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Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

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The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT ON DEHULLING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FINGER MILLET
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) RAJA SEKHAR, M; EDUKONDALU, L
    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is an important millet crop and is one of the major sources of energy and proteins in the diet of rural population. It is underutilized and neglected crop owing to its lower preference driven by affluence, longer time and efforts involved in the processing and the lower cooking quality. The seed coat is normally of brick red to dark colored and contains polyphenols and pigments, which polymerize and turn dark and unattractive on cooking. The seed coat is tightly attached to the soft and fragile endosperm and because of this, polishing or milling of the finger millet to remove the seed coat has not been successful so far. This limits the usage of the finger millet only to flour based traditional foods and not in the grain form similar to rice. Hence the present work was undertaken with reference to hydrothermal treatment of the finger millet, milling of the hydrothermally processed finger millet and further processing of the milled finger millet for preparation of different value added products meet nontraditional consumer acceptability. Finger millet grains after cleaning, were soaked in distilled water at 30 and 70 °C temperatures for 24 and 1.45 h respectively, followed by steaming at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kgcm-2 pressures for the duration of 20, 18 and 16 minutes respectively. Grains were then dried at 40 °C to a final moisture content of 12.15% (w.b.) in a tray dryer. Samples were also dried to a final moisture content of 14.09% (w.b.) to assess the milling yield of the polisher. The physicochemical characteristics of hydrothermally treated finger millet (HTM) such as size (longitudinal and lateral diameter), sphericity, surface area, thousand grain weight, thousand grain volume, bulk density, particle density, porosity, color (L*,a* and b*) and hardness were determined. The results were 1.66 mm, 1.44 mm, 0.89, 6.361 mm2, 2.61 g, 2.34 mL, 0.77 gL-1, 1.31 gL-1, 41.22%, (18.77, 5.41 and 3.78) and 7.77 kgf respectively, for the samples soaked at 70 °C, steamed at 2 kgcm-2 and dried to final moisture content of 12.15% (w.b.). The corresponding values for samples dried to 14.09% m.c. were 1.58 mm, 1.44 mm, 0.90, 6.727 mm2, 2.64 g, 2.36 mL, 0.79 gL-1, 1.29 gL-1, 38.76%, (20.18, 5.88 and 3.99) and 7.6 kgf respectively. HTM (at 70 °C, 2 kgcm-2 and 12.15%) exhibited highest milling yield, lowest broken percentage and highest seed coat percentage and the values were 81.16%, 9.44% and 9.42% respectively. The corresponding values at 14.09% m.c. were 87.88%, 4.44% and 7.68% respectively. Higher output capacities achieved were 7.30 and 7.91 kgh-1 at 12.15% and 14.09% moisture contents respectively. Nutritional values of milled finger millet for protein, fat, ash, calcium and crude fiber were 5.84%, 0.79%, 0.99%, 193 mg/ 100 g and 1.08% respectively at 12.15% final moisture content. Corresponding values at 14.09% m.c. were 5.66%, 0.76%, 0.97, 187 mg/100 g and 1.00% respectively. Value added products developed from milled finger millet were; cooked milled finger millet, ready to eat (RTE) flakes and biscuits fortified with seed coat matter of finger millet. The sensory results of these products for overall acceptability, overall quality and eating quality were 8.2, 8.2 and 7.6 respectively which indicated higher consumer acceptability. Keywords: Milling, sphericity, hardness, color, milling yield and RTE flakes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PROCESSING OF CEREAL-LEGUME BASED FORTIFIED BLENDED FOODS USING EXTRUSION
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) SIVA SHANKAR, A; SATYANARAYANA, Ch.V.V.
