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EFFICACY OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AND HORSE GRAM (Dolichos biftorus) EXTRACT ON THE AMELIORATION OF UROLITHIASIS IN GOATS

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1998
James, C.S.
SENTHILKUMAR., R. P.
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES Mannuthy - Thrissur
211
Animal nutrition
EFFICACY OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AND HORSE GRAM (Dolichos biftorus) EXTRACT ON THE AMELIORATION OF UROLITHIASIS IN GOATS
M.V.Sc.

The efficacy of ammonium chloride and horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) • extract on the amelioration of urolithiasis in goats ware evaluated by using 18 male Malabari goats of 9 to 12 months old, maintained for an experimental period of 84 days. Goats were divided into three groups (I, II and III) of six animals each and were fed individually at maintenance level with high magnesium basal calculogenic ration containing 1.194 per cent calcium, 0.578 per cent phosphorus, 1.202 per cent magnesium (ration A) alone, fortified with ammonium chloride at the rate of one per cent in the ration (ration B) or with supplemented horse gram extract at the rate of one litre per animal per day (ration C) respectively. Grass and concentrate were fed at 1:4 ratio and drinking water provided ad libltuw throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency were not significantly altered by the dietary treatments, but goats fed on supplemental ammonium chloride (group II) had a trend towards better weight gain, feed and protein efficiency. No significant difference observed among the three groups with regard to TEC, TLC, haemoglobin, and plasma protein. Elevated dietary magnesium in the diet (ration A) caused significant decrease in serum ii calcium (P<0.01), significant increase in serum phosphorus and magnesium (P<0.01). There were increased excretion of urine calcium (P<0.05), significant increase in urine phosphorus and magnesium (P<0.01) in group I, when compared to groups II and III. Supplemental ammonium chloride and horse gram extract caused significant rise in serum calcium, significant reduction in serum phosphorus and magnesium and significant reduction in urine calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, whereas horse gram extract was less effective than ammonium chloride in this regard. Both the dietary treatments had no significant influence on urinary nitrogen excretion and digestibility of dietary calcium, phosphorus magnesium and nitrogen. Supplemental ammonium chloride caused significant increase in per cent retention of calcium (P<0.01), and phosphorus (P<0.05) but supplemental horse gram extract had only a tendency to increase per cent retention of calcium and phosphorus. Both the dietary treatment had no influence on nitrogen retention and supported nitrogen retention during the progress of experiment. Magnesium retention has increased drastically due to high dietary supplementation of magnesium in all the three groups and neither supplemental ammonium chloride nor horse gram extract had any significant influence on per cent retention of magnesium. Clinical signs of obstructive urolithiasis were not observed in any of the goats maintained on three experimental groups. Goats in group I iii exhibited severe crystalluria, had numerous visible sand like rudimentary calculi in the kidney and had severe gross and histopathological changes. Goats fed with supplemental ammonium chloride showed reduction in urine pH, increased urine volume had not found to have any calculus material in the kidney and had mild gross and histological changes in the kidney and bladder. Goats fed on supplemental horse gram extract showed reduction in intensity of crystalluria, had few calculi materials in the kidney with gross and histological changes in the kidney and bladder comparable to group I. On chemical analysis, the calculi were found to contain magnesium, phosphate and ammonia. The present investigation conclude that supplementation of ammonium chloride prevented the calculi formation possibly due to increased excretion of chloride ions in the urine. Supplemental horse gram extract had not prevented calculi formation when fed along with high magnesium calculogenic ration in goats whereas, had a tendency to prevent the incidence of urinary calculi perhaps due to its diuretic effect.

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