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Modelling of Soil Erosion and Water Harvesting Potential for Improved carbon Sequestration in Urmodi Basin

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2017-02
Nandgude, Sachin
DBSKKV., Dapoli
208
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
Soil and Water Engineering
Ph.D

ABSTRACT By Sangita Suryakant Shinde College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli Dist- Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 2017 Research Guide : Dr. S.B.Nandgude Department : Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Increase in concentration of atmospheric CO2 by 31 % since 1750 necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating the threat of the attendant global warming. Carbon management in forest and soil helps to mitigate climate change to large extent. Soil erosion is the major land degradation process that removes organic carbon from soil and impairing environmental quality. Estimates of soil loss and runoff and their conservation planning for better productivity and soil carbon restoration are essential in India. Soil and water conservation measures can improve soil quality, increases biodiversity and enhances soil organic carbon storage which in turn improves carbon sequestration. Therefore, there is need to study impact of conservation measures on carbon sequestration. The Urmodi basin (KR-14 watershed) is located in Satara District of Maharashtra, Study area lies between 17°30' N to 17°45' N latitude and 73°45' E to 74°00' E longitude. The total valley area covered by Urmodi basin is 43,719 ha comprises of 70 villages under 72 micro watersheds. Carbon sequestration by vegetation and soil was calculated for each micro watershed of Urmodi basin. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used to predict soil loss from the Urmodi basin. Water harvesting potential of each micro watershed was estimated for planning of water harvesting structures in Urmodi basin. After the adoption of different conservation measures and water harvesting structures improved carbon sequestration was estimated for each micro watershed of Urmodi basin. Total carbon stock value of Urmodi basin was 1.71 million tonnes of carbon out of that soil carbon stock was 1.176 million tonnes of carbon and vegetation carbon stock was 0.538 million tonnes of carbon. Amount of CO2 sequestered by vegetation was 1.973 million tonnes of CO2 and amount of CO2 sequestered by soil was 4.312 million tonnes of CO2 from Urmodi basin. Total amount of CO2 sequestered by Urmodi basin was 6.285 million tonnes of CO2 before adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Thus vegetation and soils are largest sinks of atmospheric CO2. Average annual soil loss was estimated using different parameters such as rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic factor and crop management factor. Average annual soil loss from the Urmodi basin was 30 t/ha/yr before adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Area under slight, moderate, high and very high soil erosion classes was 2916.36 ha (6.67%), 19261.02 ha (44.06%), 17697.47 ha (40.48%) and 3844.15 ha (8.79%) respectively before adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Water harvesting potential based on rainfall, runoff coefficient and catchment area was ranging between 1.15 to 17.86 million m3 for each micro watershed of Urmodi basin. Total 75 sites were found suitable for various water harvesting structures such as check dam, percolation pond and farm pond in entire study area. Different agronomic measures and mechanical measures at specific locations were recommended to reduce the loss of organic carbon through erosion, to reduce runoff, to improve soil fertility and productivity and to enhance biodiversity. Average annual soil loss from Urmodi basin was expected to reduce by 72.03 % to the level of 8.39 t/ha/yr with scientific planning and execution of soil and water conservation technologies. Area under slight, moderate erosion class increased to 35560.01 ha (81.34%), 6993.31 ha (16%) and area under high erosion class decreased to 1165.68 ha (2.67%) respectively. Total carbon sequestration was expected to increase by 8.35 % to the level of 6.81 million tonnes of CO2from the Urmodi basin after adoption of soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting structures. So, it is concluded that soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting structures would improve soil quality, enhances organic carbon and leads to better productivity of agricultural land. Improved carbon sequestration will have better carbon stock which would help in mitigation of climate change at local scale. Keywords: Carbon sequestration, RS and GIS, SCS-CN, Soil and water conservation measures, USLE, Water harvesting structures

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