlation study revealed that there is a positive correlation between alpha amylase activity and all the 13 anaerobic traits, in which, survival percentage (r= 0.84), number of leaves (r= 0.93), speed of germination (r= 0.76), germination percentage (r= 0.77), relative germination percentage (r= 0.72) and anaerobic germination index (r= 0.73) showed a significant and positive correlation. However, there was no significant correlation between peroxidise activity and any of the nursery traits or anaerobic traits. The traits such as seedling vigour index, survival percentage, germination percentage, shoot length and alpha amylase activity were amongst the promising indicators for tolerance to germination under anaerobic conditions. The identified contrasting genotypes in the study could be a valuable resource for future breeding programs. ThesisItem EmbargoGenetic analysis of RILs for Al stress tolerance in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under acidic soils of Meghalaya.(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-12) Mahanta, Mayurakshee; Singh, K. NorenLentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) popularly known as “Masoor” in India, is an important pulse crop used both as food and feed because of its protein-rich seeds and straw. There is immense potential to increase area under lentil cultivation in NEH Region including Meghalaya attributing to suitable climatic factors. However, the soils of NEH Region including Meghalaya are acidic in nature where Aluminium (Al) stress becomes one of the prime limitations for production of crops specially pulses like lentil, as Al solubilizes into phytotoxic forms at low pH, explicitly below 5.0, causing root growth inhibition, reduced plant vigour and finally reducing grain yields to large extents. The present study involved screening for Al stress associated chromosomal regions and markers. tolerance in a RIL population of lentil developed from a cross between BM- 4 (Al sensitive parent) and L- 4602 (Al tolerant parent) through phenotypic evaluation in the field, root growth studies, organic acid exudate analysis under hydroponics and molecular studies to identify The variance analysis combined over two locations revealed highly significant genotype x location interaction for the traits under study except DM, NPB and SPP, whereas variance due to genotypes was highly significant for all the 10 characters. Among all the characters, high Hbs2 coupled with high GA% were observed in NPB, PH and 100 SW which suggested preponderance of additive gene effects in the inheritance of these traits. A highly positive and highly significant correlation was observed between SYP with PPP (0.84**), BYP(0.79**), SPP (0.47**) and NPB (0.30**) and a positively significant correlation with 100 SW (0.1955*). Path analysis revealed that, PPP (0.840) had the greatest direct effects in influencing SYP, followed by BYP (0.795), SPP (0.474), NPB (0.309) and HI (0.307) suggesting the importance of improving SYP by selecting these traits. ANOVA for root and shoot traits screened under hydroponics culture treated with Al (148μM) revealed presence of highly significant genotypic differences for all the traits. High GCV coupled with high H2bs and GA% were observed for RRG, RL, RFW, SFW, RDW, TRL, TRSA and TRV. Also, RRG showed highly significant positive correlation with SYP. Analysis of organic acid exudation from roots of lentil in response to toxic level of Al (148μM) led to identification of citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid and fumaric acid in the root exudates. Citric acid was exudated in highest amount in all the genotypes, while it was observed that most of the tolerant genotypes exudated more organic acids as compared to sensitive ones. Citric acid was found to be positively and significantly correlated with RRG and seed yield. SSR based genotyping of extreme RILs having contrasting response to Al toxicity identified the markers significantly associated with more than one trait viz. PBA_ LC_1247 with RRG and TRSA, PLC_104 with RRG, TRL, TRSA, TRV and SYP, LcSSR 17 with RRG and TRL, PLC_ 91 with TRL, TRSA, SYP, PBA_LC_327 with TRL, TRSA, TRV, PBA_LC_118 with TRL, TRSA, PBA_LC_1401 with TRL, TRSA and TRV and PLC_46 with Root Al content and SYP. Considering the presence of positive alleles for majority of the associated markers, explaining more than 10% of trait variations (R2) and based on all the phenotypic screening methods the RILs identified as high yielding and Al tolerant are LRIL-92, LRIL-96, LRIL 97, LRIL-109, LRIL- 143, LRIL-144 and LRIL-148. It was observed from our study that, for root re-growth, total root length and root Al