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Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GREEN SYNTHESIS OF ZnO NANO-PARTICLES FROM JAMUN (Syzygium cumini) SEEDS FOR SHELF LIFE ENHANCEMENT OF SAPOTA FRUIT
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-23) SNEHA, GOUDAR; VISHNU VARDHAN, S.
    Sapota (Manilkara zapota) is a tropical fruit originated in Central America and Mexico and belong’s to the family Sapotaceae holds fifth rank in both production and consumption in India. It is a climacteric fruit which requires ethylene to ripen due to which it gets ripens within 3-5 days after harvest. Sapota fruit contains various important nutrients which has certain health benefits. Being a climacteric fruit and has a less post harvest life which results in high production of ethylene, rate of respiration and reduction in weight leads to deterioration in the fruit quality. Edible nano particle coating is an eco friendly technique by overcoming degradation and used to increase the shelf life of fruits by creating semi-permeable barrier around the food surface and maintains the nutritive value within fruit. The quality parameters of sapota fruits viz., physiological weight loss (PWL), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugars (%), titrable acidity (%), firmness (N), phenols (mg/100g), colour value (L*, a* and b*) and microbial load (cfu/mL) were studied during initial day were 0.00, 5.77±0.16, 13.51±0.13, 6±0.1, 0.37±0.02, 4.04±0.05, 133.87±1.59, (64.71±0.41, 7.01±0.08 and 25.10±0.18) and 0.6±0.06 × 104 respectively on initial day. Shelf life of sapota fruit was 6 days in ambient and 12 days in cold storage condition. Alkaloid, flavanoid, saponins, carbohydrate, fat, essential oil, phenols and tannins are the major chemical constituents of the extracts obtained from jamun seed. Glycosides, phytosterols, proteins and amino acids shows negative result for the test. The amount of alkaloids, carbhohydrates, oils, fat, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols are 12.80±1.73, 32.94±2.16, 7.10±0.79, 1.80±0.16, 26.40±2.36, 3.27±0.25, 4.6±0.97 and 70.6±2.92, respectively. Zetasizer analysis showed that, the average size of the biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles was 37.77 nm and its zeta potential was found to be -24.00 mV, respectively. UV-Visible spectrophotometer showed SPR band of biosynthesized ZnO xviii NP’s @ 368.00 nm. The morphology analysis using SEM revealed that, the biosynthesized ZnO NP’s was in spherical shape and elemental composition was 42.47% for Zn and 28.66% for O. XRD study confirmed that, the resultant nanoparticles were hexagonal wurtzite in nature and intensity of peak reflected high degree of crystallinity. The AFM results revealed that, height and width of the arbitrarily selected standard ZnO NP’s was 0.15 and 1.7 μm. Major peak (3765.05 cm-1) and minor peak (547.78 cm-1) as a surface adsorption of functional group of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles shows good efficacy against all the microorganisms such as Bacillus cereus (28 mm) shows highest inhibition compared with the acetic acid bacteria -2 (26 mm) and fallowed by acetic acid bacteria -1 (24 mm) for bacteria, Mucor (21 mm) shows highest zone of inhibition fallowed by Geotrichum candidum (17 mm) and Aspergillus niger (15 mm) for fungus and Brettanomyces custersii (18 mm) shows highest zone of inhibition fallowed by Pichia anomala (15 mm) and Candida albicana (15 mm) having equal inhibition for mold/yeast in T4 @ 200 ppm. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on shelf life and quality parameters of sapota were recorded at ambient as well as in cold storage condition. Among all the treatments, ZnO NP’s of 150 ppm concentration was better in maintaining various parameters like physiological weight loss, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugars, titrable acidity, firmness, phenols, colour value (L*, a* and b*) and microbial load. It was also observed that @ 50 and 200 ppm biosynthesized ZnO NP’s had decreasing effect on quality parameters. Hence, among all concentrations, 150 ppm was considered optimum in maintaining the quality parameters of sapota over a period of time (12 and 21 days) both in ambient and cold storage condition. Hence the shelf life of zinc oxide nanoparticles coated sapota fruits was doubled i.e., 12 and 21 days for ambient and cold storage condition, respectively. Keywords: Anti-microbial study, Physio-chemical properties, Sapota fruits, Shelf life enhancement and Zinc oxide nanoparticles
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AUTOMATION OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT IN HYDROPONIC SYSTEM FOR STEVIA CROP CULTIVATION
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-19) RANA PRATHAP, Er. R.; KRUPAVATHI, K.
