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Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...




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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-11-09) . ANILA, P; RAGHU BABU, M.
    Water requirement has been increasing by 1% since 1980. Over two billion people live in countries experiencing high water stress. Water stress is not a factor that solely depends on water availability. At the same time it depends on the management of available resources. Watershed based study is considered as the best way to manage water resources properly. The study was conducted on Pothakamuru watershed of Darsi Mandal in Prakasam District. Prakasam District is one of the drought affected districts in coastal Andhra Pradesh. A number of soil and water conservation works has done on this watershed from 2012 to 2018. So that Pothakamuru watershed has been selected for fulfilling following objectives. i) To assess surface and groundwater resources and estimate the water demand for agricultural sector of Pothakamuru watershed. ii) To develop sustainable water resources plan for the watershed using appropriate optimization techniques. iii) To assess the impact of soil conservation measures on crops and water bodies. DEM of the study area was downloaded for the generation of watershed boundary, drainage lines, drainage area and slope map of watershed. The watershed comprises an area of 12952.85 ha with a population of 54599 people. The farmers on the watershed mainly depend on groundwater for irrigation. The surface waterbody on the watershed comprises an area of 574.68 ha. The watershed has a stream having a water spread area of 198.96 ha. LISS III data of 2012 and 2018 were downloaded from BHUVAN website, for the generation of LULC map and NDVI map. Sentinel 2 satellite image from USGS Earth Explorer was used for the extraction of agricultural areas on different agricultural seasons of the hydrological year 2017-2018. Total agricultural water demand was estimated by adding the crop water requirement and livestock water demand. The crop water demand of the study was estimated from Modis ET data product( MOD16A2) by the extraction of crop area. Livestock water demand was obtained from livestock population. Total water demand for the agricultural sector was obtained as 21.14Mm3 for the year 2017-2018 where crop water requirement is obtained as 20.7Mm3 and livestock water demand is found to be 0.44Mm3. Water requirement for the domestic sector is obtained as 1.09Mm3. Hydrological soil group map and LULC map were made in for the estimation of runoff. Highest percentage of of soil came under the category of moderately high runoff potential. The runoff from the watershed was estimated using SCS Curve number method. Out of 572.4 mm of average rainfall, 151.41 mm of water was going as runoff from the watershed which is 26.45% of the total precipitation. This runoff joins into the surface water resources. Drainage map of the watershed was obtained from SRTM DEM file.the study has drainage order four. Drainage density of watershed was obtained and drainage density map was generated. Runoff map of the watershed was prepared in ArcMAP. Runoff coefficient for the entire watershed was obtained as 0.3. Runoff coefficient map was generated with the help of the GIS platform. Most of the soil and water conservation measures on the study area were concentrated on the upstream side of the watershed. A better water resource management plan was needed for the study area. Water resource management plan for the study area was adopted from decision rules which are separate for water conservation structures and soil conservation measures. Soil conservation measures were adopted by considering LULC and slope of the study area. Water conservation measures were adopted by considering slope, drainage order and runoff potential of the area. Contour bunding, grassed water way, farm ponds, silt application, drainage disposals, forest restoration and crop plantation were the soil conservation measures selected. Farm ponds, percolation ponds, gully plugs and subsurface dykes were the water conservation structures adopted for the watershed. Decision rules were applied in the study area, by considering a grid of 25 ha in ArcGIS. Soil conservation works on the watershed between 2012 to 2018 were collected. LULC map of the study area in 2012 and 2018 was prepared from LISS III satellite image. The LULC map showed a noticeable change in land use pattern. Built up area, agricultural area, plantation area and water spread area of watershed had increased. At the same time, the area of wasteland was reduced. A portion of wasteland was converted into agricultural land and plantation. NDVI maps of respective years were prepared. Area came under the category of no vegetation on 20111-2012 and decreased on 2017-18. Area came under moderate vegetation which includes agriculture and plantation on 2011-12 increased on 2017-18.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-11-09) PALLAVI, CHIPPE; HEMA KUMAR, H. V.
