An experiment entitled “Studies on insect pests of oriental pickling melon, [Cucumis melo (L.) var. conomon]” was conducted during 2015-16 at the College of Horticulture, Bagalkot. The study revealed occurrence of 24 insect pests and 9 natural enemies in the oriental pickling melon ecosystem. Among them, thirteen were defoliators, three tissue feeders and eight sap feeders and a species each of dragonfly, preying mantid, assassin bug, three species of lady bird beetles, two spiders and a parasitoid were the natural enemies. Theeffect of weather parameters on pest population was studied. The maximum and minimum temperature had positive correlation with population of leaf miner, thrips and fruit fly but had negative correlation with number of beetles. The relative humidity and rainfall showed negative correlation with leaf miner and thrips and positive correlation with beetles. The relative humidity was found to be negatively correlated with the number of fruit fly catches. In this study involving 24 genotypes of oriental pickling melon, the low level of leaf miner infestation was recorded in the genotypes, BCMCO-02, GR-1-1, Sirsi Local, BCMSO-03 and BCMR-01. While, GR-2-1, GR-3 and Thirthalli local recorded lower beetle infestation. The genotypes, Sirsi Local, Thirthalli Local, BCMCO-02, Sirsi-1-13 and Koppa local recorded lesser thrips infestation. The lowest per cent fruit infestation was recorded in the genotypes Sirsi local and BCMCO-02 compared to other genotypes. Among the insecticides evaluated, deltamethrin, azadirachtin, Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), indoxacarb and spinosad were effective against the major pests. Treatment with deltamethrin, panchagavya, emamectin benzoate, indoxacarb, NSKE, spinosad and azadirachtinrecorded significantly higher yields per hectare. However, BC ratio was highest from the plots treated with deltamethrin, NSKE and emamectin benzoate proving better returns.