    Soil is the most important component for plant growth that supports plant roots, supplies water, air and nutrients. However, soil do impose severe constraints like unsuitable soil conditions, unfavorable soil compaction, poor drainage, soil borne diseases, and room for disease causing microorganisms. Growing land, water and labour are other constrains in urban metropolitan areas. Hence, these conditions are directing us soil less culture for growing crops in small- and large-scale production. The present study was proposed to design automated nutrient regulation in hydroponics environment with automatic nutrient feed technology at Dr. NTR College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. The automated nutrient regulation system for pH and TDS of nutrition water in the hydroponic greenhouse prototype consists of a combination of hardware and software. The hardware design consists of a water temperature sensor, air temperature cum humidity sensor, pH sensor, and TDS nutrition sensor combined with Arduino Uno software connected to four solenoid valves. These valves function to control the water, nutrient solution (TDS), pH-up and down. To set up a hydroponic control and monitoring system, TDS sensor and pH sensor were installed in the nutrient water reservoir. Two reservoirs of 20-Liter capacity for water and nutrient solutions and other two small reservoirs (2 Lit) for pH-up and pH-down solutions were fabricated and connected to nutrient reservoir tank. TDS and pH values of nutrient solution were recorded by using TDS and pH sensor probes respectively. Recorded TDS and pH values were fed to Arduino which adjusts the values, if required, through actuators. The components of the automated nutrient regulation system included GSM module, LCD display, Arduino Uno, sensors. In this study, the sensors are connected to Arduino-Uno controller in which liquid crystal display (LCD) of Arduino-Uno circuit controls and regulates the system based on the developed program. Pre and post calibration was done for all the parameters. TDS and pH values of nutrient solution were sensed by TDS and xiv pH sensor probes sends to Arduino which adjusts the parameter values, if required, through actuators and solenoidal valves. Daily monitored data of relative humidity, Air temperature, Water temperature in the hydroponic system in the closed poly-house controlled environment were recorded with Stevia crop cultivation. The results of the study revealed that the model was also able to monitor and control nutrition plant water according to the requirements of pH (6.1-6.2) and TDS (710-720 ppm) values. The ANR system responded immediately with the change of pH an TDS values released corresponding solutions to bring the nutrient parameters to target range. The better performance of the crop parameters of stevia was achieved under ANR system due to better nutrient regulation. There was no significant difference between ANR system and manual system in case of no. of branches and root length. There was significant difference between ANR system and manual system in case of number leaves and plant height. Healthy plant growth was achieved with ANR system with yield of 0.064 kg higher compared to manual hydroponic system for 200 plants. Keywords: Automated hydroponic system, pH, TDS, Arduino Uno, Solenoid valves, Hydroponics, Sensors, Stevia
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PRESERVATION OF JAMUN JUICE THROUGH SONICATION ASSISTED OHMIC HEATING
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-19) VIMOCHANA RAO, P.; MADHAVA, M.