    Fortified Blended Foods (FBFs) serve as an excellent vehicle to address undernourishment. Extrusion cooking is recommended for processing of FBFs from grains because of proven improvement in its quality attributes. Multiple extruded FBFs such as corn soy blend (CSB14) and sorghum soy blend (SSB14) developed at Kansas State University based on FAQR (Food Aid Quality Review) recommendations contained whey protein concentrate 80% (WPC80) and sugar to achieve nutritional adequacy as per FAQR and Bostwick flow (inversely proportional to viscosity) within USDA standards of 9-21 cm min-1. Both CSB14 and SSB14 compete with each other and other widely distributed non-extruded FBF (CSB plus) made by USDA and are implemented in food aid programs. However, FBFs containing animal source proteins are costly and have sugar content more than 10% nutritionally not recommended. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative composition of binary blends. The current research focused on developing high protein FBFs using binary blends of corn-soy (CS) and sorghum-soy (SS) with the aim of replacing expensive animal source protein with plant protein and to explore reduction in sugar content in FBFs. While maintaining the nutrition and Bostwisck flow range, binary blend formulations were made nutritionally similar for both CSB and SSB with protein (19 g) and energy density (393-398 kcal) per 100 g. Pilot scale single screw extruder was used to produce extrudates for further drying, grinding and blending. Extrudates of CS blends resulted in specific mechanical energy (SME) of 317.58-423.98 kJ kg-1 and was higher than extrudates of SS blends which had SME of 193.58-234.16 kJ kg-1. In both CS and SS extrudates, expansion ratio (ER) showed significant difference (P<0.05). ER was negatively correlated to piece density (PD) and bulk density (BD). The mean particle sizes of ground extrudates across all treatments ranged from 118.36-157.11 μm and were well within USDA specifications of 95% passing through 600 μm sieve and 100% passing through 1000 μm sieve. However, mean particle size (118.36-157.11 μm) of ground SS extrudates were higher than CS extrudates (121.39- 134.64 μm). High water absorption and water solubility indices were observed with extruded blends in comparison to raw blends in both CS and SS respectively. Final viscosity (78.5 to 175.5 cP) of SS after Rapid Visco Analysis were found to be lower than CS (128.5 to 185.5 cP) due to lower re-association of starch granules in SS than CS. WPC80 (for control sample only), oil, vitamin and mineral premix and different levels of sugar were added to prepare FBFs, both CSB and SSB. At 20% solids concentration, Bostwick flow values (6.5-9.5 cm min-1) of CSB were found to be lower than SSB (14.0-23.0 cm min-1) at different formulations. All SSB formulations and only CSB with 10% sugar addition were able to meet USDA flow requirements. The higher flow in SSB formulations as compared to CSB formulations was due to the matrix of hydrophobic sorghum protein around the starch bodies which do not allow easy water penetration thereby limiting starch exposure to gelatinization and re-association causing higher flow rates. The study showed that SSB could achieve the nutritional and flow requirements even without WPC and sugar, while CSB needed addition of 10% sugar to achieve the flow rate within the stipulated standards. The industry will greatly benefit due to the option of alternate inexpensive cereal-legume blends with better nutritional and flow profile compared to existing products. Keywords: Corn soy blend, Sorghum soy blend, Specific mechanical energy, Pasting profiles, Bostwick flow, Fortified blended food.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT OF ADJUSTABLE SELF-PROPELLED INTERCULTURAL EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL FARMS
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) RAHAMAN, SUNDARAGIRI; RAMANA, C
    Agriculture is one of the most significant sectors of the Indian economy. Population of India is 1.332 billion in 2017 and estimated an increase in population of 1.807 billion by the end of 2050. Hence, it is required to produce more food to meet the needs of growing population. Yield of a crop can be increased by using high yield variety of seeds or using proper agricultural practices and preventing yield loss due to natural factors like weeds, insects, rodents, etc. Out of these factors weed is one of important component which cause the serious damage to the crop yield, this include the decrease in crop yield, increase the cost of production, lower the quality of crop. Weed causes 20-30% loss in yield which might increase up to 80% if adequate crop practices are not observed. Adoption of proper weed management