    Commercial aqua ponds and aquaculture has experienced a remarkable increase in global production in the last decades. Rice farms are the favored sites for conversion into aqua ponds because they provide several characteristics well suited for aquaculture. The coastal belt of Guntur district is one such area where aquaculture activity is spreading at a rapid pace. Conversion of agricultural lands into aqua ponds leads to salinization of soil and ground water resources reducing crop production and fertile paddy croplands. Hence, it is desirable to monitor the problem and trends in conversion of paddy fields to aqua ponds by the modern techniques of remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). The present study is proposed to assess the impact of aqua ponds in Guntur district coastal area which consists of Bapatla, Karlapalem, Nagaram, Nizampatnam, Pittalavanipalem and Repalle mandals as major concern. The assessment of extent of area under aqua ponds were estimated by the NDWI image thresholding method, the Hybrid classification approach which combines the benefits of unsupervised and supervised classification approaches were used for the estimation of area under paddy cultivation in the study area. The effect of aqua ponds on crop production was estimated by the reduction of area (ha) under paddy cultivation and the total yield obtained (t/ha). Soil and ground water samples were collected during pre and post-monsoons (2019-20) at various distances away from aqua ponds (100, 500 and 1000 m). Various physico-chemical and chemical properties of soil and ground water were analyzed. The benefit cost analysis of aqua pond enterprise considering economic water productivity was performed by using necessary data collected from well- structured questionnaire through technical survey. The classified images of aqua ponds and paddy cultivation from 2012 to 2019 showed the total area of 954.39 ha of paddy lands were converted in aqua ponds. Among, the six mandals under study Nizampatnam with 335.1 (ha) has the maximum and Bapatla with 63.0 (ha) has the minimum area under conversion of paddy lands into aqua ponds. The results showed that the total reduction in crop yield due to aqua ponds under the study area from 2012 to 2019 was 5,156.57 (t). The pH values of soils from six mandals ranked from neutral (6.5 to 7.5) to strongly alkaline (8.5 to 10.0). The electrical conductivity values recorded in soils ranked from low salinity ( 2.25 dSm-1). The results showed that soil samples collected in 6 mandals has shown soil salinization. The available nitrogen content in soils adjacent to ponds ranked low (< 280 kg ha-1). Available phosphorus content in soils ranked between low (< 25 kg ha-1) and medium (25 to 59 kg ha-1). The soils indicated that they are low (< 145 kg ha-1) with respect to available potassium. Available calcium content in soils was grouped under low category (< 145 meq l-1). A minimum of 5.6 meq l-1 in Nagaram and maximum of 63.7 meq l-1 in Repalle of available magnesium content was recorded in six mandals under study. The organic carbon of soils ranged from low productive to average productive. The pH of ground water samples from six mandals was neutral to slightly alkaline, whereas, EC was found to be saline (1.74 to 18.34 dSm-1). Bicarbonates were in excess of permissible limits of 200 ppm. The chlorides and sulphates were also very much higher than the permissible limit of 250 ppm in all six mandal. The concentration of calcium, magnesium, sodium, RSC and SAR of water samples were all in excess of permissible limits and indicated that most samples studied were not suitable for irrigation All the cations & anions indicated ground water contamination. All the cations and the anions in ground water samples have shown to decrease with increase in distance in both seasons, except carbonates which were not detected in some mandals. The aquaculture has shown to have negative effect in water properties than soil properties. The overall analysis for pooled farmers in aquaculture showed that benefit cost ratio of 1.51 means that aqua farming gives net benefit cost ratio of Rs. 0.51 with a payback periods of 156 culture days. Study revealed that one crop in a year Rs.5,75,529/ha of net profit. The overall gross and net economic water productivity obtained as Rs.93.6/m3 and Rs.31.5/m3. The overall analysis for pooled farmers in paddy cultivation showed that benefit cost ratio of 1.18 means that aqua farming gives net benefit cost ratio of Rs. 0.18 with a payback periods of 206 culture days. Study revealed that one crop in a year Rs.16,441.46 /ha of net profit. The overall gross and net economic water productivity obtained as Rs.6.5/m3 and Rs.1.0/m3 Keywords: Aqua Ponds, Paddy Cultivation, NDWI, Hybrid Classification approach, Crop production, soil and ground water quality, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, Aquaculture, Benefit cost analysis, Economic water productivity.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-07) SAI SUCHARITHA, Y; KRUPAVATHI, K.