    Indian blackberry (SyzygiumcuminiL. Skeels/ Eugenia Jambolana Lam) is commonly known as “Jamun” in Indian sub-continent. India contributes a higher production of jamun. Jamun is taken mostly for medicinal purposes than a normal fruit. It is a rich source of anti-oxidants, anthocyanins, phenols, vitamin and minerals. As most of the Jamun production is being neglected, unutilized and wasted due to lack of processing technologies. Processing jamun fruit into juice will be a better option as the fruit juice can attract more consumers and gains market space. In general to preserve fruit juices, thermal processing along with chemical preservatives is widely used. Thermal processing of juices causes unwanted changes in taste and odour with damage to bio-active components and functional properties. Sonication assisted ohmic heating is a good alternative technique to replace the conventional heat treatment process. Sonication is considered a suitable technique for treatment of liquid foods due to the fact that transferring of acoustic energy to food is instantaneous and throughout the whole product, with reduction of the processing time, higher throughput, and lower energy consumption in succeeding treatment. Ohmic heating contributes quick and uniform heating, resulting in less thermal damage to the foods. In addition, as there is no hot surface, fouling problems and heat damage to the product can be reduced. Therefore, a high-quality product with minimal structural, nutritional or organoleptic changes can be manufactured in a short operating time. The ohmic heating of jamun juice was carried out at voltage gradient (20-40 V cm-1), temperature range (40-75 ˚C) and treatment time range (2-4 min). Response surface methodology following Box- Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the response parameters i.e., pH, TSS, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content. Significant changes were observed in pH, TSS, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content during ohmic heating treatments. The optimized condition for ohmic heating of jamun juice was observed at 30 V cm-1, 57.5 ˚C and 3 min. The sonication of jamun juice was carried out at amplitude range (40-100 %) and treatment time range (5-15 min). Response surface methodology following Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to optimize the response parameters i.e., pH, TSS, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content. Slight significant changes were observed in pH and TSS during sonication treatments. Anthocyanin content and total phenolic content showed a significant change during sonication treatments. The optimized condition for sonicated jamun juice was observed at 28% amplitude and treatment time of 10 min. The optimized sonicated sample was ohmic heated at different ohmic heating conditions. The ohmic heating of sonicated jamun juice sample was carried out at voltage gradient (20-40 V cm-1), treatment range (40-75 ˚C) and treatment time range (2-4 min). Response surface methodology following Box- Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the response parameters i.e., pH, TSS, anthocyanin content and total phenolic content. Slight significant changes were observed in pH and TSS during ohmic heating treatments. Significant changes were observed in anthocyanin content and total phenolic content during ohmic heating treatments. The optimized condition for ohmic heating of jamun juice was observed at 30 V cm-1, 75 ˚C and 4 min. . Both the non-sonicated and sonicated optimized samples were kept for storage studies at ambient condition (28±2 ˚C) and refrigerated condition (4±2 ˚C). During the storage period the pH, TSS, anthocyanin content, total Phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars of fresh jamun juice stored at ambient and refrigerated condition were reduced from 3.43 to 3.33, 13.13 to 11.13 ºBrix, 79.18 to 61.81 mg/100mL, 146.79 to 125.06 mg/100mL, 12.34 to 10.11 mg/100mL and 8.64 to 8.41%, 3.43 to 3.43, 13.13 to 12.50 ºBrix, 79.18 to 60.30 mg/100mL, 146.79 to 123.30 mg/100mL, 12.34 to 11.11 mg/100mL and 8.64 to 8.63%. The maximum total plate count, yeast count and mould count of 11 x 103 CFU/mL, 12 x 102 CFU/mL and 3 x 102 CFU/mL were observed in fresh juice sample on 14th day of storage at refrigerated condition. During the storage period the pH, TSS, anthocyanin content, total Phenolic content and ascorbic acid of optimized ohmic heated juice sample stored at ambient and refrigerated condition were reduced from 3.63 to 3.43, 13.63 to 7.43 ºBrix, 65.47 to 46.01 mg/100mL, 192.83 to 166.30 mg/100mL and 12.25 to 10.23 mg/100mL, total soluble sugars increased from 7.51 to 7.53%, 3.63 to 3.30, 13.63 to 12.00 ºBrix, 65.47 to 41.88 mg/100mL, 192.83 to 99.44 mg/100mL and 12.25 to 8.16 mg/100mL, total soluble sugars from 7.51 to 6.13% and