content, the associated chromosomal regions were located on chromosome 1 and chromosome 4; while for total root volume and seed yield per plant the associated regions were located on chromosome 1 and chromosome 3; and for total root surface area the associated regions were located on chromosome 1, suggesting that chromosome 1, chromosome 3 and chromosome 4 of lentil harbours the regions or QTLs that are associated with tolerance to Al toxicity stress in lentil. With further evaluation these RILs may serve as important Al toxicity tolerant varieties suitable for acidic soil conditions of Meghalaya. Also, these lines can be used as parents for generating new crosses for further genetic studies. The markers identified as associated with Al tolerance may facilitate in marker assisted selection programmes for developing Al tolerant varieties. ThesisItem EmbargoValidation of participatory-GIS mapping on agro-ecological landscape pursuits of cabbage farmers of Mawkynrew, East-Khasi Hills, Meghalaya using unmanned aerial vehicle : a case study.(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-12) Kumar, Devagupthapu Yaswanth; Singh, Rajkumar JosmeeAgro-Ecological Systems research acknowledges that how systems are framed depends on the observer, making it possible to have multiple valid descriptions or conceptualizations of a system. The current study with three research objectives viz., (1) ‘To perform Participatory-GIS mapping on agro-ecological landscape of cabbage farmers’, (2) ‘To validate the attributes on agro-ecological landscape pursuits of cabbage farmers using UAV data’, and (3) ‘To estimate the agro-ecological landscape pursuits in correspondence to the predictor variables.’ has been conducted in two adopted villages of the research project—DHaBReT at Mawkynrew C&RDB of East-Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. Descriptive research design and mixed-method sampling procedure were followed in the study. Executing Participatory GIS (PGIS) using UAV data could ascertained that high percentage of about 58% of agriculture land under cultivation had aspect toward North-East (very low unproductive sunshine) and about 85% of agricultural land is situated at a steep slope of >250, wherein administration of improved scientific agriculture was a challenge. The study could be unveiled that more than half (55.82%) of the sample respondents were female, higher percentage (45.34%) of respondents were middle aged, majority (75.58%) of the respondents had education up to high school. Cent percent of the pupils in the study were marginal farmers and had low annual income. Majority (79.06%) of them had high farming experience. Remarkably, it could be noted that the cropping intensity of all the respondents was high and majority (73.26%) of the respondents had low agricultural diversification. Further, it was observed that majority (80.23%) of the respondents had low agro-ecological landscape pursuits. On examining the validation of following three attributes derived from UAV data viz., (i) ‘Slope of Agro-Ecological Landscape’, (ii) ‘Agriculture Diversification’, and (iii) ‘Ecological Landscape Area’ with the predicted variable—‘Agro-Ecological Landscape Pursuits’. The study divulged that about thirty two percent (32.55%) of ‘Agro-Ecological Landscape Pursuit’ was truly explained by the ‘Slope of Agro-Ecological Landscape’; about forty percent (39.53%) of ‘Agro-Ecological Landscape Pursuit’ was truly explained by the ‘Agriculture Diversification’; and about seventy three (73.25%) of ‘Agro-Ecological Landscape Pursuit’ was truly explained by the ‘Ecological Landscape Area ’. Administration of binary logistic regression in order to estimate the agro-ecological landscape pursuits in correspondence to the predictor variables, revealed that 5.6% change in the predicted variable was accounted to the predictor variables in the model as supported by Nagelkerke R2 value of 0.056. The binary logistic regression model could correctly classify 80.20 % of the overall cases. The test statistic, x2 = 1.924 at p = 0.964 in Hosmer and Lemeshow test supported the model adequacy. Amongst the selected variables, it was estimated that the odds of a respondent who is having ‘Low agroecological landscape pursuits’ with ‘lower Education’ is .0968 times lower than those of ‘Higher agro-ecological landscape pursuits’ with ‘Higher farming experience’. So, is the case for ‘Agricultural Diversification’. The study strongly recommends that through participatory-GIS using UAV data the optimum spatial pattern of agriculture, forest and human settlement should be clearly developed. Analysis on land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) should