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Oxidative stress and protein profiling in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under abiotic stresses

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2015
Ravi, V
Department of Plant Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani
Plant biotechnology, Antioxydents, ROS seavenging enzymes, Drought stress
Oxidative stress and protein profiling in cassava
M.Sc

The present study an “Oxidative stress and protein profiling in cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) under abiotic stresses” was conducted during the period 2014- 2015 in the Division of Crop Production, CTCRI (Central Tuber Crop Research Institute) Thiruvananthapuram. The objective of the study was to elict information on the antioxidative enzyme activity, protein profiling, growth parameter and yield parameter of four varieties / genotypes of cassava under irrigated, high temperatures stress (40 o C ±2 o C) and water deficit stress (WDS) conditions and identify marker physiological parameter which can be used for identifying / developing cassava varieties for tolerance to abiotic stress conditions. The study indicated that the plant height of four different cassava varieties were not significantly affected by heat and WDS. The leaf production of four different cassava varieties were significantly affected by both heat and water stress, and the same was maximum in the case of water stress. The leaf retention of four varieties / genotypes were differentially affected by both heat and water stress. There was negligible difference in yield parameters between stress and control condition. However, there was significant difference was yield observed for parameters among the four varieties. The effect of abiotic stress on various physiological parameters like relative water content, chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed significant difference in control plants. Among the given WDS and HTS treatments, the chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased in all the four varieties. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly reduced in plants exposed to HTS. Relative water content of leaves varied under both WDS and HTS conditions. A higher RWC was observed in plants exposed to HTS condition compared to WDS condition. Total soluble protein content of leaf and tuber was found to be lower in plants exposed to stress conditions. Total soluble protein in tuber forming roots had increased under HTS conditions. Proline status of plants under stress conditions followed an increasing trend compared to stress conditions. The effect of abiotic stress on various enzymatic antioxidants such asGlutathione Reductase (GR), Superoxide Dusmutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) were studied. Among the four different cassava varieties. Kunguma rose showed maximum GR activity showed an increasing trend in WDS compared to HTS and stress free conditions. Catalase activity of four varieties of cassava plant varied among different stress condition (WDS and HTS) compared to control. The catalase activity was significantly reduced due to stress conditions and. SOD activity increased under stress conditions. The ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities had significant variation in WDS and HTS compared to control. The AA content in cassava leaves was negligible or below detectable amount under both control and stress conditions. Under HTS condition GR activity increased in H-165 and Sree Athulya alone whereas all the four varieties showed increase GR activity under WDS. Kunguma rose showed maximum SOD activity in HTS whereas Sree Athulya had highest SOD activity in WDS. APX activity was high in all the varieties under HTS. From the present study it is inferred that GR can be used as a biochemical marker for developing WDS tolerant varieties as it showed consistent changes under both WDS and HTS. APX activity can be used as a marker for identifying HTS tolerant varieties. Detailed molecular biochemical and physiological study will be necessary using different varieties for getting appropriate activities as the marker to screen abiotic stress tolerant varieties.

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