optimized ohmic heated sonicated jamun juice sample stored at ambient and refrigerated condition were reduced from 3.57 to 3.33, 13.33 to 11.97 ºBrix, 61.53 to 43.07 mg/100mL, 227.57 to 183.77 mg/100mL and 14.05 to 11.48 mg/100mL, total soluble sugars changed from 8.55 to 8.54%, 3.57 to 3.10, 13.33 to 11.77 ºBrix, 61.53 to 40.06 mg/100mL, 227.57 to 121.91 mg/100mL and 14.05 to 9.92 mg/100mL, total soluble sugars from initial 8.55 to final 6.88%. The maximum total plate count, yeast count and mould count of 14 x 103 CFU/mL, 11 x 102 CFU/mL and 4 x 102 CFU/mL were observed in ohmic heated juice sample on 21st day of storage at ambient conditions. The maximum total plate count, yeast count and mould count of 13 x 103 CFU/mL, 7 x 102 CFU/mL and 8 x 102 CFU/mL were observed in ohmic heated juice sample on 35th day of storage at refrigerated condition. The maximum total plate count, yeast count and mould count of 10 x 103 CFU/mL, 14 x 102 CFU/mL and 5 x 102 CFU/mL were observed in sonication assisted ohmic heated juice sample on 28th day of storage at ambient condition on 28th day of storage. The maximum total plate count, yeast count and mould count of 13 x 103 CFU/mL, 11 x 102 CFU/mL and 8 x 102 CFU/mL were observed in sonication assisted ohmic heated juice sample on 35th day of storage at refrigerated condition. The shelf life of the fresh jamun juice was observed as 7 days at refrigerated storage, ohmic heated juice sample was observed as 14 days at ambient storage, ohmic heated juice sample was observed as 91 days at refrigerated storage, sonication assisted ohmic heated juice sample was observed as 21 days at ambient condition and sonication assisted ohmic heated juice sample was observed as 119 days at refrigerated storage. Keywords: Jamun, ohmic heating, sonication, sonication assisted ohmic heating, anthocyanins, phenols, optimization of process variables, microbial inactivation and shelf life.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF THERMOSONICATION ON QUALITY OF SWEET ORANGE JUICE
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-19) RADHIKA, GORLE; SOMESWARA RAO, Ch.
    Sweet orange or sweet lime (citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is commonly known as “Mosambi” in Indian sub-continent. It is native to Asia and widely cultivated in India. Sweet orange is enjoyed, most either as a juice or whole fruit which is a rich source of vitamin-C and minerals like calcium, phosphorous, potassium and iron. About 95% of the fruit is essentially sold as fresh due to lack of processing technologies. Thermal processing along with chemical preservatives is widely used for preservation of fruit juices. Thermal processing of juices cause unwanted changes in taste and odour with damage to bio-active components and functional properties. Thermosonication is a good alternative technique to replace the conventional heat treatment process. It is a combined method of applying ultrasound at low temperatures which is an effective non-thermal processing method in inactivating microorganisms and enzymes at less processing time with minimum cost. The thermosonication of sweet orange juice was carried out at temperature (40,50 and 60°C), amplitude (40,70 and 100%) and sonication time (5, 12.5 and 20 min). Response surface methodology following Box- Behnken design was used to optimize the response parameters i.e., pH, TSS, ascorbic acid and titrable acidity. No significant changes were observed in pH and TSS during thermosonication treatments. Ascorbic acid and titrable acidity showed significant change in thermosonication treatments. The optimized conditions for thermosonicated sweet orange juice were observed as temperature of 40°C, 40% amplitude and sonication time of 9.298 min. During the storage period, pH, TSS and total sugars of thermosonicated sweet orange juice processed at optimized conditions, slightly increased from 3.8 to 4.1, 11.0 to 13°Brix and from 10.096 to 11.66% at refrigerated storage. The ascorbic acid and titrable acidity of the treated juice decreased from 49.13 to 38.59 mg/100mL and from 1.12 to 0.84% at refrigerant storage. No change in residual activity of PPO and POD of juice during refrigerated storage was observed. The maximum microbial count of 19 x 104 CFU/mL and the maximum fungal count of 13.5 x 103 CFU/mL were observed in thermosonicated juice sample on 28th day of storage at refrigerated conditions. The shelf life of the thermosonicated sweet orange juice was observed as 24 days at refrigerated storage. Keywords: Microbial inactivation, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, shelf life, sweet orange, thermosonication.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF THERMOSONICATION ON QUALITY OF SWEET ORANGE JUICE
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-18) RADHIKA, GORLE; SOMESWARA RAO, Ch.
