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Thesis

Clinical studies on bovine and canine urolithiasis with special reference to dissolution protocol in dogs

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01-06-15
Saini, N. S.
Ph.D

The study was conducted in Phase I and Phase II on bovine (n=13) and canine (n=40) clinical cases of urolithiasis. In Phase I, diagnosis of urolithiasis on the basis of history, clinical examination, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography; surgical and medicinal management including in-vivo dissolution of calculi was done. The Phase I study was sub-divided into Part I which was conducted on bovine urolithiasis and Part II, conducted on canine urolithiasis. In Phase II of the study, the calculi retrieved were subjected to chemical analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and in-vitro dissolution. Results showed that urolithiasis is common in young male bovine and young and middle aged male dogs. High incidence was seen in non-descript male bovine and in Pug and Labrador breeds of dog. Incidence was higher after the winters and early summer in bovine and during the winter season in dogs. Bovine fed on concentrate rich diet and dogs on high protein diet suffered more. TLC was normal in bovine and was elevated in dogs whereas BUN and Creatinine values were above normal range in all the animals on the day of presentation. Most of the electrolytes were within the normal limits throughout the treatment period except elevated phosphorus in bovine and chloride levels in dogs on the day of presentation. Potassium levels were above the normal range in bovine and canine. Ultrasonography and radiography were efficient in diagnosing obstructive urolithiasis with rupture of urinary bladder in bovine and dogs, whereas radiography was better tool to diagnose urethral calculi in dogs. The common site of calculi lodgment in bovine was tip of penis followed by sigmoid flexure, whereas, in dogs it was urinary bladder followed by urethra. Struvite and calcium oxalate crystals were common in dogs. Staphylococcus spp was found to be the most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI in bovine and canine. In bovine urethrotomy helped for removal of the calculi. Ammonium chloride was found beneficial for preventing recurrence of uroliths in bovine. In dogs‟ single layer, continuous appositional and cushing inversion suture patterns were found to be satisfactory suturing techniques for the repair of bladder wall. The in-vivo dissolution protocol using Ammonium chloride as urinary acidifier @ 5mg/kg body weight for struvite urolithiasis and Di Sodium Hydrogen Citrate @ 0.03 mg/kg body weight for calcium oxalate as a urinary alkalizer was satisfactory. Mineral analysis showed calcium carbonate and carbonate apatite in bovine and struvite and calcium oxalate monohydrate were the most common uroliths in dogs. The in-vitro dissolution showed, calculi formed in acidic pH were better soluble in alkaline pH solutions and vice-versa.

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