technologies results in additional national income of Rs. 1, 05,036 crores per annum (NRCWS, 2007). Present study was carried out on development of adjustable self-propelled basket weeder. Prototype of basket power weeder was developed by considering the optimized gear ratio of 1:2 among the three gear ratios, through manually operated test weeder and the prototype weeder was evaluated for its performance parameters such as weeding efficiency, weed index, plant damage, effective field capacity, field efficiency, performance index, fuel consumption and cost of operation of weeder in groundnut, maize, chilli and cotton crops. Results of the basket test weeder showed the weeding efficiency of 68.92%, 81.93% and 75.47% with 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:3 gear ratios, respectively. Plant damage was 1.6%, 0.96% and 2.38% with 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:3 gear ratios, respectively. Field efficiency was found to be 78.86%, 83.92% and 60.36% with 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:3 gear ratios, respectively. Results of the adjustable self-propelled basket power weeder showed the highest and lowest values of weeding efficiency were obtained as 79.49% in maize crop and 76.33% in groundnut crop at 30 days of weeding operation. Highest and lowest values of weeding efficiency at 60 days of weeding operation were obtained as 75.59% in maize crop and 70.57% in groundnut crop. Plant width increased about 3% to 4% of plant damage at 60 days of weeding operation compared to 30 days of weeding operation in all the four crops. High field efficiency was found to be 80.07% in maize followed by 79.89% in cotton, 79.63% in groundnut crop and low was found to be 79.39% in chilli crop. High performance index was obtained as 93.09 in maize followed by 89.75 in cotton, 87.92 in chilli and lower was found to be 86.31 in groundnut crop. Less fuel consumption was found to be 0.58 L h-1 in chilli crop followed by 0.60 L h-1 in both groundnut and cotton crops and higher was obtained as 0.62 L h-1 in maize crop. Reduction in cost of weeding operation by using prototype weeder over the manual weeder is 74.80%, 74.95%, 74.72% and 74.89% in groundnut, maize, chilli and cotton crops respectively. Saving of time by using prototype basket power weeder over manual weeder is 94.51%, 94.54%, 94.48% and 94.52% in groundnut, maize, chilli and cotton crops, respectively
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT OF AN OHMIC HEATING SYSTEM FOR PASTEURIZATION OF GRAPE (Vitis vinifera L.) JUICE
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) TANKESH KUMAR; SMITH, D.D.
    Ohmic heating is an electrical resistance heating resulting from the passage of electrical current through food materials offering some resistance. Instant and uniform heat is generated which results uniform temperature distribution, especially for liquid foods. Grapes are rich sources of polyphenolic compounds, antioxidants, and many nutraceuticals which demonstrates a wide range of health benefits. It is very much liked and demanded by the consumers. This research work was undertaken to develop an ohmic heating system for pasteurization of grape juice and to investigate the effect of ohmic heating on quality of grape juice. Grape juice was pasteurized by four levels of voltage gradients (10, 20, 30 and 40 V cm-1) at four levels of heating temperatures (55, 65, 75 and 85 oC) holding for 1, 3 and 5 min. Then pasteurized juice samples were kept for storage for 21 days at refrigerated condition. Changes in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties during storage were evaluated and statistically analyzed. It was observed that temperature and heating rate of grape juice increased linearly with the voltage gradient. Heating rate observed was the highest for 40 V cm-1 at 75 oC. Electrical conductivity of grape juice linearly increased with temperature and voltage gradient. Maximum value of electrical conductivity of grape juice was 0.81 S m-1 at 30 V cm-1 at 85 oC. Bubbling was observed at 75 oC at 40 V cm-1. The pH, TSS, reducing sugar, total sugar, total solid content observed increased significantly as the voltage gradient, heating temperature and holding time increased (p<0.05). It was found that titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and colour decreased significantly with increase in voltage gradient, heating temperature and holding time (p<0.05). During the storage the pH decreased significantly and the lowest percentage decrease observed was 5.96% (30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min). The TSS increased significantly during the storage and the lowest percentage increase was observed of 3.67% (30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min). Titratable