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Thesis

EFFECT OF APPLE POMACE BASED COMPLETE FEED ON GROWTH RESPONSE OF CALVES

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2019-07-23
Rani, Daisy
CSKHPKV Palampur
71
Calves,Growth,Significantly
The effect of ensiled mixture of apple pomace and wheat straw along with concentrate feed on nutrient utilization in calves.
M.V.Sc.

The study was conducted with the aim to find out the effect of using ensiled apple pomace (AP) based complete feed on growth response of calves. Ten male calves were divided into 2 groups of 5 calves each, with each group having similar average body weight. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the effect of ensiled mixture of apple pomace and wheat straw (EMAPWS) and ensiled apple pomace and fresh wheat straw (EAPFWS) based complete feed on growth response of calves was studied and in the second experiment, the effect of EMAPWS and EAPFWS based complete feed on nutrient utilization of calves was studied. For the experiments, AP and Wheat straw (WS) was ensiled in 85:15 in plastic drums of 300L capacity for 4 weeks. Also only AP was ensiled and to this fresh WS was mixed in 85:15. The mixtures were analyzed for proximate and fibre composition. Accordingly, formulation and preparation of concentrate feed was done. Growth studies were carried out for 8 weeks period. During growth trial, the overall DMI was 2.79 and 2.51 per cent, with a daily gain of 288 and 260 g/calf. The feed efficiency ratio was 0.147 and 0.188, respectively, in EMAPWS TMR and EAPFWS TMR treatment. During digestibility trial average gain in weight/head/day was 762g and 701g respectively. Average daily dry matter intake was 3.198 and 2.816 g per 100 kg body weight respectively in EMAPWS and EAPFWS. There was no significant difference in GIW and DMI between both the groups. The digestibilities of EE, CF, Cellulose and ADF was significantly higher in EMAPWS, whereas the digestibilities of DM, CP, Hemicellulose, NFE, NDF and OM did not differ. The TDN content of the complete feed was 70.88 and 59.74 per cent whereas, DCP content was 7.28 and 6.12 per cent in EMAPWS and EAPFWS respectively and it differed significantly. The TDN intake was 63.51 and 47.96 g and DCP intake was 6.53 and 4.92 g per Kg metabolic body weight in EMAPWS and EAPFWS respectively and both TDN and DCP intake differed significantly. The nitrogen intake was 56.56 and 37.87 g/head/day which was significantly different between both the groups. The Nitrogen retention (NR) as per cent of nitrogen intake (NI) was 46.35 and 37.82 respectively in EMAPWS and EAPFWS and it differed significantly between both the groups. All the calves were in positive nitrogen and energy balance. Feeding EMAPWS reduced the expenditure incurred on feeding to gain one kg body weight, by 2.22 percent than feeding ensiled AP mixed with fresh WS. So, it was concluded that ensiling AP with WS in the ratio of 85:15 was relatively better method to preserve and feed AP to calves and feeding complete feed based on EMAPWS could support optimum growth rate in cross-bred calves.

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