    Sweet orange or sweet lime (citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is commonly known as “Mosambi” in Indian sub-continent. It is native to Asia and widely cultivated in India. Sweet orange is enjoyed, most either as a juice or whole fruit which is a rich source of vitamin-C and minerals like calcium, phosphorous, potassium and iron. About 95% of the fruit is essentially sold as fresh due to lack of processing technologies. Thermal processing along with chemical preservatives is widely used for preservation of fruit juices. Thermal processing of juices cause unwanted changes in taste and odour with damage to bio-active components and functional properties. Thermosonication is a good alternative technique to replace the conventional heat treatment process. It is a combined method of applying ultrasound at low temperatures which is an effective non-thermal processing method in inactivating microorganisms and enzymes at less processing time with minimum cost. The thermosonication of sweet orange juice was carried out at temperature (40,50 and 60°C), amplitude (40,70 and 100%) and sonication time (5, 12.5 and 20 min). Response surface methodology following Box- Behnken design was used to optimize the response parameters i.e., pH, TSS, ascorbic acid and titrable acidity. No significant changes were observed in pH and TSS during thermosonication treatments. Ascorbic acid and titrable acidity showed significant change in thermosonication treatments. The optimized conditions for thermosonicated sweet orange juice were observed as temperature of 40°C, 40% amplitude and sonication time of 9.298 min. During the storage period, pH, TSS and total sugars of thermosonicated sweet orange juice processed at optimized conditions, slightly increased from 3.8 to 4.1, 11.0 to 13°Brix and from 10.096 to 11.66% at refrigerated storage. The ascorbic acid and titrable acidity of the treated juice decreased from 49.13 to 38.59 mg/100mL and from 1.12 to 0.84% at refrigerant storage. No change in residual activity of PPO and POD of juice during refrigerated storage was observed. The maximum microbial count of 19 x 104 CFU/mL and the maximum fungal count of 13.5 x 103 CFU/mL were observed in thermosonicated juice sample on 28th day of storage at refrigerated conditions. The shelf life of the thermosonicated sweet orange juice was observed as 24 days at refrigerated storage. Keywords: Microbial inactivation, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, shelf life, sweet orange, thermosonication.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE TABLEWARE USING RICESTRAW
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-18) PAVANADEEPTHI, S.; SMITH, D. D.
