Effect of intra-uterine administration of Lactobacillus bacteria on the steroid hormone profile in sub-clinical endometritis affected cows

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Sub-clinical endometritis is prevalent in high-producing dairy cows which leads to decreased pregnancy rates and extended inter-calving period (Kasimanickam et al. 2004, Gilbert et al. 2005). Sub-clinical endometritis is the inflammation of the endometrium without any visible clinical signs and often without symptoms of infection (Madoz et al. 2014 and Marino et al. 2017). In addition to reproductive failure, clinical as well as sub-clinical endometritis may negatively affect milk production (Bell et al. 2007). Current treatments of sub-clinical endometritis mostly include antimicrobials and prostaglandin (PGF2α). However, the reproductive performance was neither improved by antibiotics nor PGF2α (Lima et al. 2013). Therefore, an alternative strategy for the effective management of sub-clinical endometritis for improving fertility rates without the unwanted side effects of antimicrobials would be of great advantage. In humans, bacterial vaginosis is being treated with lactobacilli as an alternative to antibiotics (Vicariotto et al. 2014).