Analyses Of Management Factors Influencing Fat And Solids-Not-Fat Content Of Cow’s Milk In Namakkal District
Kumar, V. Ramesh Saravana
Analyses of management factors influencing fat and solids-not-fat content of cow’s milk in Namakkal district were carried out to study the feasibility of improving the milk fat and SNF content. A survey among the dairy farmers revealed that average number of cows available per farmer was 3.01. Maximum number of farmers reared Jersey crossbreds either singly (71.33 per cent) or combined with Holstein Friesian crossbred cows (18 per cent). Majority of the farmers followed individual concentrate feeding (99.33 per cent) and fed the concentrate before milking (86.67 per cent) whereas, green (94.67 per cent) and dry fodder (99.33 per cent) were fed after milking. Zero grazing was followed by 28 per cent of farmers in Sendamangalam block followed by 16 per cent in Namakkal block and none from Mohanur block. Average grazing duration per day ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 hours in the selected blocks. Irrespective of the blocks 59.33 per cent of farmers soaked the concentrate feed in water and fed to the animals. Maximum number of farmers had green fodder availability only during rainy or post-monsoon season. Majority of the farmers fed sorghum fodder alone (37 per cent) or in combination with field grass (30 per cent) or Co-3 grass (18 per cent). The overall mean dry matter intake (DMI) received through concentrate, green and dry fodder were 3.04 kg, 2.37 kg and 3.29 kg for milch cow. Farmers had fair knowledge on milk fat and SNF and their awareness to improve fat and SNF was poor. Only 6.67 per cent farmers attempted to improve the milk composition with either mineral mixture or calcite. The milk fat and SNF trend analyses showed that the mean milk fat and SNF per cent had highly significant difference between blocks, months and seasons. The overall mean morning and evening milk fat and SNF per cent were 4.342 ± 0.003 and 4.436 ± 0.003; 8.170 ± 0.001 and 8.207 ± 0.001, respectively. Maximum fat per cent was recorded during October (4.518 ± 0.009) and November (4.541 ± 0.009) months and the lower values were recorded during March (4.330 ± 0.007) and April (4.332 ± 0.009). The highest SNF per cent was registered during August (8.244 ± 0.003) and September (8.240 ± 0.003) and the lowest values observed during March (8.181 ± 0.002), April (8.176 ± 0.003) and May (8.182 ± 0.003). North-east monsoon recorded the highest fat per cent (4.517 ± 0.005) and both southwest (8.229 ± 0.002) and north-east monsoon (8.228 ± 0.002) recorded maximum SNF per cent. The lowest milk fat per cent (4.343 ± 0.005) and SNF per cent (8.180 ± 0.002) were recorded during summer. The suggestive measures trial revealed that the mean dry matter intake did not differ significantly between the treatment groups as well as between the treatment periods. During the treatment period the milk yield was significantly higher (8.46 ± 0.08 litres) in spray cooled cows (T1) followed by sodium bicarbonate (8.24 ± 0.05 litres) and least in yeast (7.65 litres) supplemented cows (T3). Both milk fat and SNF per cent in the spray cooled cows (4.23 ± 0.05 and 8.23 ±0.02) and sodium bicarbonate supplemented cows showed significantly higher values during the treatment period. Among the treatment groups, the spray cooled cows had the highest positive response in milk yield both in the morning (5.03 ± 0.05 litres) and evening (3.42 ± 0.04 litres) followed by sodium bicarbonate (4.96 ± 0.03 and 3.28 ± 0.03 litres) supplemented cows. The yeast supplemented cows had the least positive response (4.58 ± 0.07 and 3.07 ± 0.04 litres). The spray cooled cows recorded the maximum fat per cent both in the morning (4.16 ± 0.05) and evening (4.30 ± 0.06) during the treatment period. The mean SNF per cent was also higher in the spray cooled cows (8.23 ± 0.02) followed by mineral mixture (8.22 ± 0.02) and yeast (8.21 ± 0.01) supplemented cows.
TANUVAS, Chennai
Livestock Production and Management
Livestock Production and Management
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