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Development and Quality Evaluatiojn of Cereal and Legume Based Extrudates Blended with Konkum Rind Power

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2016-12-02
Thakor, Nayansing
DBSKKV., Dapoli
159
Processing and Food Engineering
Processing and Food Engineering
Ph.D

ABSTRACT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF CEREAL AND LEGUME BASED EXTRUDATES BLENDED WITH KOKUM RIND POWDER. by Er. Abhiman Arjun Sawant College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli Dist. – Ratnagiri. Maharashtra 2016 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Research Guide : Dr. N. J. Thakor Department : Agricultural Process Engineering ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Extrusion cooking is one of the most efficient, versatile and advanced food processing technology used to produce pre-cooked and dehydrated foods. High temperature short time extrusion cooking as a multiple step, multi function thermal process has a large number of food applications. Extruders minimize the operating cost and enhance the productivity than other cooking processes. Extrusion process has many advantages and merits. The extrusion process can be used suitably for any grain crops which are difficult to process and use in normal ways by available processes. Extrusion also permits the inactivation of several antinutritional factors, of oxidative and other deterioration enzymes. Horse gram which is important grain crop having lot of nutritional and medicinal properties is unutilized due to unavailability of suitable processing techniques. Efforts are made to develop process and products using maize, horse gram, rice, and kokum to make nutritious products. The present research work of Development and Quality Evaluation of Cereal and Legume based Extrudates Blended with Kokum Rind Powder was undertaken at Department of Agricultural Process Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering xxiii and Technology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli. The rice and maize were used as cereals and horse gram as legume grain to develop the extrudates. The aim of the present investigation is to develop the extrudates using cereal- maize as base material. The flour materials of maize, rice, horse gram and kokum rind powder were used for experiments. Formulations were made using different levels of rice, horse gram and kokum rind powder. Level of maize flour was kept constant as 50 per cent in the formulation as a base material for extrusion. Four levels of rice (40, 30, 20 and 10 per cent) and horse gram (10, 20, 30 and 40 per cent) were used in formulations along with six levels blending of kokum rind powder (0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 per cent). Extrudates were prepared by using Twin Screw Extruder keeping process parameters constant viz. barrel temperature 130 °C, Screw speed 275 rpm ,feeder speed 45 rpm and die diameter of 5 mm. The extrudates were analysed for its functional, nutritional and organoleptic qualities. The functional properties of extrudates found to be as maximum expansion ratio of 3.09, maximum water absorption index of 8.84, maximum water solubility index of 7.42, lowest hardness of 42.19 N and minimum bulk density of 101.10 kg/m3 best for the extrudates prepared by formulations of 50 per cent maize flour, 40 per cent rice flour, 10 per cent horse gram flour and 5 per cent kokum rind powder. Also extrudates from same formulations have secured high score of overall acceptability of 6.74 in the organoleptic evaluation. The anthocyanin content reduced during the process of extrusion for all the flour formulations. The average reduction in anthocyanin content of extrudates was found 34.07 per cent. It was concluded that the cereal and legume based nutritious and quality extrudates were developed with 50 per cent maize, 40 per cent rice and 10 per cent horse gram blended with 5 per cent kokum rind powder by using twin screw extruder.

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