This chapter presents a summary of findings and conclusion drawn from the research work carried out in this thesis. The whole thesis has been divided into 5 chapters followed by summary, abstract in English & Hindi and bibliography. Barley is a self pollinating, diploid plant of the Poaceae family. It is a temperate season crop that can be grown in both winter and spring season. It is fourth most important cereal crop in the world with nutrient composition is different from other cereals as they are having high dietary fibres, beta-glucan, and arabinoxylans along with high protein. Furthermore barley grains also contains to tocotrienols and tocopherols (Thompson, 1994). Beta-glucan acts as an inhibitor of total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis (Shimizu et al., 2008). It also normalizes blood sugar level, heals and rejuvenates the skin (Pins and Kaur, 2006). There are two variants of barley on the basis of seed morphology ie., Hulless and Hulled barley. The crude protein of hulless barley is more than that of hulled barley by 1.5-3% (Lasztity, 1996). There are various methods to detect and quantify various biomolecules in the grain; Near infrared spectroscopy is one of the non destructive analytical method for assessment of the quality parameter in both crop grain and food in the form of either whole grain or flour. It is low cost and rapid method of screening the large germplasm. There is 8071 accession of the barley kept in the NBPGR Genebank among which about 900 accession of Hulless barley are present. The quality evaluation trait data for the Hulless barley was not available. Moreover for these quality trait NIRS prediction model was not reported so, this was the research gap on the basis of which my research objective was 1. Assessment of important seed quality traits in diverse seed set of Hulless barley 2. Development of NIRS based prediction model for quality traits of Hulless barley The material for my research was 106 accessions of Hulless barley, selected after clustering of whole Hulless barley accession from NBPGR Genebank. The accessions were analyzed for the seven biochemical parameters ie., phenols, sugar, starch, protein, betaglucan, phytate and antioxidants as well as three seed quality parameter ie., mean CHAPTER VI 51 germination time, germination % and vigour index. The variation in the phenols among the accession was recorded in the range of 0.076- 0.486% with the mean value of 0.218%. While 38 accessions have shown value more than mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are IC82756 (0.486%), IC113056 (0.420%), IC138923 (0.417%). The variation found in the sugar among the accession was recorded in the range of 0.804-8.006% with the mean value of 3.442%. While 41 accessions have shown value more than mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are EC481705 (8.01%), IC262366 (7.09%), IC 279146 (6.79%). The variation in the antioxidant found among the accession was recorded in the range of 0.031-0.136% with the mean value of 0.069%. While 47 accessions have shown value more than mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are EC481715 (0.136%), IC15157 (0.114%), IC356114 (0.114%). The variation in the starch found among the accession in the range of 42.665-87.131% with the mean value of 67.678%. While 48 accessions have shown value more than mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are IC393970 (87.13%), IC113051 (84.43%), IC138293 (80.94%). The variation found in beta-glucan the range of 1.254-7.820% with the mean value of 4.893%. While 50 accessions have shown value over the mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are EC481703 (7.82%), IC73629 (6.97), IC533195 (6.96%). The range of variation found in the protein was 9.74-17.60% with the mean value of 13.84%. While 44 accessions have shown value over the mean value and among these 3 superior accessions are EC481715 (17.60%), IC533396 (17.42%), EC0105949 (15.94%). The range of variation found in the phytate 0.04- 0.18% with the mean value of 0.09%. While 49 accessions have shown value lower than the mean value which is desirable for good accession as phytates are the anti-nutritional compound in the food. Among them 3 superior accession having lowest value are IC73641 (0.04%), IC82590 (0.04%), EC481707 (0.04%), EC481707(0.04%). Where it was found that IC279146 (80.3% ;12.2%), IC445553 (80.2% ; 11.8%), EC578747 (79.9% ; 12.6%) were superior accessions having high starch low protein which are good for the purpose of the brewing and can be further used for this purpose. IC82746 (14.8% ; 42.7%), IC340273 (15%; 50.3%), IC73612 (15.3%; 51%) these accessions were having high content of protein and low starch so, these accessions are further good for the purpose of the functional food such as baby food etc. In case of the seed quality traits it was found that the range of variation found in the mean germination was 1- 1.79 days with the mean value of 1.09 days. While 30 52 accessions have shown value 1 day which supposed to be superior accessions. The range of variation found in the germination% was 90-100% with the mean value of 97.7%. While 26 aacessions have shown 100% germination which indicates that these are superior accessions. The range of the variation found in the vigour index was 110.2-178.8% with the mean value of 152.7. While 69 accessions have shown value more than that of the mean value and among them 3 superior accessions are IC280360 (179), EC481705 (177), IC73612 (177). Also it was found that EC481705 (177; 61.1%), IC73612 (177; 51%), IC340273 (172; 50.3%) were 3 most superior accessions with low starch and high vigour index. IC533396 (169; 17.4), EC0105949 (164; 15.9%), EC481705 (177; 15.9%) were accession with high vigour index and high protein. NIRS model was developed successfully for the traits like protein, starch, betaglucan, phenols, phytate. Among them protein with SD/SEP value 2.28 and starch with SD/SEP value 2.51 found to be suitable for the screening purpose having mathematical treatment used 4,6,4,1 and 3,6,4,1 respectively. Whereas the traits such as beta-glucan, phenols and phytates with SD/SEP value 3.36, 3.46 and 3.58 respectively. And the mathematical treatment used for these trait were 2,4,4,1 ; 3,6,4,1 ; 3,6,4,1 respectively. Conclusion: NIRS model which is developed for the five traits of hulless barley ie., protein, starch, betaglucan, phenols, phytate will be helpful for the rapid screening of the large samples in the future. Moreover the accession identified for the high starch and low protein will be helpful for the brewing industry and the accession with high protein and low starch will be useful for the purpose of functional food.