Knowledge and Adoption of Solar Pumps by the Farmers in Jodhpur District of Rajasthan

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Date
2021-06-08
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Agriculture University, Jodhpur
Abstract
Solar energy is the origin for all forms of energy which can be used either through the thermal route i.e. using heat for cooking, drying, heating by generating electricity or the photovoltaic route i.e. converting solar energy into electricity there can be specially used for lighting, pumping, cooling, electrical equipments and devices. Solar pumping irrigation was demonstrated a robust fusion in rural development, ecological conservation and available technology for increasing farmers income, living standards and improving the living conditions of women by reducing labour intensity and reducing poverty. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) Yojana was launch by the Government of India to increase the income of farmers and provide sources of irrigation for agricultural sector. Any farmers, group of farmers, panchayats, and cooperatives can apply under KUSUM Yojana to get benefits of solar pumps. Govt provides 60 percent subsidy to farmers and 30 percent of total cost by govt as loan and remaining 10% contributes by the beneficiary. Govt of Rajasthan were established four solar parks namely at Bhadla Solar Park (Phalodi, Jodhpur), Nokh Solar Park (Jaisalmer), Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Park (Dhursar, Pokharan) and Fatehgard Solar Park (Jaisalmer). As there is bright and sunny day round the years there for Jodhpur is known as Sun City. Govt of Rajasthan installed 415 solar pumps till 2020. Out of 33 districts, Jodhpur stands on 20 positions in the state (Annual report-2017, Jaipur). In the state there was urgent need to know the current status of knowledge and adoptions of solar energy of the respondents from this. It is also to be identified that why Jodhpur district stand on 20 position in the state. Keeping this in mind the present proposed study was undertaken to examine the farmer’s, awareness level and explores the factors, which influence their adoption intension of solar powered pumps. The study was conducted to reveal the dimensions such as perceived knowledge, adoption level and constraints of solar pump use. Though studies have been conducted to assess knowledge and adoption of solar pump in the Jaipur district but such type of study not carried out in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan keeping this in mind the present study entitled “Knowledge and Adoption of Solar Pumps by the Farmers in Jodhpur District of Rajasthan’’ was conducted to with following objectives.I. To study knowledge level of farmers about solar pumps II. To measure adoption of farmers about solar pumps III. To find out relationship between the independent variables and adoption of solar pumps IV. To identify constraint in adoption of solar pumps The present study was conducted in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. There were total seven tehsils in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, out of which, two tehsils namely osian and balesar were selected on the basis of maximum number of installed of solar pumps. Ten villages from each selected tehsils were selected on the basis of maximum number of beneficiaries. One hundred twenty five (125) farmers were selected from twenty selected village. Data were collected by investigator through personal interview technique with the help of developed structured schedule. Thereafter data were tabulated and various statistical measures viz. percent, mean, mean percent scores, standard deviation, ranking and correlation of coefficient (r) were used to arrive at specific inference. Major sequels of the study are as follows:- The study clearly showed that that majority of solar pump users (61.60 percent) belonged to middle level of knowledge, followed by high level of knowledge (22.40 percent). Whereas only 16.00 percent solar pump user were belonged to the low level of knowledge, respectively. According to aspect wise knowledge level of farmers, it has found that first rank is given to operational knowledge (91.54 MPS), followed by general knowledge (86.63 MPS), installation knowledge (85.60 MPS), maintenance and repair knowledge (84.40 MPS), and technical knowledge (81.40 MPS) and were ranked second, third fourth and fifth respectively. Findings revealed that, (69.60 percent) of the total respondents were in the medium level of adoption group whereas (17.60 percent) respondents were in low adoption group and remaining (12.80 percent) were observed in the category of high level of adoption about solar energy technology. It was found the overall adoption of use direct current pumps and accurate current pumps and use solar pump for irrigation was rank first and second with (99.47 MPS) and (99.2 MPS). Use drip/sprinkler irrigation through solar pumps (98.93 MPS), maintains the space of panels regularly (98.67 MPS) and save water through solar pump as compare to electricity / diesel pumps (98.40 MPS) were third, fourth and fifth ranked. Whereas, it was found that solar pump users had less adoption regarding use of satisfied with the water outflow of the pumps (72.53 MPS), Training regularly related to operation and maintenance of solar pumps (69.87 MPS), Use solar pumps in different fruit plant on farm (63.47 MPS), Use solar pumps for vegetable crops (62.67 MPS), Use of solar pumps for drinking water supply (47.20 MPS) and use solar water heater (36.80 MPS) which were ranked fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen and twenty, respectively.The value of coefficient correlation outfit clearly shows that level of adoption of solar pumps were positively and significantly related at 5 percent level of significantly with size of land holding, social participation, annual income of family, occupation, extension contact and mass media utilization. There was negative and significantly relationship between age the level of adoption of solar pumps where as age posses’ negative and significant relationship with the level of adoption of solar pumps. There are positively and non-significant relationship between caste the level of adoption of solar pumps at 5 percent level of significance and family type negative with non-significant relationship with level of adoption of solar pumps. Among all reveal that among all the studied constraints, Technical constraints were up to greatest extent (69.76 MPS) and ranked first followed by extension constraints (65.87 MPS) ranked second however, the extent of financial constraints (60.10 MPS), Operation and Maintenance constraints (51.80 MPS), farm level constraints (40.67 MPS) and environmental constraints (30.66 MPS) were ranked third, fourth, fifth and six respectively. Recommendations: 1) Majority of the respondents were belonging to medium level of knowledge about solar pumps. Therefore it is recommended that KVK and department of agriculture may conduct different extension activities in order to reach all the section of farming community and to convert low level knowledge into medium level knowledge and medium to high level of knowledge categories. 2) Since most of the respondents were having medium extent of adoption of use of solar pump for irrigation, thus the efforts may be made to bring about changes in their extent of adoption from medium to high level by providing skill oriented trainings to them which improve their technical know-how and efficiency about use of solar pumps. 3) The VEWs, VDO and Extension personnel may be provided special awareness campaign, training in operation and maintenance of solar pumps so that they can provide guidance to the respondents as and when needed. 4) Govt. may formulate such loan, policies, scheme and subsidies which have less formalities and credit should be provided to the all farmers timely in easy installments. 5) The technology developers may make efforts to reduce the initial cost of the technology as this was the major technical constraints reported by the respondents to adopt solar pumps.
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Choudhary Divya 2021. Knowledge and Adoption of Solar Pumps by the Farmers in Jodhpur District of Rajasthan . M.Sc. thesis, College of Agriculture, Agriculture University Jodhpur
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