Rhodococcus equi is a gram positive coccobacillus bacterium of the order Actinomycetales. Rhodococcus equi mainly affects the foals of 1- 6 months of age and produces pneumonia. The pneumonia caused by the Rhodococcus equi unnoticed sometime and produces high mortality in the stud farms. In addition to pneumonia Rhodococcus equi also causes extra pulmonary disorders of foals, including enterocolitis, lymphadenitis, nonseptic polysynovitis and osteomyelitis. One hundred foals irrespective of sex below one year of age were screened for prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection and to determine the risk factors associated with Rhodococcus equi infection. The faecal samples of foals were collected from the different stud farms located in Sikar, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Jodhpur, Pali, Bikaner, Jhunjhunu and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan. On the basis of PCR results 18 foals were found positive for the Rhodococcus equi infection as these samples shows the amplification of Vap A and Vap C genes. Among the 18 positive foals 3 were showing clinical signs. Out of these 2 foals were showing diarrhoea and1 foal was showing chronic cough as apparent clinical signs. The prevalence of Rhodococcus equi in female foals was 26 per cent while the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi in male foals was per cent. Risk factor associated with higher prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection were sex of foals, foaling season in which foals were born, higher number of horses, mare and foals reared in a stud farm, age of foals, type of soil and change of soil of pan. The results of this study suggest that Foals below 6 months of age having high leucocyte count (above 14000/ cubic mm) and neutrophils (above 75%) should be suspected for R. equi and treated weather they are showing symptoms or not. Soil change of the animal shed is most important and must be changed twice or more in a years.