Molecular characterization and Seroprevalence studies on equine haemoprotozoan diseases with special reference to Trypanosoma evansi

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ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya
Equine haemoprotozoan diseases have negative impacts on health status and working efficiency of equines in different areas of the world including India. A cross sectional study was conducted in twenty seven districts of three agro-climatic zones of Eastern region, Uttar Pradesh, India during February, 2020 to February, 2021 to evaluate the prevalence (parasitological, molecular and serological) study, epidemiological relative risk factors, molecular characterization of equine haemoprotozoans and T. evansi parasite clearance efficacy of trypanocidal drugs in equine population. A total of 524 equines (381 horses, 50 donkeys and 93 mules) blood samples of both sex and different age groups were collected for the present study. The overall prevalence of T. evansi and T. equi was 8.01% and 5.15 % by microscopic method, 12.98 % and 19.85 % by PCR method and 17.56 % and 41.79 % by ELISA assay, respectively in the entire study area. The assessment of epidemiological relative risk factors associated with PCR and ELISA techniques revealed that mule and donkey population was at 5.34 and 3.69 times more prone to T. evansi infection as compared to the horses. The young animals and equines used for bricks kiln purpose were at 1.93 and 1.54 times more chances of T. evansi infection as compared to the adult and equines used for other transport purpose, respectively. North eastern plain zone and Vindhyan zone equines were at 1.34 and 1.09 times more susceptible to T. equi infection as compared to the equines of the Eastern plain zone of study area. Mule and donkeys were at 1.37 and 1.25 times whereas helminthes infested equines were at 1.42 times more prone to infection as compared to the horses and helminthes free equines in study area. Multiple alignment of nucleotide sequence of ITS1 and 18S RNA gene variants from Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, Indian, T. evansi and T. equi showed homology with database sequences of GenBank. No trypanocidal drug was found to completely eliminate parasites with single recommended dose. Isometamidium chloride was recorded more effective than rest of the selected trypanocidal drugs.