Post-Harvest Quality Enhancement in Banana cv. Grand Naine

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Date
2021
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An experiment on „Post harvest quality enhancement in banana cv. Grand Naine‟ was conducted in kharif season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 in the Orchard and Quality Control laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat to study the effect of various pre and post harvest treatments on post harvest quality and shelf life of banana. Two pre harvest treatments B1 (Bunch spray of sulfate of potash 2% + calcium chloride 2%), B2 (Bunch spray of sulfate of potash 2% + micro nutrient Tracel 2%) and six post harvest treatments H1( Dipping hands in 1% chitosan solution for 2 minutes), H2 (Dipping hands in 30 ppm Benzyl adenine solution for 10 minutes), H3 (Dipping hands in 2% calcium chloride solution for 5 minutes) H4 (Dipping hands in 1% Garlic extract for 4 hours), H5 (Dipping hands in Gibberelic acid 150 ppm solution for 1 minute), H6 (Control or Hands without any treatment) were applied to fruits. Fruits were subjected to post harvest treatments immediately after harvest and kept at ambient conditions (mean temp. 21.8 + 2.3°C; mean RH 85 + 10%). Physicochemical properties and enzyme activities were studied at harvest and across storage at 3 days (S1), 6 days (S2), 9days (S3) and 12 days (S4). The laboratory experiment was laid out in a factorial completely randomized block design with three replications. Among pre harvest treatments, sulfate of potash 2% + micro nutrient (Tracel 2%) proved better in improving fruit qualities. On 12th days after storage, maximum TSS ( 25%), Reducing sugar (17.83%) , Non reducing sugar (11.13%) and Total sugar (28.97%) were recorded in B1H6 ( spray of sulfate of potash 2% + calcium chloride 2% + control) while minimum content was found in B2H5 (sulfate of potash 2% + micro nutrient (Tracel 2%) + GA3 150 ppm i.e. 18.72%, 9.03%, 7.40% and 16.44%, respectively. B2H6 registered the lowest titrable acidity (0.32%) which was followed by B1H6 (.322%) and B2H1 (0.357%). Maximum retention of ascorbic acid (4.71 mg/100g), crude protein (3.25%), crude fibre (0.42%), pectin (2.38%) and the lowest phenol content (25.50 mg/ 100g) were obtained in B2H5 . .Pectin methyl esterase activity in pedicel was the highest i.e. 37.34 units / mg protein on 12th days of storage in B1H6 and the lowest activity (20.84 units / mg protein) was found in B2H5. In pedicel, its activity was higher than that of peel. Physiological loss in weight (PLW) and rotting of fruits were increased during storage. B2H5 recorded the lowest PLW (10.39%) on 12th days after storage and absence of rotting of fruits which was followed by B2H3 (10.92%). Organoleptic qualities of fruits were found to decrease with the advancement of storage period. The highest score values in respect of colour (9), flavour (8.67) and overall acceptability (9) were obtained in sulfate of potash (2%) + Tracel 2% + post harvest treatment of Gibberelic acid 150 ppm followed by sulfate of potash (2%) + Calcium chloride (2%) + Post harvest treatment of Gibberelic acid 150 ppm which was having highest taste score (9) and texture value (8.73). Maximum shelf life of 15 days was recorded in sulfate of potash (2%) + Tracel 2% + post harvest treatment of Gibberelic acid 150 ppm while the lowest of 9 days was found in sulfate of potash (2%) + Calcium chloride (2%) + Control. The former treatment is also very cost effective while comparing with other treatments. Thus, it may be suggested that pre harvest treatments with sulfate of potash (2%) + Tracel 2% and post harvest treatment of Gibberelic acid 150 ppm (1 min) appeared to be the best treatment with minimum pectin methyl esterase activity, physiological weight loss, rotting and microbial activities retaining maximum pectin, crude fibre, protein which extended the shelf life up to 15 days at ambient conditions.
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