    In the water scarce situation, measurement of flow in open channel reduce the pressure on water resources and promotes the better utilization of water. The present study aimed at developing critical flow circular flume with rectangular centre contraction. The use of concept of critical flow in weirs and flumes is a common method of measuring flow in open channel. Creating critical flow makes it possible to measure the depth and calculate the flow rate, thus simplifying the monitoring of flow rate. Many measuring and regulating devices have been developed by earlier researchers. All of them do not satisfy the concomitant requirements of simplicity, sturdiness, reasonable accuracy, adoptability to any cross-sectional shape of channels and low head loss leaving enough scope for further research and development in the field of small measuring structures. The analysis of difficult in the rectangular/curvilinear flow, the complication in fabrication, the errors in installation, the economy and the sensitivity towards submergence have limited the use of these flumes. Hence, a need arises to lay emphasis on development of simple critical flow flumes by creating contraction at the middle of the section and not from the bottom so that obstructions to any debris and deposition of silt/any debris on upstream side is avoided. The formation of critical flow condition in the throat section is important characteristic which should be study. The present study is planned to design and develop a rectangular contracted flume in U channel. The flume is tested for its occurrence of critical flow conditions and flow characteristics in developed flumes. The circular flume was designed by placing rectangular block in a U- shaped channel. Six flumes were fabricated with different contractions (30%, 40% and 50% contractions) and throat lengths (15 cm and 30 cm). Water surface profiles were collected for four discharges (6, 9, 12 and 15 Lps). Critical depths were computed and located on the water surface profiles. During the experimentation, the six circular critical flow flumes were prepared as explained in the above section are installed one after the other Name of the Author : Y. SAI SUCHARITHA Title of the thesis : “DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CIRCULAR FLUME FOR IRRIGATION WATER MEASUREMENT USING CRITICAL FLOW CONCEPT” Degree to which it is submitted : MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY Faculty : AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Major field of study : SOIL AND WATER ENGINEERING Major Advisor : Dr. K. KRUPAVATHI University : ACHARYA N.G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Year of Submission : 2020 xv in hydraulic flume at 2m away from the tailgate of the hydraulic flume. Once the experiment with all four discharges on installed circular flume has been completed, it was replaced with another flume model. Care has been taken during installation of the circular flume, to ensure that rectangular throat and semi-circular bottom channels are perfectly aligned at the center of the hydraulic flume’s horizontal axis. The study revealed that the critical flow conditions occurred at 15, 12 Lps in all six flumes. Critical flow conditions occurred for all four discharges for Flume -1 and Flume -2. Whereas for Flume-4 and Flume -5, the critical flow conditions occurred at 15 to 9Lps discharges. For flume-3 and Flume-6 the critical flow conditions occurred at 15, 12Lps only. The critical depth found at only one location in the flume throat, but it neither occurred at any fixed location for all discharges for a single contraction nor for all contractions with a single discharge. The location of critical section was nearer to the upstream section for higher discharges and nearer to brink for low discharges and low contractions. For a particular discharge, the critical depth was found to increase with increase in contraction. For a particular contraction, critical section moved towards brink with decrease in discharge. The flumes with 30 cm throat length gave a constant brink- critical depth ratio in flumes for the discharge range selected. It was clear from the observations that a fairly constant brink depth to critical depth ratio for each flume tested. For the flumes with 15 cm throat length the brink – critical depth ratios were near to each other. The constant brink depth – critical depth ratio of the circular flume reveals that the discharge can be computed with a single measurement of brink depth at the end of the flume for the flumes under free flow conditions for the flumes with 30 cm throat length. The small throat length (15 cm) is sufficient to measure the flows more than 9Lps with the proposed design. For low flow (6Lps), no critical section formed in the throat section. The contractions more than 30% are best suitable for flow measurement with the proposed design. Hence, for low flows, it is better to adopt long throat lengths and more contraction. The R2 values of Eq.4.1 for the developed flumes varied from 0.9124 to 0.999. For Eq.4.2,the R2 values in between 0.928 to 0.9952. Similarly, for Eq.4.3 the range of R2is in between 0.928 to 0.995for the developed flumes. In case of Eq. (4.1), the highest deviation in discharge was observed with Flume -2 (-10.38%). In case of Eq. (4.2) the highest deviation was observed with Flume -5 (-10.458%) followed by Flume -2 (-9.064%). In case of Eq. (4.3) the highest deviations are – 2.93 % and -8.106 %. The highest deviation in discharge was observed in case of Flume -1 (-8.344%).All the non-dimensional parameters performed well in prediction of discharges. The deviations in discharges are less than ± 10% in most of the cases for all equations. Any equation can be conveniently used based on the data availability of the user provided critical flow conditions in the throat. ___________________________________________________________________________ Key words: Circular Flume, Critical flow condition, Flow characteristics of circular flume, open channels, discharge measurement, critical depth, location of critical depth.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, 2014) KISHAN, K; Dr. H.V. HEMA KUMAR