acidity increased viii significantly during the storage and the lowest percentage increase of 3.67% was observed at 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min. Decreasing trend in ascorbic acid was observed during storage. Minimum percentage decrease of 30.59% was noted for treatment 10 V cm-1:55 oC:1 min. The reducing sugar increased significantly during the storage and the lowest percentage increase by 14.15% was observed at 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min. Total sugar increased significantly during the storage and percentage increase was found 5.72% at 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min. Total solid content increased significantly during the storage and the lowest percentage increase was observed as 1.21% at 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min. The colour decreased significantly during the storage and the lowest percentage decrease was observed for 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min. Total plate count, mould count and yeast count in grape juice greatly decreased as the voltage gradient, heating temperature and holding time increased. Total plate count, mould count and yeast count in grape juice for all treatment increased during storage. Total plate count, mould count and yeast count in ohmically treated grape juices after the storage period were observed within the safe limit for treatment (30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min). The panelists assigned the highest score on hedonic scale in terms of appearance (6.3) and colour (6.3) to treatment 30 V cm-1:85 oC:1 min while in terms of flavor (6.4), taste (6.2) and overall acceptability (6.4) to treatment 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min on the final day of storage. Sensory evaluation of pasteurized grape juice indicated that (appearance, colour, flavour, taste and overall acceptability) of grape juice were not affected by voltage gradient levels but significantly decreased with increase in heating temperature and holding time and storage period. System performance coefficient (SPC) of developed ohmic heating system was observed in the range of 0.57-0.99. System performance coefficient decreased as voltage gradient and heating temperature increased. For pasteurization of juice at 85 oC with voltage gradient 30 V cm-1, SPC was 0.73, which was found reasonable. Treatment 30 V cm-1:85 oC:5 min was found best for pasteurization of grape juice by ohmic heating on overall quality basis. Keywords: voltage gradient, heating temperature, holding time, physico-chemical properties, sensory properties
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR DRAWN AQUA PLANTER
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) LAXMAN, BOLLAVATHI; JOSEPH REDDY, S
    Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of Indian economy both in terms of gross national product and number of productive workers employed. Dry farming or dry land farming is a practice of growing a profitable crop without irrigation in areas, which receive an annual rainfall of 500 mm or even less. Dry land agriculture plays an important role in the progress of agriculture in the Indian economy. India is basically dependent on rain fed agriculture. About 44 per cent of total food production comes from 67 per cent of total cultivated area, which is rain dependent. India has about 47 million hectares of dry lands out of 108 million hectares of total rain fed area. Dry lands contribute more than 40 per cent food grains (80 per cent maize, 95 per cent of pearl millet and sorghum). About 95 per cent of pulses and 75.5 per cent of oil seeds are also grown in these areas. Thus, dry lands and rain fed farming will continue to play a dominant role in agricultural production. Groundnut and redgram is generally sown after commencing of the normal on set of monsoon. However, the erratic onset of monsoon and commencement of sowing rains, sometimes force the farmers to sow the crop late in the season. Yield of rain-fed crop is affected by the commencement of sowing rains during the recommended period of sowing. It is absolutely crucial for the seeds that moisture should be available in the first few days itself after sowing to achieve 100 per cent germination. Aqua sowing is the simultaneous sowing of seeds and delivery of an equitable quantum of water, just right for the seeds to germinate irrespective of whether it rains or not for the next few days. This is a new technology developed for the benefits of dry land farmers, and specially for sowing of seeds during contingency season of delayed monsoon. Seed rates for the groundnut and redgram dry seed observed were 105.47, 108.46, 118.55 kg ha-1 and 10.27, 11.44, 