ThesisItem Open AccessASSESSMENT OF EARLY GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Melia dubia Cav. CLONES(KELADI SHIVAPPA NAYAKA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIVAMOGGA (COF, PONNAMPET), 2020-12-14) NAYANA H.; Dr. ASHOK B DIVATARA; Dr. GANAPATHIClonal forestry has a remarkable contribution for paper, packaging, tissue paper, paperboard, plywood, veneer industries, etc., for which wood is being used as a raw material. Industrial agroforestry with the fast-growing species viz., poplar, eucalyptus, willow, leucaena, casuarina, bamboo and Malabar neem can be grown commercially in private lands as suitable species for raw materials in many wood based industries. Among these species, M. dubia (Malabar neem) is an indigenous tree species belongs to family Meliaceae that has emerged as a suitable raw material due to its increased pulp recovery and exceptional strength. The timber is ideal for plywood manufacture at commercial scale Thus in the present study, the early growth performance of M. dubia clones was carried out at the Main Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Iruvakki, Sagara (taluka), Shivamogga (district), Karnataka. Ten M. dubia clones were planted in RCBD design with the spacing of 4m x 4m in five replications. The observations on total height and collar diameter were recorded up to 9 months. The significant difference was observed for height and collar diameter of different M. dubia clones. Considerable height was recorded in clone IFGTBC10 and IFGTBC8 (269.70 cm and 233.56 cm) and maximum collar diameter was recorded in clone IFGTBC8 and IFGTBC10 (1.79 cm and 1.71 cm). Substantial volume index was recorded in clone IFGTBC10 (799.70 cm3) at nine months after planting. Clonal repeatability of Malabar neem for height (0.91) and collar diameter (0.93) was high. Existences of significant difference in soil-physicochemical properties were noticed between initial and final readings. ThesisItem Open AccessGEOSPATIAL APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF TREES OUTSIDE FOREST USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA(KELADI SHIVAPPA NAYAKA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIVAMOGGA (COF, PONNAMPET), 2020-10-10) NAVEEN, V.; Dr. G. M. DEVAGIRI; Dr. ANANTHA KRISHNATrees and forests are the important natural resources, which delivers varieties of ecosystem services in addition to climate change mitigation. Therefore, quantification of forest as well trees outside the forest (TOF), both at different spatial and temporal scales, is essential for sustainable management. Geospatial technology makes it possible to assess and monitor these valuable resources in an extremely precise manner. In this study, a simple and robust geospatial approach was developed for mapping of forest and TOF. The study was conducted in Shikaripura and Shivamogga taluks of Shivamogga district. For forest cover mapping, Sentinel-1A (SIA) microwave and Sentinel-2A (S2A) optical data were used. The datasets were fused using principal component analysis (PCA) technique, and forest and non-forest areas were classified using random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm. Whereas, Resourcesat-2 LISS IV high spatial resolution (5.8 m) data was used for TOF mapping through ISODATA clustering algorithm. The study revealed that the forest and non-forest classification accuracy of S1A and S2A fused image was higher compared to S1A SAR data alone. In Shikaripura taluk, overall accuracy of 73.10% and 88.15% while in Shivamogga taluk, accuracy of 77.65% and 91.25% was achieved with S1A data alone, and S1A and S2A fused data, respectively. The estimated forest Cover in Shikaripura and Shivamogga taluk is 279.51 sq. km and 686.39 sq. km, respectively. For TOF mapping, overall accuracy of 91.70% and 88.10% was attained for Shikaripura and Shivamogga taluk. The extent of TOF in Shikaripura and Shivamogga taluk is 139.64 sq. km and 218.39 sq. km, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is simple, easy to compute with high accuracy. Therefore, the developed approach could be up-scaled for the entire state. ThesisItem Open AccessEARLY GROWTH ASSESSMENT OF CASUARINA HYBRID CLONES FOR AGROFORESTRY(KELADI SHIVAPPA NAYAKA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIVAMOGGA (COF, PONNAMPET), 2020-09-18) MOHD HUSSNAIN; Dr. RAMESHKRISHNA HEGDE; Dr. JADEYEGOWDACasuarinas are among the most important tree species for the production of high yielding wood biomass for fibre, rayon and energy needs. Among the 96 species of trees and shrubs in the family Casuarinaceae, Casuarina equisetifolia has gained much attention due to its multiple end-uses. India is the largest Casuarina growing country in the world, with estimated 800,000 ha of plantations. About 500,000 ha are planted