GENETIC STUDIES ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN PEARL MILLET [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]

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Date
2004-08
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JAU,JUNAGADH
Abstract
Information regarding heterosis and combining ability in respect of grain yield and yield components was obtained in the present investigation. The material for present study comprised of 10 diverse parents (inbreds) and their forty-five hybrids. They were evaluated in tho rainiomized block design, replicated three times at the Main Millet Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar during kharif-2002. Observations were recorded on days to flowering, days to maturity, length of protogyny, plant height (cm), effective tiller per plant, ear head length (cm), ear head girth (cm), test weight (g), ear head weight (g), compactness(cm^), dry fodder yield per plant (g) and grain yield per plant (g). The data were analysed to estimate heterosis and combining ability for these traits. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, parents and hybrids for all the characters. Parents Vs hybrids differed significantly for all the characters except number of effective tillers per plant, ear head girth, ear head weight and compactness, indicating the presence of conspicuous heterosis. The magnitude of heterosis varied from cross to cross for all the characters. Ear head weight and grain yield per plant exhibited the highest heterotic values, whereas, least heterosis was observed for days to flowering. Heterosis in grain yield was reflected through heterosis In plant height, ear head length, 1000-grain weight, ear head weight and dry fodder yield per plant. The crosses, J-2459 x IPC-1518, J-2459 x J- 2290 ?-d RHRBI-458 x IPC-1518 exhibited the highest heterotic effect and mean performance for grain yield. Combining ability analysis showed that general as well as specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. The predictability ratio, GCA : SCA variance, suggested predominant role of additive gene action for plant height, ear head length, ear head girth, lOOO-seed weight and compactness; non additive gene action for length of protogyny, ear head weight, dry fodder as well as grain yield per plant, while both were equally important for days to flowering, days to maturity and effective tillers per plant. The hybrids, RHRBI-458 x IPC-1518, J-2340 x IPC-1518, RHRBI- 458 X J-2459, RHRBI-458 x D-23 and J-2442 X J-2290 were the promising ones on the basis of SCA effect, per se performance, and heterosis, which could be exploited for improvement in grain yield and its components. The parents like RHRBI-458, J-2442, J-2459, IPC-1518 and D-23 could be used in hybridization programme to exploit their GCA effects for grain yield and some other important contributing traits. The hybrids viz., RHRBI-458 x D-23, RHRBI-458 x IPC-1518, RHRBI-458 x J-2459, J-2459 x IPC-1518 and J-2442 x IPC-1518 displayed high per se performance, high estimates of heterobeltiosis, high SCA and involves both the parents with high GCA effects. Such crosses have potential to throw desirable transgresants in the segregating material, which the breeder can handle through pedigree method for the development of high yielding inbred lines.
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