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Thesis

Studies on gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in canines

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2012
Kumar, Ashwani
GADVASU, Ludhiana
M.V.Sc.

The present study was conducted on six healthy and 17 clinical cases of dogs suffering from chronic regurgitation or vomiting of more than 15 days, presented at Teaching Veterinary Hospital, GADVASU, Ludhiana. Standardization of endoscopy procedure and study of anatomy of upper gastrointestinal system in healthy dogs revealed normal esophagus as a collapsed tube with pliable longitudinal mucosal folds. Esophageal mucosa was pale pink or grayish with smooth and glistening surface and lacked any erythema and erosions. The esophageal lumen was devoid of any feed or water content. The gastric mucosa of healthy animal was smooth and glistening with dark pink to reddish coloration. The duodenal mucosa of normal dog was velvety or roughened and slightly more granular in appearance because of presence of mucosal villi and appeared reddish pink to yellowish in presence of bile. The clinical study and endoscopic examination of upper gastrointestinal diseases, carried out in 17 dogs suffering from chronic regurgitation or vomiting revealed megaesophagus (n=7), esophageal obstruction (n=2), chronic gastritis and gastric ulceration (n=8) as the main etiologies. Megaesophagus was acquired condition found in middle-aged dogs and regurgitation or vomiting, poor body condition, weight loss, weakness, cachexia, fever and coughing were its predominant clinical signs. Increased total leukocyte and absolute neutrophil counts were significant hematological alterations. Survey radiograph was diagnostic in about half of cases of megaesophagus but provided no evidence of presence of esophageal obstruction. Loss of esophageal folds and persistent dilatation of esophagus were the observed diagnostic endoscopic features of megaesophagus. Megaesophagus was a manageable condition and affected animal could lead normal life by elevated floor feeding followed by maintaining in upright position for 10-15 minutes. Extramural growth pressing oesophagus and intra oesophageal tumours could lead to esophageal obstruction and dilatation and signs of chronic vomiting, which resolve after removal of primary cause. Foreign bodies, tumours and gastric ulcerations were some of common causes of chronic gastritis.Presences of foreign body, erythema, erosions, ulcers or sub mucosal blood vessels on gastric wall were diagnostic endoscopic feature of chronic gastritis. Endoscopy was found to be a suitable aid for diagnosis of gastric ulceration which escape diagnosis by survey radiography, ultrasonography and histopathology. Symptomatic therapy and removal of cause resulted in clinical recovery in most (50%) of animals

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