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RELATIONSHIP OF ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND WATER DEFICIT MARKERS IN NON-DESCRIPT GOAT FROM ARID TRACTS DURING EXTREME HOT ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE PERIOD

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2017
Prof. (Dr.) Nalini Kataria
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner
RELATIONSHIP OF ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND WATER DEFICIT MARKERS IN NON-DESCRIPT GOAT FROM ARID TRACTS DURING EXTREME HOT ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE PERIOD
M.V.Sc.

The present investigation was carried out to find out the relationship of antioxidant status and water deficit markers in nondescript goat from arid tracts during extreme hot environmental temperature period (ETP). To execute the objectives, blood and urine samples were collected from non-descript male and female goats of 5 months to 11 months of age from private slaughter houses. Collection of blood samples was carried out during the process of slaughtering. The period of October and November was regarded as moderate ETP and the period of May and June was regarded as extreme hot ETP. In each ETP, males and females were classified as 5-7 months; 7-9 months and 9-11 months of age groups. The upshot of markers investigated during extreme hot ETP were compared with those studied during moderate ETP considering as control values. Analytes in the plasma, urine and blood during moderate and extreme hot ETPs included markers of antioxidant status in plasma and water deficit markers incorporating direct and associated markers. Assessment of the interactions of extreme hot ETP with sex and age on the values of markers of antioxidant status and water deficit in non-descript goat divulged highly significant (p≤0.01) interactions i.e. ETP X sex; ETP X age; and sex X age. Extreme hot ETP influenced status of water in the body and status of antioxidant in non-descript goat. All male and female non-descript goats of all the age groups were observed to be pretentious. Evaluation of the relationship of antioxidant status and water deficit markers in non-descript goat during extreme hot ETP was done on the basis of calculation of mean values and per cent variation for each parameter during extreme hot ETP. Per cent variation in the plasma markers of antioxidant status (oxidase, malondialdehyde, gamma glutamyl transferase and monoamine oxidase) during extreme hot ETP was 100.00, 35.59,191.63 and 41.37, respectively. Plasma GGT exhibited highest % change, therefore, contemplated as most sensitive marker of antioxidant status. Water deficit markers’ appraisal incorporated direct and associated markers. Direct markers incorporated plasma osmolality, urine osmolality, specific gravity of blood, specific gravity of urine, plasma tonicity, viscosity of blood, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total 2 solids in urine and packed cell volume. Per cent alteration during extreme hot ETP was 6.26, 32.75, 1.24, 2.16, 5.09, 18.87,-50.00, 53.03 and 29.68, respectively. Total solids in urine exhibited highest % alteration, therefore, it was considered to be most sensitive direct marker of water deficit evaluation. Associated markers incorporated transtubular gradient of potassium, renal threshold index for phosphate, plasma anion gap, urine anion gap, titratable acidity of urine, plasma bicarbonate, urine bicarbonate, sodium, potassium and chloride in urine, sodium, potassium and chloride in plasma, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in urine, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in plasma, plasma urea, urine urea, plasma creatinine, urine creatinine and plasma glucose. Per cent alterations during extreme hot ETP was 4.92, -27.17, 25.00,16.66,-70.41, 31.57,65.95, 43.47, 11.50,19.91,6.33,15.38, -2.73, -28.57, -26.00, -24.32,-26.31,-26.00,24.32, 46.34,128.02,84.61,14.58 and -16.66, respectively. Urine urea revealed highest % variation and was considered as most sensitive marker among associated water deficit markers. Antioxidant status was found to be higher in female nondescript goat as compared to male goat. All the four biomarkers of antioxidant status were having lower values in comparison to respective value in male animals. This showed that female animals had a lower development of oxidative stress than male animals. Equally, antioxidant status was highest in youngest group. It can be stated that female non-descript goats and goats of 5-7 months of age were less impinged on owing to hot ETP in comparison to male animals and animals of comparatively higher groups. Direct water deficit markers of females showed better water status as compared to males. Values of water deficit markers like plasma osmolality, urine osmolality, specific gravity of blood, specific gravity of urine, plasma tonicity, viscosity of blood, total solids in urine and packed cell volume were comparatively lower in females as compared to males. In females, the mean value of ESR was higher than in male animals. This depicted better water status of females. Similar trend was found for the youngest age group. Probably this demonstrated more demand of water in males and in older age groups. Increase in certain water deficit markers divulged the decrease in plasma volume implicitly during hot ETP. Increase in plasma antioxidant enzymes trampled upon the development of oxidative stress. Interpretation of results disclosed that water deficit can significantly raise the oxidative insult. Extreme hot ETP influenced the antioxidant and water statuses of all the non-descript goats of both sexes and all the age groups. It can be recommended that goats of arid tracts must be safeguarded from long experience to extreme hot ETP with close monitoring of watering to ensure proper hydration status. Supplementation with suitable antioxidants must be carried out to save the animals from the peril of hot environmental temperatures.

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