with Casuarina in the coastal states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. In order to assess early growth of casuarina hybrid clones for agroforestry, an experiment was conducted at MAHRS, Iruvakki, Shivamogga, Karnataka. Eight casuarina hybrid clones were planted in row-column design with 3 replication and 3 x 2 m spacing. The observations on height (ht) and collar diameter (CD) were recorded up to 9 months. Stem form (axis persistence and stem straightness), branching habit (thickness and length) were assessed by scoring. There was significant difference in quantitative and qualitative parameters observed for eight Casuarinas hybrid clones. Considerable height was recorded in CH2, CH4 and CH5 (2.68 m, 2.72 m, and 2.67 m respectively) at nine months after planting. These clones have also performed better in qualitative parameters compared to clones CJ9 & HPF as these were not suitable for high rainfall areas. Clonal repeatability value for height ranged from 0.82- 0.95 and 0.72-0.89 for collar diameter due to genotypic and environment interaction. A significant difference in soil-physicochemical properties were also observed between initial and final readings ThesisItem Open AccessASSESSMENT OF GROWTH AND WOOD TRAITS OF CASUARINA CLONES AT DIVERSE SITES IN KARNATAKA(KELADI SHIVAPPA NAYAKA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIVAMOGGA (COF, PONNAMPET), 2020-11-16) DEEPTHI DECHAMMA N.L.; Dr. RAMAKRISHNA HEGDE; Dr. MAHESWARAPPA. V.Plantation forestry in India is playing a crucial role in meeting the wood requirement of the country. The productivity of plantations can be enhanced through the selection and deployment of site-specific clones with desirable traits and suitable silvicultural practices. Due to the adaptability to a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions Casuarinas are preferred for environmental and commercial planting and has also gained importance as major pulpwood species. Site-specific clones can be recommended for particular end uses by assessment of clonal trials. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the growth performance and wood properties of Casuarina clones in clonal trials located at Kunchenahally, Sindigere and Jakkasandra of Karnataka. The results revealed that CH-10 showed better growth performance at Kunchenahally whereas CH-4 and CH-1 performed better at Sindigere and Jakkasandra sites respectively. Among the different clones, CH-1 had superior wood properties and anatomical ratios in individual sites over other clones and thus exhibit desirable pulping properties. Moderate to higher clonal repeatability (0.34 to 0.99) for clones in individual sites imply that growth is strongly controlled by genetic component. Clonal repeatability for wood traits ranged from low to high (0.03 to 0.93). Significant and strong phenotypic and genotypic correlation was observed among the growth traits and most of the wood traits. ThesisItem Open AccessDIVERSITY AND ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE OF FERN FLORA IN SACRED GROVES(KELADI SHIVAPPA NAYAKA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIVAMOGGA (COF PONNAMPET), 2020-11) SURAJ R HOSUR; Dr. M JADEYEGOWDA; Dr. C. G. KUSHALAPPAAn investigation on “Diversity and ethnobotanical knowledge of fern flora in sacred groves" was carried out in Virajpet taluk, Kodagu during 2019-2020. The study was carried out to know the diversity, ethnobotanical knowledge and combined conservation value of wild fern species in different sacred groves of Virajpet taluk, Kodagu. The population structure of wild ferns was assessed by stratified random sampling technique. Fern diversity status, species richness, dominance and abundance were assessed by adopting Shannon and Simpson diversity indices. The Density, frequency, IVI was calculated by using appropriate methods. Species richness and diversity were more in the sacred groves of semi evergreen vegetation compared to that of moist deciduous vegetation. Among the sacred groves, species diversity was more in Kakkottu Ayyappa sacred grove of Maggula village. Maximum frequency, density and Important Value Index was recorded in Tectaria paradoxa. A semi structured questionnaire was used for the ethnobotanical survey of wild ferns. Totally, 36 fern species were documented, of which nine species were used for medicine followed by edible (8), ornamental (4). Mainly Drynaria quercifolia is used for curing jaundice, asthma, dysentery, throat infection and ear bleeding. Nephrolepis exalatata, Nephrolepis undulata and Parahemionitis cordata were used for ornamental purposes. 