    Plastics are used to make a wide range of products. Conventional polymeric materials cannot be easily degraded in soil, which accumulates in the environment and creates threat. For this reason, it is mandatory to drive the demand for new and innovative material solutions, which should be cost-effective and environmentally biodegradable. Biodegradable and compostable tableware which is made by using agricultural by-products is significantly more environmentally-friendly than is disposable plastic tableware. India ranks second in terms of rice production. Open-burning of the rice straw in the field is a global challenge and unacceptable. Rice straw fiber has lignocellulosic characteristics so it can be considered as vital capability reinforcing filler for thermoplastic composite. Rice straw can be used to produce biodegradable tableware, which can provide a sustainable solution for straw management and reducing the usage of synthetic plastic without polluting the nature. Generally, biodegradable polymers have poor mechanical properties. To overcome this problem, plasticizers are added to provide their necessary workability. The effect of concentrations of sorbitol (20, 30, 40 %), poly vinyl alcohol (5, 0.7, 10 %) and clove oil (0.5, 0.75,1 %) on Physico-chemical, mechanical and biodegradable properties of developed tableware was studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the tensile strength, compressive strength, thickness, water absorption capacity, density, biodegradability and color. Estimated the cost of developed tableware. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for optimization. Thus obtained optimized process parameters were sorbitol concentration of 30%, poly vinyl alcohol concentration of 10% and clove oil concentration of 0.75% with the results of tensile strength, compressive strength, thickness, water absorption capacity, density, biodegradability, as 40.79 Mpa, 55.79 kgf, 1.9 mm, 14%, 0.85 g/cm3 respectively. The table ware will degrade within 70 days in soil. The cost of each plate is Rs 5 and tumbler is Rs 2.5. Keywords: Rice straw; Biodegradable; Tableware; Sorbitol; Clove oil; Polyviny Alcohol.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF ZERO- TILL HAPPY SEEDER UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL CONDITIONS OF ANDHRA PRADESH
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-11) MAHESHWARI, Er.; ASHOK KUMAR, A.
    After the harvest of crop, the disposal of the rice stubble is a notable area of interest in all the growing areas of rice. The main reason of crop residue burning is the creation of narrow gap between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of next crop. During the harvesting of paddy, the large units of harvesters leave 8-10 cm of paddy stalk and removal of this stuff is a labour intensive process. Till date, the farmers are following traditional method burning crop residues followed by clearing burnt matter by tree bushes, dibbling operation for punching holes and manual sowing of pulses and cereals especially paddy in south India, mainly the rice growing areas of Andhra Pradesh region which in turn has a significant negative impact on people’s health, regional climate and crop output. The present study conducted at Research Farm of Dr. NTR College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. The Happy Seeder was tested to find the suitability of crops like black gram, green gram and Maize in different soils of the locality. Different performance parameters such as plant height, theoretical and effective field capacity, draft, field efficiency, ground wheel slippage, speed index, germination percentage were measured. However, the machine is unable to cover the furrow after dropping of seeds which may affect the germination percentage of the seeds. Hence, developed a suitable furrow closer of furrow closers for happy seeder which is a small but needy thing for closing the furrows to increase seed- soil contact to get good germination. Developed furrow closers like L-Type at 30° and 120° inclination, roller type and double wheel type were evaluated and statistical analysis was applied to depict the furrow coverage of different furrow closers. L-Type blade with120° inclination and double wheel type gave the best results of furrow coverage. Happy Seeder was evaluated in three different types of soils namely sandy, clay loam and sandy taking three crops as reference black gram, green gram and maize in the Andhra Pradesh region for its feasibility. xv It was found that high field efficiency of 63% was obtained in sandy soil at an operating speed of 3 km h-1 and low in black soil with 60%. The ground drive wheel slip of Happy Seeder was found more in sandy soil with 6.5% because of low resistance produced in the lugs of ground wheel causing more slip whereas in clay loam it was less i.e. 3.5% due to more traction provided to the lugs due its compact soil structure. The maximum draft observed was 6.64kN at a depth of 7.2 cm in black soil whereas in case of sandy soil, it was 4.68kN at a depth of 6.7cm and in clay loam soil it was 5.42 kN at a depth of 6.3cm. The speed index was found more in sandy soil i.e. 0.25 indicating less clogging of soil in the straw management rotor followed by clay loam with speed index of 0.19 and black soil with a value of 0.17. The optimum speed of 3 km h-1 obtained the best results of field efficiency, fuel consumption and ground wheel slip in sandy, clay loam and black soil. Plant height of green gram, black gram and maize was almost more or less equal to that of traditional method compared to Happy Seeder technology. The overall cost of operation for Zero-Till Happy Seeder was Rs.975.24 /- per hour whereas for paddy- maize traditional method it was Rs. 1143 /- per hour and for paddy- pulse traditional method it was Rs 859.6/- per hour. There was a saving of 100%, 6.6%, 75%, 50% and 33.3% in Happy Seeder method compared to traditional method of paddy-pulse cultivation in terms of tillage operations, fuel consumed, man and machine hours and number of irrigations, respectively and saving of 2.3%, 87.5%, 50%, and 33.3% in Happy Seeder method compared to traditional method of paddy- maize cultivation in terms of fuel consumed, man and machine hours and number of irrigations, respectively. It was concluded that to make the Happy Seeder feasible in the Andhra region, the use of rotary slasher after combine harvesting of paddy. Keywords: Zero-Till Happy Seeder, Germination percentage, Ground wheel slippage, Speed Index. Rotary Slasher
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    OSMO-CONVECTIVE DRYING OF DRAGON FRUIT SLICES
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-11) RANJITH, G.; KALEEMULLAH, S.