be the top priority research keeping into view the encouragement of the farmers to opt for ‘Agriculture Diversification’ in order to enhance agro-ecological landscape pursuit. ThesisItem EmbargoEvaluation of yield and its attributing characters in Brassica juncea in the acidic soil of North-Eastern Hill region(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-12) Tingnunniang; Mondal, Hossain AliIndian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss) is an important Rabi season oilseed crop belonging to the family Brassicaceae and is the most widely grown oilseed crop in Meghalaya. The performance of Indian mustard is drastically affected under acidic condition of north-eastern India while it perform better under neutral pH as well as at moderate saline soil. Mustard crop improvement specially Indian mustard is challenging because of the difficulty of the inheritance of yield and its characteristics. Since yield is a quantitative characteristic and the culmination of a series of contributing characters, its response to selection is weak. For a breeding effort intended to create stable varieties with high yields, it is important to determine the type and extent of genetic variation as well as genetic gain of the trait. Therefore, the present study was conducted with objectives to identify promising genotypes for yield attributing traits and to estimate several genetic variability parameters of yield. Ninety-five B. juncea accessions collected from different sources were evaluated in augmented block design along with four checks (Varuna, Kranti, Rohini and NRCHB- 101). It was observed that analysis of variance showed significant difference among genotypes for all the traits except for days to 80% flower bud formation. Among all the characters which were found to have high heritability (>60%), days to first flowering (DTFF) (94.01%), days to maturity (DTM) (92.53%) and plant height (PH) (88.74%) had the highest value. It was observed that number of siliquae per plant (NSQPP) showed highest genetic advance and heritability followed by plant height (PH), biological yield (BY), days to 100% flowering and dry weight (DW). From correlation study of agromorphological traits, NSQPP, BY, DW, Harvest Index (HI) and number of seeds per siliqua (NSPS) and number of secondary branches per plant (NSB) were found to be highly correlated with seed yield (SY). Based on the adjusted means obtained from augmented design analysis, the maximum yield per plant was recorded in the genotypes, Vardan (13.8g), followed by RH-0923 (13.33g), RW-46-3 (12.35g), RLJEB- 84 (11.78g), KMR-53-3 (11.69g) and DRMR-4001 (11.55g). Characters such as, BY, HI, and NSQPP had exhibited a high positive direct effect on seed yield per plant. The highest positive indirect effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by DW through BY. The diversity analysis based on agglomerative clustering of Ward’s method grouped the current set of genotypes under study into 5 clusters. Cluster V was found to have highest mean values for seed yield and yield attributing traits as well as they are early maturing. All the clusters' inter-cluster distances were greater than their intra-cluster distances suggesting the presence of wider genetic diversity among genotypes in various groupings. Highest inter-cluster distance (D2) was found between cluster III and V (9.48). Days to 100% flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to first germination were the traits which contributed maximum in first principal component (PC1). Vardan, RL-JEB-84, DRMR-4001, CS-2009-332, RH-0923, Rohini (SC), RH-119, PBR-210, KMR-53-3, RW-46-3, RGN-229, CS-2009-347, CS-2004-114,CS-2013-10, Vaibhav were the genotypes present at extreme points of PCA individuals biplot indicating that these lines were expected to have more genetic diversity and genetic variability for the yield contributing traits. Genotypes such as, Vardan, RH-0923, RL-JEB-84, DRMR-4001, KMR-53-3 and RW-46-3 were high yielding among all the genotypes. Whereas from correlation and path coefficient analysis, revealed that biological yield, number of siliquae per plant, harvest index and number of secondary branches per plant were the traits showing high positive correlation as well as positive direct effect with seed yield. Therefore, these traits can be emphasized during selection for yield improvement of the crop. ThesisItem EmbargoStudy on phoretic and mycangial fungi of Ambrosia Beetles and their aggressiveness associated with Tree Bean decline.