96 percent of the respondents were using Diplazium esculentum as vegetable. Combined Conservation Value (CCV) was calculated for different vegetation types and sacred groves. Conservation status of fern was assessed with their medicinal, endemic and threat values. Among the vegetation types considered, semi evergreen vegetation showed a higher CCV (89.43%) than the moist deciduous (42.76%) indicating that semi evergreen vegetation was found to be maximum number of medicinal, endemic and threatened ferns. Among the sacred groves, Bhagavathi, Uttarat Aiyappa and Bhattamakki Ayyappa showed higher CCV (38.33%) indicating the presence of medicinal, threatened and endemic ferns in these sacred groves. The study gives an understanding of the diversity and ethnobotanical knowledge of the fern species in sacred groves which would help in conservation and management of the species. ThesisItem Open AccessMANAGEMENT OF FOREST NURSERY INSECT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS(Keladi Shivappa Nayaka University Agricultural and Horticultural Science (COF,PONNAMPET), 2020-11-15) BASAVARAJU, S.; Dr. R. N. KENCHARADDI; Dr. C. G. KUSHALAPPAThe present investigation with objectives of recording forest nursery pests, entomopathogens on them and managing them with use of entomopathogens was carried out at three different nurseries in Kodagu, during 2019-20. Ceroplastes rubens on Garcinia gummi-gutta and G. indica; Rusostigma eugenie and a mealy bug on Syzygium cumini at Forestry college nursery; Arytaina sp. on Pterocarpus marsupium, Trioza sp. on Terminalia arjuna at Forest nursery, Sampaje and Trioza sp. on T. bellirica, Aleurothrixes floccosus on Psidium guajava, Trioza sp. on T. arjuna, Dasynus sp. on Melia dubia at Forest nursery Thitimati were the insect pests recorded at medium to high levels of infestation. Other 24 species of insects occurred on other species of forest seedlings with low incidence. The occurrence of insect pest had a positive correlation with temperature and negative with RH and rainfall in majority of the insect pests. Natural occurrence of Beauvaria bassiana was observed and isolated from C. rubens and R. eugenie infesting Garcinia and guava seedlings, respectively. The occurrence of braconid parasitoids were recorded from Ascotis selenaria and from an unidentified hairy caterpillar. botanicals Among the entomopathogens and tested, B. bassiana 2 x 10 cfu/g @ 2g/l and Azadirachtin 0.03%EC @ 2ml/ 1 (61.10% reduction) against pink scales; B. bassiana 2 x 108 spores/ml @ 2ml/l and M. anisopliae 2 x 108 cfu/g @ 2g/l, Isaria fumosorosea 2 x 108 spores/ml @ 2ml/l against whitefly nymphs and highly effective. But other entomopathogens stood with on par Azadirachtin was effective initially; entomopathogens were superior at 14 and 21 DAT. The total cost of plant protection was highest (Rs. 71/ bed) in case of Azadirachtin, and lowest (Rs.54/ Bed) in fungal pathogens Lecanicillium lecanii and B. bassiana. ThesisItem Open AccessCHARACTERIZATION OF Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. POPULATIONS BASED ON GROWTH AND WOOD TRAITS(Keladi Shivappa Nayaka University Agricultural and Horticultural Science (COF,PONNAMPET), 2020-08-16) ASHWATH M. N.; Dr. SATISH. B. N.; Dr. G M. DEVAGIRIAcrocarpus fraxinifolius is large tree belongs to sub-family Caesalpinioideae under family Fabaceae. The timber of this species is suitable for making plywood, planks and construction purpose with its various multi-purpose services such as erosion control, fodder, gum, fuelwood, etc. It is mostly cultivated in high rainfall areas as a shade-tree in coffee agroforestry. The study was conducted to assess the variation in growth and wood trait among different populations in Southern Karnataka. Nine populations viz., Shreemangala, Shuntikoppa, Bhagamandala, Chikamagaluru, Mudigere, Balehonnuru, Sakleshpura, Totadagadde and Vanaguru, from three districts (Kodagu, Chikamagaluru, Hassan) were considered for the present study. The growth traits such as tree height, clear bole height, GBH and wood traits viz., bark-thickness, wood density, specific gravity, fibre parameters and vessel parameters were analysed to know the extent of variation across the populations. Among the growth traits, tree height and clear bole height were varied significantly, whereas GBH was not significant. The average height of trees varied from 19.99 m to 26.14 m. Maximum mean GBH was recorded from Shuntikoppa population (1.40 m). The basic wood density of species was ranged between 0.370 g cc-1 to 0.580 g cc1. Value for most of the wood traits increased from near to pith to the periphery. It was observed that there is a significant difference in fibre length across the populations. The average fibre length observed was 1225.49 um. Fibre width, fibre lumen width and fibre wall thickness have not shown much variation. Vessel parameters varied among the populations. Vessel length varied from 104.78 μm to 124.71 μm. Anatomical indices such as slenderness ratio, Runkel ratio, flexibility coefficient and rigidity coefficient were calculated to know the suitability of species as raw materials for pulp and paper. The wood anatomy screening of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius envisages that the species could be best suitable as raw material for pulp and paper production. ThesisItem Open AccessMAPPING GENOMIC REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH YIELD AND YIELD RELATED TRAITS UNDER AEROBIC CONDITIONS IN RICE (Oryza sativa L.)