10.66 respectively. The breakage of dry groundnut and redgram seed was observed 1.8, 5.4 and 6.8 g and 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g for vertical, inclined and horizontal plate metering mechanisms respectively. The breakage of dry groundnut and redgram seed was found to be less percentage in case of vertical plate metering mechanism. Hence vertical plate metering mechanism was selected for sowing in the field. The breakage of the groundnut and redgram soaked seed at all the soaked intervals and also for all the three seed metering mechanisms were found to be at higher rate i.e. more than 5%. Hence it was found that the seed drill could not perform effectively for sowing soaked groundnut and redgram seed under laboratory conditions for all the three seed metering mechanisms. Hence soaking of sowing groundnut and redgram seed was not considered for sowing under field conditions. The application rate of water in a test plot of 30 m x 30 m were found to be highest for 120 L/min i.e. 49655.17 and 17266.18 liters at an average speed of 2.7 and 2.5 kmph for groundnut and redgram respectively. The field capacity was found to be 0.145 ha h-1 0.417 ha h-1 for groundnut and redgram with field efficiency of 88.90 and 69.50 per cent at an average speed of 2.72 and 2.50 kmph for aqua planter. The highest average germination of crop sown by aqua planter was observed with 120 L/min discharge rate was 95% and the lowest germination of crop was 75% for both the groundnut and redgram with 60 L/min discharge. The highest plant population per square meter and plant height in cm for groundnut and redgram was found to be 22.8, 11.2 and 21.06, 127.8 with 120 liters discharge rates. The highest 100 seed weight was found with120 L/min discharge rate and the lowest seed weight was found with 60 L/min discharge rate. The highest pod/seed yield obtained for groundnut was found to be 619.38 kg ha-1 and 514.90 kg ha-1 with discharge rate of 120 L/min whereas the lowest pod yield was found to be 334.15 kg ha-1 215.73 kg ha-1 with discharge rate of 60 L/min. The cost of sowing operation of aqua planter with tractor for groundnut and redgram was Rs. 5140 and Rs. 1815 per hectare respectively. Key words: Planter, seed rate, breakage, discharge, germination, field efficiency, yield
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Development and Testing of a Gherkin MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING (PROCESSING AND FOOD ENGINEERING) 79 Grader
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) Farzana Begum; Satyanarayana, Ch.V.V.
    Development and Testing of a Gherkin MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING (PROCESSING AND FOOD ENGINEERING) 79 Grader
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON ULTRASOUND ASSISTED AQUEOUS EXTRACTION OF RICE BRAN OIL
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) MOUNIKA, E; Smith, D.D.
    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop cultivated globally. Rice bran is cuticle between paddy husk and the rice grain. Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling industry. It contains 12-22% oil, 11-17% protein, 6-14% fibre, 10-15% moisture and 8- 17% ash. Rice bran offers various health benefits due to its content of antioxidants, vitamin E, B complex vitamins and essential fatty acids. It also serves as a natural source of phytosterols which provide blood sugar control and cholesterol metabolism. Commercial rice bran oil is extracted using organic solvents such as hexane. n-hexane has been used as the solvent for rice bran oil extraction due to the high oil extractability and easy availability. This process, however, has some problems with respect to the oil quality. To improve the oil quality, aqueous enzymatic extraction was used and to improve the yield, combination of ultrasound and aqueous enzymatic extraction of rice bran oil was investigated. Mechanism of ultrasound extraction is attributed to mechanical and cavitation efficacies which can result in disruption of cell wall and enhanced mass transfer across cell membrane. Firstly, moisture content of rice bran was determined. Rice bran was stabilized at 110 °C for 20 min in hot air oven. Rice bran oil was extracted for 6 h using soxhlet apparatus. The oil yield from conventional (hexane) extraction was set as 100% oil recovery for comparison. For aqueous enzymatic extraction, enzymes such as cellulase of 90 U, 144 U, 270 U, 360 U; amylase of 72 U, 180 U, 216 U, 135 U and protease of 45 U, 90 U, 135 U, 180 U individually were added to 50 g of rice bran and mixture was incubated at 37 °C. Incubated rice bran was mixed with water at the ratio of 1:6 (w/v) and pH of the slurry was adjusted to 7.0 with 0.1 N NaOH. Sample