    Dragon fruit belongs to the family Cactaceae and it includes 2,500 species. Vietnam is the world’s leading producer of dragon fruit. India ranks 9th in production of 26,000 MT. Andhra Pradesh ranks 5th in production of dragon fruit and is around 455 MT. Dragon fruit is emerging as a super crop because of its several health and therapeutic benefits and ease of cultivation even in degraded land. It is rich in potassium, iron, sodium, calcium, fiber and other minerals. It has got significant source of antioxidants. It is believed to be able to lower cholesterol concentration to balance blood sugar, and be able to prevent colon cancer to strengthen kidney functioning and bone strength. It has the ability to promote the growth of probiotics in the intestinal tract. The effect of osmotic solution concentrations (40, 50, 60, 70°Brix), solution temperatures (40, 50, 60, 70°C) and immersion times (30, 60, 90, 120,150, 180, 210, 240 min) on osmotic dehydration of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) slices (square shape, 2×2 cm) were studied at fruit to solution ratio of 1:4. Central composite rotatable deign (CCRD) was used in Response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the osmotic solution concentration, solution temperature and immersion time during osmotic dehydration by maximizing water loss (WL) and minimizing solid gain (SG). The optimized process parameters were osmotic solution concentration of 65.3°Brix, solution temperature of 56.5°C and immersion time of 240 min with a maximum water loss of 57.93%, minimum solid gain of 8.01% and maximum weight reduction of 50.43%. The optimized dragon fruit slices were dried in a tray dryer at 40 to 70°C. The time required to dry dragon fruit slices till it attains equilibrium moisture content (8% d.b.) were 540, 420, 240 and 180 min. respectively. Drying curves obtained from the experimental data were fitted to different drying models and found that two term, two term exponential and Kaleemullah models were suitable to predict the moisture ratio of osmo-tray dried dragon fruit slices. The effective moisture diffusivity, Deff of osmotically air dried dragon fruit slices ranged from 4.56×10-11 to 1.04×10-10 m2s-1 as drying air temperature increased from 40 to 70°C. The activation energy and the diffusivity constants of the osmo air dried dragon fruit slices were 28 kJ mol-1 K -1 and 2.13×10-6 m2 s-1 during 40 to 70°C tray drying. All biochemical parameters decreased for osmo dehydrated slices except carbohydrates is increased because of the addition of sugar in osmosis process. The colour values - L* and a* of dragon fruit slices increased from 10.79 to 16.41 and 6.68 to 16.48, whereas b* values decreased from 4.88 to 1.67 as drying temperature increased xiii from 40 to 70°C. Dragon fruit slices hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness increased whereas springiness decreased and adhesiveness was not found as drying temperature increased from 40 to 70°C. The total mesophiles in intermediate moisture dragon fruit samples (15, 20, 25% d.b.) gradually increased from initial period to final storage period (60 days). Yeast and moulds were not present in intermediate moisture dragon fruit samples (15, 20, 25% d.b.) during 0 to 15 days and later they are formed in 30 to 60 days storage period. Acidophiles were not detected in intermediate moisture dragon fruit samples (15, 20, 25% d.b.) in 0 to 60 days storage period. Keywords: Dragon fruit, Drying models, Osmotic dehydration, Solid gain, Water loss, Weight reduction.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ELECTRIC VACUUM FRYING SYSTEM
    (ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-05-11) SATHISH, AKKI; PRASAD, B.V.S.
