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Central Agricultural University, College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Umiam

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  • ThesisItemEmbargo
    Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato and its eco-friendly management with bio-inoculants
    (College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, CAU-Imphal, Umiam, 2022-11) Nongbri, Euphema; Kadam, Veronica
    Tomato is one of the most significant vegetables in the world. It contains lycopene, which is an important antioxidant and can prevent cancer. Meloidogyne incognita has become a limiting factor in the growth of tomato by affecting the growth and yield of the crop. This nematode causes yield loss ranging from 40 to 46% fruit yield of tomato. The present study on the pathogenicity of root-knot nematode, M. incognita revealed that the inoculum level from 500 to 8000 J2 per plant significant reduced the plant growth parameters. Maximum reduction in plant height (44.50 cm), fresh shoot weight (15.12 g), dry shoot weight (11.62 g), root length (15.75 cm), fresh root weight (11.62 g) and dry root weight (1.70 g) and maximum increase in nematode population like gall index (5.00) was observed in T5, T6, T7, no. of eggs (21.71), nematode soil population (5028), root population (3971) were recorded at 8,000 J2. Simultaneously, it was also observed that reproduction factor (Rf) value declined with the increase initial J2 inoculum level. Management of M. incognita is a difficult task being endoparasites in nature and that has largely relied on chemical nematicides for decades. Although nematicides are efficient and fast-acting, they have a negative effect in terms of environmental hazards and human health. Therefore, research was undertaken to compare and evaluate efficacy of different ecofriendly bio-inoculants like BaPseudo (Pseudomonas flourescens), UmRaj (Bacillus megaterium), CAU Bioenhancer (Bacillus altitudinis 41E, Pseudomonas saponiphila 69E, Bacillus altitudinis 47E, Rhizobium leguminosarum (NR2)) either alone or as combine treatment against M. incognita in field conditions. All the bio-inoculants significantly increased the plant growth parameters. However, maximum increase in plant height (49.5 at 60 DAS and 65.83 at 90 DAS) was recorded in combine treatment of (T3) BaPseudo with CAU Bioenhancer over untreated plot. The minimum gall index per plant (1.33 at 60 and 90 DAS), minimum initial (53.33) and final (76.67) nematode population, increased yield (300.66 q/ha) were recorded in combined treatment of (T3) BaPseudo with CAU Bioenhancer in comparison with Nimitz which was used as chemical check (T7). The use of biocontrol agents as seed treatment, bare root dip treatment and soil application was the alternate strategy for management of root knot nematode, M. incognita in tomato. This can further be tested in farmers’ field for management of root knot nematode diseases.
  • ThesisItemEmbargo
    Eco-friendly management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in tomato
    (College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, CAU-Imphal, Umiam, 2022-11) Jeevan H.; Patidar, Raghubir Kumar
    Studies on “Eco-friendly management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in tomato” was conducted at CPGS-AS, Umiam, Meghalaya. In this context nematicidal property of botanicals i.e. neem (Azadiracta indica) oil and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) oil and bio-control agents like Trichoderma harzianum, Purpureocillium lilacinum and Pochonia chlamydosporia were tested as in-vitro and invivo to manage the root knot nematode. Under in-vitro condition mortality of J2 mortality was recorded maximum (99.44%) in the lemongrass oil at 2000 ppm concentration which is at par with 1000ppm. Pochonia chlamydosporia at 2% concentration reduced hatching of root knot nematode maximum (9.57%) after 10 days of treatment. Neem oil at 10% concentration after 10 days of treatment could able to check maximum per cent penetration (4.42%) of J2 into the root system and inoculated (Check) showed maximum penetration (25.74%). Based on in-vitro performance of different concentrations of botanicals and bio-control agents were selected for pot-trials under polyhouse condition. It was found that maximum shoot (63.3cm) and root length (36.8cm) was recorded in the combination of botanical + biocontrol + chemical whereas, inoculated treatment showed minimum in 32.9, 14.4 cm of shoot and root length. Minimum no. of gall/plant was observed in the Fluensulfone with 44.04 and more (246.6) in case of Inoculated treatment. Final nematode population was maximum in Inoculated treatment (568/200 cc soil), whereas minimum in Fluensulfone (94/200 cc of soil) and followed by combination of botanical + biocontrol + chemical. Therefore, combination of botanical + biocontrol + chemical is the best treatment which we can adopt as a biological management of RKN in order to manage the root-knot nematode.