(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-11) Angom, Langlentombi; Singh, Akoijam RatankumarParkia timoriana, popularly known as tree bean is an underutilised yet highly potential crop in north eastern region of India. Since, last two decades, widespread occurrence of sudden death and decline of matured tree bean were reported from Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, India. It has been reported that the tree bean decline disease is caused by Fusarium spp. mainly (F. euwallaceae, F. ambrosium, F. solani) fungal symbionts of ambrosia beetles, resulted significant reduction in pods production. Ambrosia beetles belongs to weevil subfamilies; Scolytinae and Platypodinae and survive in symbiosis with fungal symbionts. Ambrosia beetles carries their nutritional mutualistic fungi in specialized structures called mycangia. Fungal propagules are also dispersed phoretically on the beetle’s exoskeleton. Phoretic transmission of symbiotic fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae of the Euwallacea sp. of ambrosia beetles potentially contribute to the infection in tree bean. In this research, six different species of ambrosia beetles infesting the tree bean decline were identified using morphology and molecular, viz; Euwallacea interjectus, Euwallacea similis, Euwallacea fornicatus, Euplatypus parallellus, Xylosandrus crassiusculu and Xyleborinus sp. Identification was carried out by amplifying the mitochondrial gene COI region, Cytochrome Oxidase I, using the primer pair LCO1490 and HCO2198. Fungal isolation from each species (mycangia and phoretic) of the ambrosia beetle was done by serial dilution, to determine the abundance of symbionts and other species. F. euwallaceae recorded the highest frequency in mycangia and recovered from the beetles, E. interjectus, E. similis and E. Fornicates followed by different species such as Fusarium ambrosium, Fusarium solani. Other fungi, Nectria pseudotricha, Clonostachys rosea Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and L. pseudotheobromae that was also recovered from external isolation of fungi from the beetles. Average CFUs per beetle ranged from 14.55 to 32.05 and CFU ranged from 1 to 112. The highest CFUs (34.4/beetle) in F. euwallaceae recovered from Euwallacea interjectus, followed by E. fornicates (33.55/beetle) in phoretic whereas in internal, E. similis recorded the highest (32.05/beetle). Comparing between internal and external isolation of fungi, it was observed that frequency of recovery of fungi from external isolation was found greater than mycangial fungi. In another experiment, pathogenicity test was assayed on 2 years old tree bean seedlings to check the aggressiveness using four fungal isolates viz. Fusarium solani, Lasiodiplodia theobromae F. euwallaceae, and F. ambrosium under net house condition. Agar plug (5mm) and spore suspension technique (2×106 conidia/ml) was used to check the aggressiveness of the selected pathogens. Lesion was developed in all treatments except the control with the highest lesion length of 10.48±1.08 cm using agar plug and in spore suspension, the highest lesion length recorded was 6.88±0.57cm. All the isolates showed statistically similar aggressiveness to the host. In stem detached method, the highest lesion length recorded was 7.04±0.28 cm. In this present study, it can be concluded that different ambrosia beetles infesting tree bean and carry their symbiont fungi, especially F. euwallaceae and symbionts were found pathogenic. In future, further studies may be conducted on diversity of ambrosia beetles, symbiotic fungi and their host ranges and susceptibility in this region and at instance, identification of resistance tree beans germplasms against this pathogens and pest may also be explored. ThesisItem EmbargoValue chain analysis of bamboo in North Eastern Region of India(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-09) Gogoi, Jeemoni; Singh, RamBamboo is a naturally distributed evergreen perennial flowering plant belonging to the grass family Poaceae (Li and He, 2019).Trading in value-added products of bamboo has the potential to make positive contribution to the global environment and economy. The North Eastern Region (NER) of India along with West Bengal contributes half of the bamboo area of the country and bamboo craft has been practiced in NER for centuries as their prime livelihood and income source. For realizing bamboo’s full potential as a driver of environmental sustainability and inclusive economic growth, a fundamental shift in the current system is required. It has become necessary to examine the markets in terms of value addition, involvement of actors and quality requirements. Therefore, the study was carried out with the specific objectives (i) to study the utilization pattern of bamboo (ii) mapping of value chain