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Advisor: Adarsh Kumar
Publisher: Division of Agricultural Engineering Principal Scientist ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi–1
Language: en_US
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Abstract: In India, Green Revolution has increased food grain production and achieved self-sufficiency in agricultural production, but it also resulted in degradation of soil, water and air quality. The proper management of huge quantity of agricultural residue generated due to improved land-use pattern is also one of the big challenges at present. Considering all these facts, there should be a call for increasing agricultural production by promoting sustainable agriculture with adoption of the best scientific techniques such as conservation agriculture. The conservation agriculture is one of the best measures to protect both environment as well as natural resources without affecting the level of agricultural production. It involves planting under residue conditions with minimum manipulation of soil along with crop rotation. Controlling in field traffic is one of the components of conservation agriculture, which is accomplished by permanent raised bed cropping system. However, area under conservation agriculture in India is still only about 1.5 million hectares (Jat et al., 2012). Adoption of conservation agriculture in the crop based research institutes is one of best solutions to promote conservation agriculture. More than thousand research centers in the country are engaged in different crop-based agricultural research and very few of them possess improved farm machinery for experimental plots. The main constraint for adoption of conservation agriculture in varietal development experimental research is the absence of appropriate seeders. In view of the above investigation, the present study was undertaken to design and develop an experimental field plot drill to achieve precision in drilling of seeds and fertilizers on permanent raised bed. The physical properties of five wheat varieties (HD-2967, DBW-17, PBW550, HDCSW-16 and HDCSW-18) and two granular fertilizers (Prilled urea and DAP) relevant for the development of metering mechanism were determined. The Oyjord metering mechanism was developed and tested for three distributors (four, six and eight openings) and three seed rates (67, 75 and 100 kg ha-1 ). The four types of furrow openers (Inverted T-type furrow opener with plain rolling coulter, single disc furrow opener, double disc furrow openers and double disc furrow opener with ii plain rolling coulter) were developed and soil bin studies were conducted to study the effect of furrow openers at three forward speeds (1.5, 2 and 2.5 km h-1 ) on soil physical properties i.e. moisture retention, bulk density and penetration resistance; and maize stalk residue cutting in three densities (3, 4 and 5 t ha-1 ) to optimize furrow opener and speed of operation. The data observed in laboratory and soil bin study were analyzed using SAS software to optimize operating conditions and design values for the successful sowing of wheat in maize fallow under conservation agriculture. The obtained information was used for designing and selection of different components of plot seed drill. The double disc furrow opener with plain rolling coulter cut 100% maize stalk residue at maximum speed of 2.5 km h-1 , but due to limitation of manual feeding of seed and fertilizer, the operational speed was kept at 1.5 km h -1 . The four row distributor with 100 kg ha-1 seed rate was found suitable for metering mechanism. A prototype was designed using CAD software “Pro E Wildfire 4.0” and fabricated based on the findings of laboratory and soil bin studies and optimum operating conditions and design values obtained. The metering mechanism used in permanent raised bed seed-cum-fertilizer plot drill has hopper of 1390.2 cm 3 volumetric capacity, feeding cells with 66.23 cm3 volumetric capacity and seeds and fertilizer distributor with DC motor with rotational speed of 2000 RPM. The radius of gyration of star feeder was 125 mm with rotational speed of 0.7 rad s-1 . The internal diameter of distributor outlets and seed delivery tube was kept as 25 mm. The furrow opener are double disk with plain rolling coulter, which has flat discs of 360 mm diameter and fixed at an angle of 15° with vertical plain. The boot of the furrow opener was attached at height above 50 mm from cutting edge of disk, whereas the lower edge of seed tube was 50 mm above fertilizer tube and the coulter was set 50 mm below the lower cutting edge of disc of furrow opener. The performance of permanent raised bed seed cm fertilizer plot drill was tested in maize harvested field with complete residue (5 t ha-1 ). Different performance parameters were calculated along with cost economics of operation for comparison with commonly practiced conventional experimental plot drill. The field capacity and field efficiency of permanent raised bed seed-cumfertilizer plot were 0.172 ha h-1 and 80% respectively. The plant stand of HD-2967, DBW-17, PBW-550, HDCSW-16 and HDCSW-18 were 225, 282, 225, 276 and 314
Description: t-9559
Subject: Agricultural Engineering
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2016
Appears in Collections:Theses

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