(Keladi Shivappa Nayaka University Agricultural and Horticultural Science (COA,Shivamogga), 2023-12-12) VISHAL REDDY; Dr. R. LOKESHA; Dr. KALYANI, M. B.The root and yield related traits are critical for initial establishment and high yield under aerobic system of rice cultivation. Identification of Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring root and yield related traits under aerobic adaptation is essential to facilitate the development of high yielding aerobic rice varieties. The present investigation was carried out in 150 Recombinant Inbred Lines (F7) along with parents (TI-128×BPT-5204) and seven checks for root traits under poly house aerobic controlled condition at panicle initiation stage (PI), for yield and yield related traits under irrigated field condition in Kharif 2022 and Rabi 2022 at ICAR-IIRR, Hyderabad (E1), KSNUAHS, Shivamogga (E2) and under aerobic field condition in Rabi 2022 at ICAR-IIRR, Hyderabad (E1), KSNUAHS, Shivamogga (E2), RARS, Karjat (E3), MRRS, Nawagam (E4) and RRS, Rohtas (E5). Significant positive correlation of grain yield per plant with root length, root volume and shoot length was recorded indicating the role of root traits in improving yield through improved water or nutrient uptake. Genotyping was executed using 1k-Rice Custom Amplicon (1k-RiCA) genotyping platform. A total of 91 QTLs were identified for yield and yield related traits under aerobic conditions, among them four QTLs (qDFF-2.1, qPT-1.1, qYPP-12.1 and qTW-3.1) were found consistent associated with days to 50 per cent flowering, number of productive tillers, grain yield per plant and number of grains per panicle. In-Silico analysis identified abiotic stress-related genes viz., ABA, ARF, MADS, WAK, SAM, LTPL, zinc finger spanning the nearby regions of the markers implying of the marker with the root and yield traits contributing to aerobic adaptation. A novel QTL from 3.46 to 3.48 Mb on chromosome 4 governing root length and root dry weight was identified. The lines TB 66, TB 143, TB 144, TB 17, TB 8, TB 6, TB 44 and TB 59 were identified better than parents and checks for high yield, root length and root volume under aerobic condition. ThesisItem Open AccessASSESSMENT OF SECONDARY NUTRIENT STATUS IN ARECANUT (Areca catechu L.) GROWING SOILS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN MALNAD REGION(Keladi Shivappa Nayaka University Agricultural and Horticultural Science (COA,Shivamogga), 2024-01-21) RESHMA K; Dr. SARVAJNA B SALIMATH; Dr. G. N. THIPPESHAPPAA survey was taken up in the year 2022 in arecanut gardens of three selected taluks of Malnad region viz. Koppa, Sringeri and Thirthahalli. The soil samples were collected at surface (0-30 cm) and sub-surface depths (30-60 cm) and were characterized for secondary nutrient status. The pH of surface samples varied from slightly acidic to very strongly acidic and showed minor decline with depth. In all the three taluks, surface samples consistently exhibited a low soluble salt concentration. The results showed that 66.7 per cent of samples from Koppa, 56.7 per cent of samples from Sringeri and 53.3 per cent of samples from Thirthahalli showed deficiency in calcium (Ca) status whereas, 70.0 per cent of samples from Koppa, 63.3 per cent of samples from Sringeri and 73.3 per cent of samples from Thirthahalli showed deficiency in magnesium (Mg) status. All the soil samples from all the three taluks showed medium status for sulphur (S) content. Based on the assessed results from survey, an experiment was taken up at Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (AHRS), Thirthahalli, Shivamogga to study the effect of graded levels and sources of Ca and Mg on their availability at different growth periods in arecanut from 2021 to 2022. Among the two different sources (lime + MgSO4 and dolomite), calcitic limestone combined with magnesium sulphate increased soil acidity and soluble salt concentration more rapidly than dolomitic limestone, which proved that lime combined with magnesium sulphate was a better secondary nutrient source than dolomite. The application of Ca and Mg as nutrient source at an optimum dose of 600 g of lime per palm + 200 g of MgSO4 per palm along with the RDF (T5) showed improvement in exchangeable levels of Ca and Mg, along with an increase in available S in the soil.