Exploration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini) and it’s Management

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Agriculture University, Jodhpur
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) belongs to the family Apiaceae, locally known as Jeera or Zeera. It is believed to be a native of the Mediterranean and Near Eastern regions. It is mainly cultivated in India, Egypt, Libya, Iran, Pakistan and Mexico. For the better cultivation moderate sub-tropical climate is appropriate and required cool and dry climate for better growth. It cannot withstand high humidity and heavy rainfall. For cumin cultivation well drained sandy or loamy soil is preferred and mostly grown on light textured soil deficient in nitrogen with low water retention capacity. Seed and soil borne pathogens are the major constraints in production of cumin, causing poor germination and early mortality of seedling. Cumin crop is mainly affected by three fungal (wilt, blight & powdery mildew) diseases. Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini is one of the most important disease. Cumin wilt disease usually seen during early stages of crop growth to crop harvesting stage resulting in damage to the seed. The annual yield losses due to wilt disease alone are up to 60%, the disease has a potential to damage the crop with up to 25.7% but may be 60% losses in some cases, and the detailed investigations on various aspects were carried out in the present study. A roving survey carried out for wilt disease incidence in different tehsils of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan showed that Tinwari recorded maximum wilt disease incidence (21.92%) followed by Balesar (19.10%), Phalodi (17.17%), Osian (15.55%) and minimum wilt disease incidence was recorded in Bilara (12.87%). The freshly infected cumin plants showed typical wilt symptoms were collected from the farmer’s field and isolate by following standard tissue isolation method and revealed the association of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini after studying the cultural and morphological characters of the fungus and the pathogenicity was proved by following Koch’s Postulates. The pure culture was sent for identification to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), I.A.R.I., New Delhi – 110 012 and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini (ID. No. 11,536.21). Thirty cumin germplasm were screened, none of the germplasm showed immune and resistant reaction under field condition.
Janjir Hitendra 2021. Exploration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini) and it’s Management. M.Sc. thesis, College of Agriculture, Agriculture University, Jodhpur.