    Agriculture sector in Andhra Pradesh uses more than 95% of harnessed water resources. Conjunctive water management is the coordinated use of available surface water and groundwater supplies to meet water demands and increase water supply reliability. Development of a conjunctive management plan is complex and includes consideration of surface water and groundwater hydrology, water demand characteristics, water quality, surface and underground storage capacities, conveyance capacity, capital and operation & maintenance costs, and organization capabilities. During wet years, when more surface water is available, surface water is to be stored underground by recharging the aquifers with surplus surface water. Modernization of existing irrigation projects and construction of new projects have been taken up on massive scale in Andhra Pradesh with a huge financial outlay of Rs. 1.86 lakh crores (Rao, 2007). While planning conjunctive use of water resources of any region, it is necessary to accurately estimate demands of different sectors, more importantly the crop water demands, availability of surface and ground water. It is reported that more than 80% of the water resource potential created in India goes for irrigating agricultural lands and the overall water use efficiencies are as low as 30% in some of the irrigation projects. Hence there is ample scope for utilization of groundwater in the delta provided, if it is blended with available surface water to achieve an acceptable quality primarily for agricultural use. Hence an off take command of commamur canal of KWD by name Tungabhadra Side Channel is chosen for the present research to fulfill the following proposed objectives. i) Mapping of type and number of wells present and estimation of annual pumping volumes ii) Estimation of Irrigation water requirements at distributory level by considering crop water requirements and effective rainfall.iii) To prepare conjunctive use plans for effective management of surface and ground water resources. The components of the conjunctive use model includes; determination of reference evapotranspiration, effective rainfall from meteorological and rainfall data, estimation of crop water requirement from soil plant data, canal water availability from canal release data, groundwater availability from groundwater data, groundwater balance, crop benefits and a linear programming model for conjunctive use optimization. The model was tested by taking an irrigation command as a study area, where groundwater utilization was hitherto neglected despite District Ground Water Board recommendations. A minimum distance 400 to 500m is found between two irrigation wells in the canal command. There is wide scope for exploration of ground water resources which in accordance with Central Ground Water Board’s recommendations. The water table is very close to the ground during September to January months. The maximum drawdown is found to be 4.5 m during 2005 and in July month. The total irrigation water requirement of paddy, maize, blackgram and chilli crops as calculated by CROPWAT are 274.3 mm, 343.8mm, 238.4mm and 388.7 mm respectively. But in practice, the water applied to the crop will be more than the actual irrigation water requirement. Hence for solving the linear programming model, to be more practical, the values of crop water requirements were taken in to consideration by ignoring the effective rainfall component. The crop water requirements for paddy, maize, blackgram and chilies were worked out to be 801.72mm, 639.77mm, 554mm, and 794mm respectively. By adding nursery and land preparation to the crop water requirement along with application losses, in practice, flooded paddy requires an amount of 1100 mm of water for its entire crop period. In the command, Dry Seeding and System of Rice Intensification (SRI) cultivation is being strongly recommended and many farmers are slowly getting attracted. Hence the water requirement for paddy is considered for the LP model as the crop water requirement value as obtained in the above Table which is in accordance with the average value of 800-900mm for paddy cultivation under SRI. The linear programming model was run for eight hypothetical scenarios, i) 100 % surface water + 100 % ground water ii) 100% surface water only iii) 90% surface +100% ground water iv) 90% surface water only v) 80% surface water + 100% ground water, vi) 80% surface water only vii) 70% surface water + 100 % ground water, viii) 70% surface water only were assumed for running the LP model. In all the scenarios, the model had neglected and given no area allocation for blackgram and maize crops satisfying the given constraints. Out of all the eight hypothetical scenarios assumed, it is found a reduction of 7%, 14.5% and 21% in net profit and area under production while using 90%, 80%, 70% of surface water respectively when conjunctively used with ground water in the command area as against first scenario (100% surface and 100% ground water). Out of all the eight hypothetical scenarios assumed, it is found a reduction of 35%, 44% and 50 % in net profit and area under production while using 90%, 80%, 70% of surface water resources alone, respectively as against the first scenario (100% surface and 100% ground water). This type of exercise would enable one to plan for crop shifts under extreme situations of reduction of canal flows.