actors in bamboo and its products (iii) estimation of compliance cost, investment and return involved in value chain of bamboo (iv) to assess the impact of value chain of bamboo on livelihood and income of different stakeholders in the state of Assam and Meghalaya. The study was conducted with primary data from Assam in Barpeta and Nalbari district with a total respondent of 130 and 150 respectively, and in Meghalaya, a total of 53 and 47 respondents were selected from East Khasi Hills and Ri- Bhoi district, respectively. To fulfil the above objectives, utilization of bamboo was classified into five categories; value chain map was prepared with identification of actors involved. The compliance cost, marketing margin, price spread, percentage change, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were estimated for the stakeholders. The results showed that the maximum quantity (84.50%) of bamboo has been utilized by the respondents for building and scaffolding purposes. The raw bamboo in Assam mainly marketed outside the state through channel-I (Pole collector →Traders→ Other states of India) (46.43%) in Assam, while in Meghalaya, it was through channel-II (Pole Collector→ Traders (Assam/Shillong)) (81.35%). In Assam, five channels were identified for bamboo products and maximum quantity (49.24%) was marketed in channel-IV (Artisans→Trader-cum-Wholesaler-cum-Producer→ Outside Assam) whereas, in Meghalaya majority of the product (90.39%) was sold off through channel-I (Artisans→ Village merchant→ Wholesaler-cum-Retailer→ Consumer). The bamboo shoots were marketed only in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya through five channels out of which three channels were used for marketing of fermented (pickled) bamboo shoots. Differentiated value added furniture products viz., sofa set, bed, dining table and handicrafts and traditional products (Japi, Duli and Khorahi) were marketed in Assam while in Meghalaya handicraft and traditional products (Polo and Khoh) were marketed. In Barpeta and Nalbari districts, the price spread was found to be higher in channel-I and channel-V, respectively for all the products while in Meghalaya, the maximum price spread was found in channel-I in both the districts for all the bamboo products. Positive impact of bamboo value chain was observed on different stakeholders’ income and expenditure with significant difference in the income distribution assessed through Gini coefficient. Maximum employment was generated at artisan’s level (533 mandays). The study recommends the establishment of bamboo product export zone in the NER with focus on export-oriented bamboo value chain including high value product development viz. laminated bamboo boards, engineered bamboo products, bamboo vinegar, etc. for the improved livelihood of the stakeholders involved in the sector. ThesisItem EmbargoInfluence of farmers’ preferences and perception of varietal traits on adoption of improved rice varieties in Meghalaya(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University - Imphal, 2022-10) Dkhar, Jerrycane; Devarani, L.Rice is the most important cereal crop of India. In Meghalaya state of NE India, significant increase in the production of rice was observed, however, the production is still much below the demand of the state and productivity below the national average. Adoption of improved high yielding varieties is one of the best solutions for increasing agricultural productivity and improving the living standard of the farmers. Quite a number of improved/ high yielding varieties of rice were introduce to the farmers of Meghalaya of which CAU-R1 released by Central Agricultural University, Imphal is one. The study was conducted in two purposively selected districts Ri-Bhoi and West Jaintia Hills with the following objectives (1) To explore the farmers’ preferences regarding varietal traits of rice, (2) To find out the perception of the farmers regarding varietal traits of CAU R1 variety, (3) To study the influence of farmers' preferences and perception of varietal traits on adoption of improved rice varieties, (4) To identify and compare the constraints faced by the rice farmers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. From 3 villages of each district, 38 adopters of CAU-R1 were selected purposively and 60 non-adopters randomly. It was found that the respondent farmers prefer varieties that are high yielding, disease/pest resistant, non-lodging, easy to harvest, easy to thresh and low input requirement; and the grain traits viz., good taste and easy to cook. They perceive CAU-RI to have low tolerance to drought, flood and also the attack of disease (rice blast). They also