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Quality assessment and development of product from annona(Annona spp.)


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Nirmala, C
Department of Home Science, College of Agriculture, Vellayani
Nutritional significance, Health potential, Antioxidant properties, Product development, Quality evaluation of fresh fruits
Quality assessment and development of product

The research project entitled “Quality assessment and development of product from Annona (Annonaspp.)” was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram during 2014-2016 with the objective to analyze the physico chemical and nutritional composition of Annonaceous fruits and to develop a value added product. Three spp. of fruits viz., Bullocks heart (Annona reticulata), Sweetsop (Annona squamosa)andSoursop (Annona muricata)were selected for the study. The quality of fresh fruits was assessed in terms of physical characteristics, sensory acceptability, nutrient analysis, chemical components and shelf stability. The Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA) was also studied. Fruit nectar was standardized from the extracted pulp at different proportions of 20, 25, 30, 35 per cent level and the best proportion was identified based on sensory scores. Physical characteristics such as fruit weight, pulp weight, seed weight and weight of inedible portion were noted. Annona squamosa was smaller in size and 4-5 fruits weighed 1 kg, while 3-4 fruits weighed 1 kg in case of Annona reticulata. Annona muricatawas comparatively large in size, 2 fruits weighed 1 - 1½ kg. Results of quality analysis of fresh fruits revealed that pulp weight, ranged between 344 g to 611 g/kg fruit. Highest pulp weight was observed in Annona muricata (611g/kg). Weight of seed (113.81g/kg) and weight of inedible portions (542.80g/kg)were higher in Annona reticulata.Sensory acceptability of the fruits were evaluated and the overall mean score for the selected fruits were found to range from 6.2 to 8.8. Maximum mean score was secured for Annona squamosa(8.8) followed by Annona muricata(8.6) and Annona reticulata (6.2). Keeping quality of the annonaceous fruits were assessed by noting their organoleptic parameters on alternate days until spoilage. It was found that all the three fruits had maximum keeping quality of seven days. Quantitative estimation of major nutrients revealed that highest content of carbohydrate, energy and fat were noticed in Annona reticulata (25.12 g, 108.40 kcal, 0.61mg/100g respectively). Whereas Annona muricata exhibited highest moisture content (82.46 %). Protein content was found to be higher in Annona squamosa (2.05 mg/100g). TSS content of the selected fruits ranged from 18 – 250 Brix. The fruits were rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.The fruits exhibited very low fat content. Annona reticulatawas composed of 65.09μg of β caroteneper 100 gram and Annona squamosarecorded a vitamin C content of 36.20 mg/100g.Oxalates and total phenol content was higher in Annona muricata (3.36 mg/100g, 21.72 mg/100g respectively). Acidity of the selected fruits ranged from 0.27 to 1.07 per cent. Total antioxidant activity of selected fruits were studied by using different solvents such as petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous medium. The results revealed that Annona squamosa had highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 32.00 μg/ ml in petroleum ether. Fruit nectar was standardized from fruit pulp. Four treatment with differentproportions of fruit pulp (per cent)20 (T1), 25 (T2), 30 (T3) and 35 (T4) were developed and initial sensory analysis was done to identify the best proportion for further storage study.Selected best proportions of the fruit nectarfromAnnona reticulata (T3), Annona squamosa (T3), Annona muricata (T4) were stored at room temperature for monitoring the shelf stability in terms of changes in sensory parameters, acidity and microbial contamination periodically. The samples were analysed at weekly interval during the storage period. The stored fruit nectar was analysed for bacteria, fungi and actinomycets. No bacteria, yeast, actinomycets growth was found during the storage periodupto three weeks.An increase in acidity was noted during storage.Shelf stability of the developed product fruit nectar was found to be three weeks at ambient temperature. Annonaceous fruits possess great nutritional and health benefits through the supply of natural antioxidants and other bioactive components. Among the three spp. Annona squamosa was observed with higher antioxidant activity.Annonaceous fruits keeps well for 7 days at ambient temperature. Acceptable fruit nectarwas developed from the fruits with three weeks shelf stability at ambient temperature. Hence promoting the cultivation in large scale and scaling up the production will help to improve the health status and economic prosperity.



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