Effect of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.) on dietary management of life style disorders

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Department of Community Science, College of Agriculture Vellayani
The study entitled “Effect of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.) on the dietary management of lifestyle disorders was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Vellayani during the period 2015-17, with the objective to promote cluster bean consumption in the daily diet and to assess its effect on lifestyle disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hyper glycaemia. Local type of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was collected from the market. Standardization of cluster bean products and their sensory evaluation were carried out. Five popular recipes namely soup, salad, bread spread, chutney powder and steamed balls and three preserved products such as a minimally processed product, a ready to cook product (RTC) and a dehydrated powder were standardized. The best formulations were selected with respect to parameters such as appearance, colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability, by a sensory panel comprising of ten members. For standardization of soup, five formulations were tested. Among these, S5 was identified as the best formulation which comprised of cluster beans, rice water, corn flour, pepper and salt (Their ratio being, 50: 200: 3.5: 3.5: 2.5). In the case of salad, SD3 was selected as the best formulation which consisted of cluster beans, curd, pepper and salt (Their ratio being 50: 10: 5: 2). As for bread spread, the best formulation selected was BS3 which contained cluster beans, yogurt, garlic, pepper and salt in their ratio 50: 15: 5: 2: 2. In case of chutney powder, CP1 was identified as the best formulation which comprised of cluster bean powder, urad dal, garlic, sesame, asafoetida, redchilly and curry leaves (Their ratio being 10: 10: 2: 2: 2: 2: 2). With respect to steamed balls, the formulation SB4 got the highest scores in sensory evaluation, which comprised of cluster beans, rice flour, garam masala and salt (Their ratio being, 25: 25: 2: 2). In case of the minimally processed product, MP3 was selected as the best formulation, which comprised of cluster beans treated with sodium benzoate (0.25%) and citric acid (1%). As for ready to cook product, R3 was identified as the best formulation which comprised of cluster beans, onions, red chilli powder, cumin seeds, asafoetida, ginger, garlic, turmeric and curry leaves (Their ratio being, 50: 10: 5: 2: 2: 2: 2: 2: 2). Dehydrated powder was processed by the method adapted from Megha ( 2015). Nutrient analysis of cluster beans revealed that carbohydrate, protein, moisture, crude fiber, total ash and beta carotene was 70g, 17.1g, 4 per cent, 7.5 per cent, 2.20 per cent and 53.2μg respectively. Diet counselling on the importance of fibre rich locally available fruits and vegetables for maintaining health, was conducted. The demonstration of standardised recipes was also done during the diet counselling. Knowledge gained from counselling was assessed. Evaluation of knowledge scores revealed that there was significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Before supplementation of cluster bean powder in Group A, mean values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and VLDL in the experimental group was 235.6mg/dl, 140.4mg/dl, 162.6mg/dl, 43.2mg/dl and 27.7mg/dl respectively. After supplementation, the mean values changed to 217.2mg/dl, 122.5mg/dl, 150.3mg/dl, 50mg/dl and 25.5mg/dl respectively. Significant difference was obtained at 5 percent level in the total cholesterol levels of the experimental group. In case of Group B (Hyper glycaemia), significant difference was obtained at 1 percent level in the fasting blood glucose and post prandial blood glucose levels for experimental group. The mean glycaemic index of cluster bean powder computed from the five subjects was found to be 72.09 which was 27.91 percent less than that of white bread (Reference food). The glycaemic load of cluster bean powder was found to be 25.71. The present study on cluster beans has proved that the diet counselling plays an important role in enhancing cluster bean consumption. The hypolipidemic and hypo glycaemic effect of cluster bean powder was also confirmed in this study.