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1 Isolation, I dentification and Char a cterization o f Native Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) Strains and their Evaluation for Insecticidal Activity Against Tribolium c astaneum ( Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae )

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2014
Vinay K Kalia
Division of Entomology Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi
1 Isolation, I dentification and Char a cterization o f Native Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) Strains and their Evaluation for Insecticidal Activity Against Tribolium c astaneum ( Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae )
1 Isolation, I dentification and Char a cterization o f Native Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) Strains and their Evaluation for Insecticidal Activity Against Tribolium c astaneum ( Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae )
M.Sc

Organic farming is one amongthe broad spectrum of production methods that are supportive of the environment. Even though organic farming is gaining popularity in several Indian states, like that of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, literature lacks in the survey based assessment of feasibility of organic farming. Therefore, the study was undertaken in Nashik distri ct of Maharashtra to assess the adoption of organic farming and its determinants and constraints,t o examine input use and profitability in organic farming vis - à - vis tradi tional farming in selected crops. Primary data was collect ed from randomly selected 60 organic and 60 traditional farm er s from Nas h ik and Niphad block for the a gricultural y ear 20 12 - 1 3 . Tabular analysis, L ogit regression , Garret t ’s r anking and F arm business analysis were employed to analyze the data . The organic farming cultivation is domina ted by medium and large farms in the study area. The adoption of organic farm ing practices was impressive except traps, which was poorly adopted by the farmers . Logit regression results show ed that livestock and education we re the factors which positively and significantly influence adoption of organic farm practices . Further, farmers’ perception indicated premium price, market demand and technical guidance also as important determinants. Although, the cost of tomato cultivation was higher , and t he yield lower on organic farms than that of traditional farms , organic farming was found to be generating impressively higher returns in comparison to traditional farms.On organic grape farms also , the returns were found impressively higher than the traditional farms . Organic g rape cultivation was economi cally feasible as NPW, BC ratio and IRR were impressive. Decomposition analysis revealed that , of the total change in income , the change due to organic farming practices was 41 per cent . On the other hand, contribution of inputs was negative (24 per cent). Non availability of labour , high transportation cost , lack of proper technical guidance , p roblem of certification and n on - availability of quality bio - inputs were found to be the major constraints to adoption of organic farming. The linkages in input and output marketing to the organic farming was provided mainly by farmers’ cooperatives, along with other institutions like private agencies and State Agricultural University . Input sharing among the farmer s were also observed. Organic farming can thus be considered as a suitable option for healthier soil, environment, enhancing quantity and quality of agricultural productivity and improving rural livelihoods . T he efforts should be directed to enhance the adoption of organic farming by providing proper technical guidance and quality bio inputs at a nominal price, and to strengthen the forward linkages for stabilizing prices and enhancing the

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