Thumbnail Image

Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...




Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 39
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Procurement outsourcing is the transfer of specified key procurement activities related to sourcing and supplier management to a third party, to reduce overall costs and to increase the company focus on its core competencies. Now-a-day’s most of the agribusiness companies assign their procurement function to third party procurement service providers. Procurement outsourcing is normally followed in commercial crops like cotton, chillies, spices, potato etc. Guntur district is one of the major cotton growing districts in Andhra Pradesh. There are 383 ginning mills and 33 pressing factories spread over entire Guntur district. Most of the agribusiness companies are utilizing the commodity procurement services for purchasing cotton in the district. Hence the study was taken up to evaluate the commodity procurement services utilized by the agribusiness companies i.e., spinning mills in the district. A total of 12 spinning mills were selected randomly for the study. In the study area, it was noticed that the respondent companies from Guntur district have procured their commodities from the TPP service provider called National Collateral Management Service Limited (NCML). From the findings, it was noticed that 58.33 per cent of the spinning mills procured cotton from three sources (open market, traders, TPP) while 33.33 per cent of respondents procured from two sources and remaining 8.33 percentage of the respondents procured cotton from any one of the sources. Most of the selected companies were associated with the TPP service providers from one to three years. Peak season for spinning mills procurement was November to March. Strategic goals adopted by firms in procurement xi ii were procuring good quality commodities, provision of reasonable prices for their commodities, to maintain long term cooperation with suppliers, on time delivery of commodities and to reduce the overall cost of procurement. Major criteria for selecting an outsourcing service provider was level of expertise of service provider, cost of service, funding facility or credit availability, prior experience with service provider and business ethics of service provider. Procuring good quality commodities was ranked first among the strategic goals adopted by the agribusiness firms followed by reasonable price which was assigned second rank while long term cooperation with service providers was ranked third, on time delivery was ranked fourth. Condensing the overall cost of procurement was ranked least. Agribusiness companies major priority factors for choosing an outsourcing providers were level of expertise of service providers, cost of service provided, credit availability, prior experience with service providers and business ethics they followed. From the findings, the major benefits derived from procurement outsourcing by spinning mills were availability of good quality commodities was ranked first followed by establishment of good network and gaining knowledge, benefit of focusing on core business and lowering the procurement cost. About 41.66 per cent of the respondents were satisfied with services offered by the third party procurement service providers. It was found that equal number of agribusiness companies were either dissatisfied or indifferent and very satisfied by the procurement performance delivered by third party procurement service provider while 8.33 per cent of the total respondents were very dissatisfied. Some of the strategies for improvement of commodity procurement services by the TPP service providers were promoting the concept of TPP and also the benefits derived from TPP, maintaining good relations with the clients and update information about their commodities regularly, taking regular feedback from the clients about the procurement service offered, update information about the competitors from time to time in the market
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Production of vegetables and fruits play an important role in generating employment, income and meeting household nutritional security. There has been ‘silent–revolution’ in food value chains in India with rapid raise of super markets as a part of third wave of super market revolution in developing countries. The study was conducted in Nellore city covering seven organized stores and ten unorganized retail stores. The data was analyzed to attain the stated objectives by using simple averages, percentage analysis, correlation analysis, independent sample t-test and Garrett’s ranking technique. Majority retailers procured vegetables and fruits on daily basis. Major organized retail outlets had their own distribution channel to procure vegetables and fruits and in unorganized retail outlets majorly procure from nearby wholesale markets. Highest quantity procured was found in respect of Reliance fresh for brinjal. Regarding unorganized stores, the average monthly quantity procured varied from 221.88 to 426.38 kg. Organized stores handled average monthly procurement of 517.41 kg of ridge gourd, while the same for unorganized retail stores was 187.97 kg. In bitter gourd, the quantity handled by unorganized stores was found to be more when compared to quantity procured by organized stores. The