was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 20 min to separate supernatant. Supernatant was evaporated for getting oil and the oil obtained was dried in hot air oven at 100 °C for 30 min to eliminate the traces of water. Experiment was performed in triplicates. Then, extraction with combination of enzymes for incubation periods of 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h was performed. The optimized combination was used for ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound treatment time of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min with on and off timings of 60 s on 5 s off, 60 s on 10 s off, 60 s on 15 s off and 60 s on 20 s off were conducted. Oil recovery with ultrasound assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction was observed and quality parameters like free fatty acid, peroxide value, color and viscosity of rice bran oil were examined. Moisture content of the fresh rice bran was found to be 11.80% (w.b.). Conventional method of extraction gave 8.0 g of oil per 50 g of rice bran. Among the four concentrations of three enzymes, 270 U of cellulase gave highest oil recovery (35.22%). From the combination of enzymes cellulase, amylase and protease (270 U+216 U+135 U) gave highest recovery of 62.68%, because of appropriate combination of enzymes and then this combination used for different incubation times. For 4 h of incubation, the highest oil recovery (76.48%) was obtained with (270 U+216 U+135 U) combination of enzymes. This combination was used for ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound treatment period of 30 min with 60 s on and 5 s off timings gave highest recovery of 88.15%. Ultrasound assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil has a substantially lower content of free fatty acid (1.496 mg KOH/g) than that of conventionally (hexane) extracted oil (2.692 mg KOH/g). The peroxide value of the oil obtained from ultrasound assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of rice bran oil was little higher (1.567 meq/ kg of oil) than the peroxide value of conventionally (hexane) extracted oil (1.220 meq/kg of oil). Ultrasound-assisted aqueous-extracted oil had a lower content of colouring substances (15Y+2R) than hexane extracted oil (20Y+2.8R) and viscosity of ultrasound assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of rice bran oil (39.03 cP) was almost similar to that of conventional (hexane) extraction of oil (39.20 cP). Keywords: Rice bran oil; Oil extraction; Aqueous extraction of oil; Ultrasound assisted extraction; Ultrasound assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GROUNDNUT PLANTER - CUM- SITE SPECIFIC PRECISION WATER APPLICATOR
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) ANITHA, GUGULOTH; ASHOK KUMAR, A
    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the sixth most important oilseed crop in the world. It contains 48-50% oil and 26-28% protein and is a rich source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins. Planting operation is one of the most important cultural practices associated with crop production. Increase in crop yield, cropping reliability, cropping frequency and crop returns all depend on the uniform and timely establishment of optimum plant population. In India, most of the farmers are small and marginal farmers; hence, there is a demand of small implements which could be used as multifunctional devices by attaching simple components to be fitted to the low hp tractor. In general, the groundnut crop has been planted during starting of the rainy season and most of the crop is cultivated under rain fed conditions. The basic idea of ground nut planter cum site specific precision water applicator is application of water/chemical at the targeted location i.e. seed placement and it can be done using modern sensors. With this system, seed planting and water/chemical application can be done simultaneously in a single operation. This increases the moisture content of soil and sustainability of seed for germination during nonrainy days. An attempt was made to develop a groundnut planter suitable for mini tractor. Before designing of groundnut planter suitable for the mini-tractor, all the required components were designed individually, made auto-cad drawings and fabricated the total machine using created drawings. An Electronic Control Unit (ECU) was developed for delivering the precision water at required time, by detecting the seed in seed delivery tube using IR obstacle sensor and activation of solenoid valve for delivering site specific precision water. The developed ground nut planter and electronic control unit for site specific precision water application unit were integrated to work as a single unit for planting as well