    sectors for modern consumers with a special desire for fried snack foods. Fried products are liked by all age groups and play an important role in consumer diets because of their unique flavour and texture. Frying can improve the sensory quality of food by the formation of aroma, producing attractive colour and better crispness. Frying also inactivates enzymes, reduces the moisture content and micro-organism in foods. Frying is a fast heating and uniform cooking method compared to other methods. Oil uptake takes place during frying and consumption of oil poses significant health problems such as coronary heart diseases, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. The health concerns of modern consumers demand healthy and tasty snack products with less oil content. In this context, investigation on processing technologies focusing on high-quality fried products with less oil is the need of the hour. Vacuum frying is a promising and alternative technology to enhance the quality of fried food products due to the reduced oxidation, reduced frying temperatures and much shorter processing times compared to atmospheric frying. Vacuum frying is one of the frying methods that take place at below atmospheric pressures. Vacuum frying requires specialized equipment and the design is very sophisticated. A vacuum fryer was designed and fabricated with a 1 mm thick SS-316 to operate at 210 °C under 680 mm Hg vacuum level based on ASME procedures. The developed vacuum frying system was evaluated using wheat chips at different atmospheric and vacuum frying conditions. The atmospheric frying was done at different frying temperatures (130, 150, 170 and 190 °C) and various frying times (3, 4.5, 6 and 7.5 min). Vacuum frying process parameters was done using the Box-Behnken experimental design with the three independent variables viz., frying temperature (130, 145 and 160 °C), vacuum level (400, 500 and 600 mm Hg), and frying time (3, 4.5 and 6 min). The prepared products at different vacuum frying and atmospheric frying conditions were subjected to quality analysis and sensory evaluation. vi Frying temperature had shown a significant (p<0.05) effect on all the quality attributes of atmospheric and vacuum fried wheat chips. As frying temperature increases the moisture content of both atmospheric and vacuum fried wheat chips decreased. The oil content of wheat chips increased with increasing frying temperature and time during both atmospheric and vacuum frying and decreased with increasing vacuum level in vacuum frying. The hardness of atmospheric fried wheat chips was higher compared to vacuum fried wheat chips. Colour difference values of atmospheric fried wheat chips decreased with increasing frying temperature and time. Optimum processing conditions for the development of atmospheric fried chips were found as frying temperature of 156.6 °C and time of 3 min. Atmospheric fried wheat chips had an average moisture content of 3.04% (d.b.). The oil content was found to be 24.26% (d.b.). The volume expansion, hardness and colour (ΔE) values of the chips were 837.17 mm3, 5.46 N and 23.65, respectively. Optimum processing conditions for the development of vacuum fried wheat chips were found as the frying temperature of 160 °C, vacuum level of 560.6 mm Hg and time of 5.3 min. Vacuum frying produced high quality fried wheat chips compared to atmospheric frying. The vacuum fried wheat chips had an average moisture content of 3.73% (d.b.) and oil content was found to be 18.18% (d.b.) which is good for health and does not adversely affect the storage period. Vacuum fried wheat chips had good hardness value of 3.97 N, which indicated the better crispiness of the fried product. The colour of vacuum fried wheat chips was far better than atmospheric fried wheat chips. The vacuum fried wheat chips had good acceptance among selected panellists and better quality compared to atmospheric fried wheat chips. So, developed electric vacuum frying system producing high quality fried chips compared to atmospheric frying. Keywords: Wheat based snacks; vacuum technology; optimization; stress analysis; fried snacks