procurement figures of potato with regards to organized markets exhibited a minimum variation. Unorganized stores on other hand handled relatively lesser quantities. The mean of monthly procurement of all the organized stores was 774.55 kg, while the same for unorganized stores was 569.18 kg in carrot. With regard to cauliflower organized stores were found to procure substantially higher quantities compared to unorganized stores. In onions, the procurement quantities were more by two times in organized stores against unorganized stores. In okra, it was organized stores that handled relatively larger volume compared to unorganized stores. No distinct trend in procurement of cabbage could be seen between the organized and unorganized stores. The mean procurement of tomato by organized shops was 3424.14 kg, whereas it was 1560.25 kg in the case of unorganized stores. Of the seven organized stores, Heritage.1 was found to handle highest quantity of banana. Maximum procurement of apple was found with Big Bazar, while the minimum was with ‘More. 2’.The highest procurement of grapes was by Magna, while lowest by More. 2. Among the organized stores that procure pomegranate there was not much variation in the quantities procured. Among the all vegetables studied, the percentage loss due to shrivellage was highest for cauliflower in both organized and unorganized bazars. The maximum loss regarding fruits was found in respect of banana in unorganized stores. Delayed sales, over ripening and poor customer handling were the three top ranked factors affecting shrivellage losses of vegetables and fruits in organized stores, while the same for unorganized stores were high temperatures, customer handling and the delayed sales.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The present study entitled “Assessment and formulation of communication strategies for penetration of e-NAM among farmers in Andhra Pradesh” was undertaken to study the present awareness of farmers and to propose communication strategies for the reach of e-NAM to the rural farmers. This study was conducted in major markets of Andhra Pradesh state. Three markets i.e., Guntur, Kurnool and Duggirala were selected based on maximum arrivals. The sample constituted 60 farmers and 15 traders. Apart from using descriptive statistics, percentages, simple ranking and chi-square test were also used for the data collected from primary and secondary sources and the results were tabulated. About 21.67 per cent of the farmers belonged to the age group below 35 years, 58.33 per cent of the farmers represented the age group of 36-50 and the remaining (20 %) of farmers were of above 50 years. Coming to literacy 26.67 per cent illiterates followed by primary school educated 21.67 per cent, secondary school 21.67 per cent, higher secondary 18.33 per cent and graduates were 11.67 per cent.42 per cent of farmers borrowed money from banks and rest of them borrowed from fellow farmers, friends and 5 per cent from relatives. 76.67 per cent of the farmers were not aware of e-NAM and 23.37 % of the sample farmers had the knowledge of e-NAM. xiv Most of the traders belonged to the age group of 36-50 years with 53.33 percentage. They got market information from mobile (60 per cent), followed by television (20 per cent) followed by markets (13.3 per cent) and both TV and apps is (6.7 per cent). The number of farmers registered were the highest in Guntur market with 548246 followed by Adoni with 318190. Kurnool had a registered farmers’ strength of 98774 and the next market to follow was Hindupur with 92380. The number of lots was maximum in Guntur for dry chillies which stood at 896793 during the period from 2016-19. The percentage of lots traded in Anantapur was the highest with 99.77 per cent followed by Rapur with 95.58 per cent, Hindupur 95.54 per cent, Yemmiganur (93.96 per cent), Kadapa (88.89 per cent) and Adoni (87.70 per cent) were the others to follow. The percentage of traded quantity in e-NAM against total arrived quantity in the market disclosed that percentage was largest in Kadapa with 99.89. Anantapuramu with 99.73 followed by Rapur with 96.92 and Duggirala with 90.67. The results from the chi-square test showed there was no significant relationship between Sage of farmers, education, farming experience, land holding on the awareness of the farmers on e-NAM except source of finance. The opinion of the farmers revealed that 18.33 per cent of farmers were unaware of banking transactions and 15 per cent held the impression that the payments from banks were not immediate. 13.33 per cent each reported that there was no time to go to banks and traders were not making payments immediately. 11.69 per cent of the farmers were of the feeling that the bid results were late and 10 per cent expressed that they were getting low price because of secret bidding. About 8 per cent reported that they had no trust on traders. Among different problems faced by the traders in trading through eNAM, 33 per cent had a feeling that it was a long process, 20 per cent felt that bidding results were late, 20 per cent opined that there was no problem in trading through e-NAM. As e-NAM is in its infancy all possible measures should be undertaken by all government agencies involved in the production, marketing and extension apart from involving other agencies with a sole motto of bringing the awareness of e-NAM and its benefits at large to the farming community