felt that the variety has high input requirement and that the aroma and taste of the variety is not favourable as compared to the local varieties. Binary logistic regression revealed that perception towards the varietal traits high yield and non-lodging positively and significantly influence adoption decision of CAU-R1, while perception towards traits aroma and stickiness was found to have negatively significant influence. Problems like ‘lack of awareness on improved varieties’, ‘lack of training’, ‘unavailability of experts’, ‘unavailability of seeds’ and ‘high cost/shortage of labors’ were the most important constraints reported .COVID-19 pandemic specific problems identified were ‘difficulty to procure/ unavailability of seeds’ and ‘high cost of labor/ shortage of labor’. For increasing adoption of CAU-R1, certain mis-perceptions regarding the varietal traits of CAU-R1 need to be clarified through proper awareness and intensive result demonstrations. For local supply of seeds, local seed producers/ entrepreneurs should be encouraged. The study suggests participatory breeding programme involving farmers in all stages of breeding process so that their preferences are considered and adoption enhanced. ThesisItem EmbargoFarmers’ aspiration on inception of farming system for nutrition at Bhoirymbong, Ribhoi, Meghalaya: a Bayesian belief network—GIS Analysis(College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, 2022-12) Ishwarya, Yelasani; Singh, Rajkumar JosmeeThe conventional farming systems of Meghalaya largely aim at food security with a major focus on productivity, profitability, sustainability and stability. Nutrition security therefore has to be addressed by both availability and accessibility of nutrient-rich foods at the household level, which is central to Farming System for Nutrition (FSN). The present scientific inquiry with two research objectives, viz., (i) ‘To conduct rapid appraisal on food and nutritional security of farmers by using GIS through UAV data.’ & (ii) ‘To ascertain farmers’ aspiration on inception of Farming System for Nutrition through Bayesian Belief Network.’, has been performed in the three adopted villages of the research project— DHaBReT at Bhoirymbong C&RD block, Ri-bhoi, Meghalaya. Descriptive research design and mixed-method sampling procedure were followed in the study. Fifty four (54) respondents have been identified from three villages, namely (i) Thadnongiaw, (ii) Kdonghulu, and (iii) Liarkhla from Bhoirymbong C&RDB of Ri-bhoi district of Meghalaya. Performance of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) using UAV data could ascertained that about 38% and 73% of arable land had aspect toward North-West (very low sunshine) and situated in a steep location, wherein administration of improved scientific agriculture was a challenge. With respect to the ‘Implementing Variables’, it could be unveiled that majority (59.30%) of respondents had small ‘Area of arable land’, also majority (63.00%) of them belonged to meagre class of ‘Income from crops and animal husbandry’. Regarding ‘Food expenditure budget share of total household expenditure’, half of the sample size expended high and its vice versa. Strikingly, all the respondents had low ‘Dietary Diversity’. Considering the ‘Intervention Variable’, it was divulged that majority (70.40%) of the respondents had medium ‘Nutritional Literacy’, also 3/4th of sample respondents had medium ‘Awareness on FSN’, and majority (59.30%) of the respondents had medium ‘Community Readiness on Change in Farming System’. For the intermediate variables — ‘Access to on Food and Nutritional Security developmental schemes of Govt.’ and ‘Access to markets’, cent percent of the respondents belonged to low category. Similar is the case for the controlling variable — ‘Intervention of research institutes (InResins)’. Very high percentage (81.60%) of the respondents had low level of ‘Farmers’ aspiration on inception of Farming System for Nutrition (AspFSN)’ which is the objective variable of the study. One episodic and two Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) scenarios have been analyzed in the discourse resulting to decrease in lower category of AspFSN from 81.60 to 66.10 and 58.00 with conditional increase on percentage change of 1.79 to 50.00 and 75.00 respectively towards. The study established that the controlling variable — InResins was the sole determining parental node in the BBN. Therefore, the study recommends that agricultural research institutions such as CPGSAS, CAU (I); ICAR NEH; State Agril. Research institutes etc. should take prime initiatives in order to incept FSN to farmers of Bhoirymbong, Ri-bhoi, Meghalaya.