Identification and characterization of protein rich rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar
Malnutrition continues to be a crucial problem particularly in developing countries. Rice is the staple food in all regions of the country and it harbors the least amount of proteins among all cereals. Proteins are required for production of enzymes, antibodies, haemoglobins, hormones and also used by the body to promote growth and repair of tissues(bones, muscle, cartilage, skin, blood etc). They also act as neurotransmitters. An adult person requires 0.8 gm protein per kilogram of body weight but in practice, hardly 50% of the daily requirement is met by various sources of foods. Hence, peoples particularly of low income groups are at high risk of protein malnutrition. Keeping in view, the present investigation was formulated to explore protein rich genotypes among 551 available germplasm resources comprising indigenous land races, improved advanced breeding lines, elite genotypes and released varieties collected from various sources. Total seed storage protein of each genotype was extracted from brown rice using 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 and grain protein content(GPC) was estimated as per Bradford method using NanoDrop Spectrophotometer 2000. A set of 20 protein rich genotypes (GPC ≥8.0%) were short listed for phenotypic characterization and subjected to molecular analysis for presence of genetic loci determining grain protein content. Among the above test genotypes, Swarna, CR Dhan 311 and its mutants (ORCZ 101-PR-2, ORCZ 101-PR- 3, ORCZ-101-PR-4 and ORCZ-101-PR-5) had shown high yield potential (≥ 40q/ha). ORCZ 101-PR-4 matured in 110 days and had shown desirable features e.g., semidwarf plant type, appreciable grain fertility, medium amylose content and protein content exceeding 10%. Number of effective ear bearing tillers/hill, grain number/panicle, 100-grain weight, fertility % and elongation ratio had significant correlation with grain yield, while days to flowering, days to maturity and kernel length correlated negatively, and GPC maintained no association grain yield. Among the genotypes, Chak Hao –a black rice, Ketakijoha, Taraori Basmati, Basmati 564 and CR Sugandha Dhan 907 had shown appreciable genetic distance and hence, considered highly divergent compared to rest of the test genotypes. Among these, Chak Hao and CR Sugandha Dhan harbor GPC more than 10%, but had low yield potential(˷30q/ha). Besides, the present set of 19 core high protein test genotypes along with Swarna (Check) were screened for presence of genetic locus for the glutelin gene, as glutelin served as the major seed storage protein fraction. A 541bp amplicon was revealed in CR DHan 311, ORCZ 101-PR-3, ORCZ 101-PR-4, Chak Hao, Ketakijoha, Laxmi, ORCZ 66, ORCZ 57, Taraori Basmati and Chittimatyalu using gene-specific primer ‘GluA1’ in PCR analysis indicating the presence of Glutelin A1 gene. Such a marker assisted selection of donors for presence of glutelin gene(s) can pave the way for gene pyramiding for development protein rich rice.
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