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study was conducted to assess the farmers’ needs in dairy sector, to study the present dairy services offered by various agencies, to identify gap between dairy farmers’ needs and dairy services available and to recommend feasible strategies for farmer development center. The study was conducted in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Two mandals which have highest milch cattle population were selected purposively. In the next stage-5 villages from each mandal were selected and from each village 10 dairy farmers were randomly selected, thus making a total sample size of 100 dairy farmers. About 79.00 per cent of the farmers were male and the 21.00 per cent of the farmers were female. Majority of the farmers were the age group of 26 to 50 years (54.00%), highest per cent of education was high school 43.00 per cent, majority of farmers were small farmers 38.00 per cent, 45 per cent of farmers were having the family size of less than four members. Majority of sample respondents had annual income less than Rs. 35,000.Majority of farmers having kacha cattle houses are 51.00 per cent. Majority 52.00 per cent of farmers having high experience. About 53.00 per cent of the farmers were having herd size of 1 to 3 cattle, 46.00 per cent xi were having 4 to 8 liters of milk production per day and majorly 42.00 per cent of the farmers were having exotic breeds. About farmers needs were vaccination (99%) followed by high milk yielding feed (95%), groundnut straw (93%), exotic breeds (87%). Dairy need index was (96.50 % DNI) vaccination, followed by (97.50% DNI) for high milk yielding feed, (96.50% DNI). The present dairy services offered are medical treatment, market information (100%) are the most available services in the study area and the next best available services are vaccination (96%) and groundnut straw (94%). At door steps dairy services available to the dairy farmers are insurance and vaccination (100%), artificial insemination (88%), chaff cutters (78%), medical treatment (63%). About different agencies offering services are health certificates and government subsidies (100%) followed by fodder maize (89%), training services (72%), bajra (67%). From the gap analysis it can be seen that there is a high percentage of gap in availability of hand outs & literatures (83.90 ) per cent, and health certificates (83.52) per cent, this is due to lack of intrest by farmers, but now, these services are needed to farmers which are being provided by different agencies, veterinary services 73.62 per cent, gap in veterinary services is due to not availability of Assistant veterinary surgeons from department of animal husbandry, no gap in services like marketing information, medical treatment followed by 4.00 per cent in vaccination, lactometer 4.91 per cent. The constraints faced by farmer development centers were lack of qualified veterinarians, high feed and machinery cost which made the farmers reluctant to approach the farmer development centers. The feasible strategies for farmer development centers to offer services are to providing mobile veterinary services for the farmers which helps in easy accessibility under emergency conditions, training programs on different services like health care, deworming and value added products preparation should be provided at home. They should also maintain frozen germ plasm for Artificial insemination.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study was conducted to understand the processing scenario in the study area, potential crops suitable for value addition other than tomato and suitability of these products in the farmer owned tomato processing plant. The study was conducted in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. The sample constituted 60 farmers and 3 processing units. About 68.3 per cent of respondents were middle aged while old aged were 5 per cent and the rest 6.7 per cent were young aged. The entire respondents were literates and half of them completed their higher education and intermediate, 31.7 per cent completed graduation and the other 18.3 per cent had only primary education. About 55 per cent had only agriculture as their core occupation, whereas 26.7 per cent reared cattle, 10 per cent had jobs and 8.3 percent were running their own businesses. Major proportion of the farmers came under small and marginal categories with 45 and 33.3 per cent respectively, while medium and large farmers occupied 16.7 and 5 per cent correspondingly. In the area under horticultural crops, mango occupied major share of 46.94 percent of area. Tomato was next to follow with an area of 15.98 per cent. Papaya was grown in 2.33 per cent of the entire area and banana occupied 1.5 per cent. There were several marketing channels through which the end produce was marketed. Out of the whole sample, 30 per cent sales were through mandi, 3.3 per cent sales were through processing units, farm gate sales were 40 per cent, 20 per cent through both mandi and processing units and 6.7 percent marketed through both mandi and farm gate sales. The perception of farmers towards food processing indicated that 20 per cent of total sample was unaware of the processing, 8.3 per cent expressed that the system was good, 23.3 per cent had low price realization, 10 per cent felt the