as site specific water/chemical applications simultaneously. Initially ECU was tested under laboratory and it was observed that, the three IR sensors were responded well while focusing the seed in seed delivery tube. During field evaluation, it was observed that the draft force requirement of the planter found to vary from 125 to 296 kg as changing the depth of operation from 5.3 to 11.5 cm at varying speed of operation. The maximum seed mixing index of the planter was found as 9%. The uniformity of seed spacing in all the rows found to vary from 9.6 to 11.5 cm. The theoretical and actual field capacity of the planter found to vary from 0.06 to 0.15 ha/h and 0.05 to 0.11 ha/h as change in speed of operation from 1 to 2.5 km/h. The percentage wheel slip of the groundnut planter found to vary from 10.52 to 23.68% at varying depths of operation. The seed damage and water saving percentage of the planter cum developed ECU is 5% and 77% respectively. With this sensor based technology application of excess liquid chemical consumption could be saved which leads to reduction in environmental pollution Keywords: IR obstacle sensor, Solenoid valve, Microcontroller, Water saving; Planter.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MINI-TRACTOR DRAWN TRANSPLANTER FOR VEGETABLE CROPS
    (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, 2018) LAKSHMI DURGA, MATTAPARTHI; SRINIVASA RAO, A
    India ranks second in vegetables production in the world, after China. During 2016-17, the cultivated area under vegetables is estimated at 10.3 million hectares with a production of 175 million tonnes in India which is about 1.5% higher than the previous year. In India, labor requirement for manual transplanting of vegetables varies from 240 to 320 man-h /ha. Most of the cost is attributed to the labour involved in handling seedling. Use of tractor drawn vegetable planter has enabled farmers to cover large areas in a short period economically. These factors show the need for mechanization of transplantation even more than before. The transplanters are either semi - automatic or automatic. Although these automatic transplanters are not viable, because their structural complexity and requirement of skilled operator. In Andhra Pradesh, small land holdings contribute 27.8% for agriculture. In small holdings, Medium horse power tractors ranging 18-22 hp are most popular in India than the large tractors. Hence, there is a need to introduce low horse power tractor operated matching equipment to improve the socio- economic condition of farming community. The present study conducted to develop a single row mini tractor drawn vegetable transplanter and evaluated in sandy loam soil for its performance and accuracy in terms of seedling spacing, missing index, seedling angle, transplanting efficiency, field efficiency, fuel consumption, power requirement and cost economics. A single row vegetable transplanter was developed which is suitable for mini tractor. It consists of revolving magazine type seed metering mechanism. During operation transplanting with the developed single row transplanter was done by loosening the hardened plug seedlings in nursery trays before transplanting by the operator. The cells of revolving magazine type metering system was filled with seedling before transplanting and the remaining seedling trays were placed on the each of the seedling trays. Before fabrication, all the compound drawings were made and assembled in Pro-e software for fabrication accurecy. The working width of developed machine was 0.6 m and equipped with rotating magazine type metering system, double disc type furrow opener and a pair of press wheel set for the purpose of soil covering around the seedling for erect position. During evaluation, it was observed that the spacing between two seedlings in a row i.e. 44.71 cm, least missing index of 2.45 %, seedling angle 8.78º and highest transplanting efficiency 90% for brinjal was found at 1.0 km h-1 speed which is due to sufficient time for settling of seedling into the soil. Highest missing index 4.52 % for tomato seedling was observed at rated speed of 2.5 km h-1. Least seedling angle 8.78º for brinjal was observed at 1.0 km h-1 and highest was 17.41º for tomato at 2.5 km h-1. During operation, fuel consumption was observed as 1.33, 1.362 and 1.48 l h-1 at the speed of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 km h-1, respectively. The field efficiency varies from 73.3 % to 83.3 %. The equipment showed better results of transplanting efficiency, saving of labour cost (%) and saving of time 28.4 and 93.7 % respectively at 1.0 km h-1. Keywords: Rotating type metering system, seedling spacing, missing index, seedling angle, transplanting efficiency and cost economics