need for good procurement practices and the remaining 20 per cent had no bulk production which was adequate to supply to the processing units. On creation of necessary infrastructural facilities, 70 per cent were willing to supply to processing units, while 30 per cent were unwilling. In mango, the cost of cultivation was Rs.51750/ha, while it was Rs.90625/ha in banana and was highest for papaya with Rs.306875/ha. Per hectare gross income for these fruit crop enterprises was Rs.80875, Rs.198750 and Rs.643750 respectively. The per hectare net income over working costs was of the order of Rs.29125, Rs.108125 and Rs.336875 for the above three crop enterprises. The returns for rupee of expenditure over working costs were Rs.1.53 for mango, Rs.2.19 for banana and Rs.2.10 for papaya. The results from the chi-square test showed that there was a significant relationship between locality of the farmers, age, education and land holding with the type of marketing channel used; location of the farmers with the satisfaction level with the price; location, age and land holding of farmers with the perception towards the processing sector; location and the land holding with the willingness to supply and satisfaction of price with the selection of marketing channels. In the economics of processing, for the given unit which dealt with mango, papaya, tomato, banana, guava, pineapple, and chillies, the revenue obtained from mango is likely to Rs.50 crore, where total working costs would be Rs.39.96 crore with a fixed cost of Rs.8.04 crore and net income of Rs.2 crore. In papaya processing, Rs 2 crore of gross income can be obtained with total costs of Rs.1.896 crore deriving a net return of about Rs.0.104 crore. Pineapple processing would bring a gross income of Rs.1 crore with total costs of Rs.0.9399 crore with a net profit of Rs.0.0601 crore. In respect of guava, gross revenue of Rs.1 crore is going to be attained. The total costs that would be Rs.0.9546 crore helping the entrepreneur to gain a net income of Rs.0.0454 crore. Banana processing brought an income of Rs.0.4 crore. Total costs would be Rs.0.378 crore and the net income is expected to be Rs.0.0278 crore. The gross revenue derived from tomato products will be Rs. 6 crore while total working capital and total fixed costs will be of the order of Rs.4.793 crore and Rs.0.913 crore respectively with a net return of Rs.0.294 crore. In red chilli, sale proceeds would be Rs. 3 crore with a total cost of Rs.2.8686 crore and the net returns would be Rs.0.1313 crore, whereas in green chilli paste production, gross income and net income would be Rs.0.3 crore and Rs.0.017 crore respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The present study “Development of One Stop Solution for Dissemination of Agricultural Information to Identified Stakeholders in Agriculture” was mainly aimed to study information needs of different stakeholders, to develop an information flow model and to formulate market penetration strategies. Purposive cum random sampling design was adopted for selection of sample farmers and agri-startups for the present study. Study area for sample farmers was Krishna and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh and for agri-startups was Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Stakeholders identified for study was farmers and agri-startups. For sample famers list of progressive farmers was obtained from KVKs of both districts and for sample of agri-startups sample was selected randomly from MANAGE and NAARM incubators. The study on farmers with sample size 100 revealed that, majority of sample farmers belong to old age group more than 45 years age and with literacy status of majority of farmers was intermediate and graduation. Further, land holding details revealed that majority of farmers were medium land holding farmers. On an average farmer were obtaining information from nine sources and frequency of usage of sources was once per month. Search behaviour of sample farmers was divided into low, medium and high search behaviours based on usage pattern of available information sources. Chi square test revealed that socio economic characters like literacy status, land holding and farmers usage of mobile phones were shown significance with information search behaviour of farmers (p values 0.048,0.002,.001 respectively). Kruskal wallis test revealed information types like Seed varieties, pest and fertilizer management has shown significance with low search behaviours ( p value- 0.043, 0.004,0.001) and open market price and minimum support price information has shown significance with high search behaviour (p value- 0.007 and .001). Logit model revealed variables like secondary education, basic featured mobile and cultivation practices information were shown significance at 5% level of significance with negative effect on shifting from low to high search behaviour. For grouping of information needs factor analysis was used and cumulative variance accounted by all the eight factors after rotation with varimax rotation method was 71.59 per cent. Mean scores of these identified eight factors revealed that factor named price for produce followed by weather and input price related information factor were the major factors preferred by farmers. For agri-startups farmers, extension wokers, kisan melas and mass media were major information sources. Further, agri start-ups preferred media technology related information was videos while for other information’s videos and text messages were preferred equally. Whereas farmers’ preference for media was videos for technology, text messages for real time information, videos and text messages for post-harvest messages, voice messages for static information. But majority of farmers were not willing to pay for service it was suggested to go with advertising models for viable market presence. Information flow model was proposed for the digital agricultural information dissemination platform based on results from above study. It was suggested that firm has to provide service for customer based on type of user registration i.e., subscription type and premium subscription. Premium subscribers should be provided with real time data, uberisation features along with static Information and features to be incorporated for different stakeholders was suggested in report. Market penetration strategies like segmented awareness creation through village shows, demonstrations and content creation were the major strategies suggested for better success of ICT platforms at farmer level.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study was conducted to identify consumption pattern, consumer preference and market opportunities (market potential) for processed tomato products. The study was conducted in 2 urban cities namely Bangalore and Tirupati of South India. The particulars of the customers who regularly buy the tomato products has been elicited from the selected retail outlets and 40 consumers (10 each from 4 selected retail outlets) in each urban centers have been selected randomly and interviewed. Thus making 80 consumers as total sample size. Most of the consumers were females (52.50%), under the age group of 25 to 35 years (42.50%), Majority of the consumers household size was less than 4 members (61.25%), while (48.75%) consumers were graduates. Most of the respondents who showed the preference towards tomato sauce were (98.75%), followed by tomato ketchup (86.25%), tomato juice (30.00%), and tomato paste (25.00%) and least used was tomato puree (7.50%). Majority of respondents use tomato in Chinese dishes (92.50%) followed by traditional dishes (87.50%) and Italian dishes (67.50%). Consumption pattern of tomato products by households was in form of fried rice (83.75%), noodles (67.5%), followed by manchuria, snacks, soup, xii bread, pasta, stew, chilli chicken, sandwich ,salads, chips/fries and spring rolls. Findings revealed that majority of consumers purchase tomato products once in week with preferred quantity of 250 to 500 gms. The taste was most preferred attribute of processed tomato products with a mean value of (78.11) followed by price (72.21) and aroma (69.92). Educational qualification, occupation, household size, and income have a significant relationship on frequency of purchase. The market potential in Tirupati for tomato sauces was rupees 6.60 crore followed by tomato ketchup rupees 4.76 crore, for tomato juice rupees 1.80 crore, for tomato paste rupees 2.25 crore and for tomato puree rupees 2.27 crore. The market potential in Bangalore for tomato ketchup were rupees 386.03 crore fallowed by tomato sauces rupees 285.25 crore, for tomato juice rupees 166.39 crore, for tomato puree rupees 77.25 crore and for tomato paste rupees 60.61crore.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The present study was entitled “Warehouse Receipts Financing of Chilies in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh– An Empirical Study” was intended to examine various economic activities, usage pattern, preferences and factors influencing the warehouse receipts finance on farmers(60) and traders(20). About 60 per cent of the farmer and trader respondents belonged to the age group of 36-55.13 per cent of the farmer respondents were illiterates and 100 per cent of trader respondents were literates. About 83.33 per cent of farmers were having pucca houses while in traders it was observed that 100 per cent were living in pucca houses. About 50 percent of the respondents were medium farmers. The average size of the farm holding for medium farmers was 3.3 ha. About 33.34, 37.5 25.75 per cent of gross cropped area on marginal, small and large farms were occupied by chillies. Bore wells supported 72 per cent of average holding in respect of marginal farmers while for small, medium and large farmers this source formed 72, 60 and 59 per cent. About 51.67 per cent of farmer respondents stored their produce in the range of 0-125 bags while40 per cent of trader respondents stored the produce ranged from 2500-5000 bags. xiv About 41.67 per cent of farmer respondents paid the charges in the range of Rs 166 to175 per bag and 40 percent of traders paid less than Rs 165 per bag while the same per cent of traders paid in the range Rs 175 to 185 per bag. Among the farmers and traders reasons for storing the produce in warehouse was profit motive which was ranked first by both of them. The criteria preferred by the stakeholders for selecting the warehouse for storage was well maintained cold storage units which was ranked first by the both of them. According to the farmers the finance obtained through warehouse receipts were used for payment wages to labour was the top ranked.On the other hand traders utilized the funds to undertake purchase of the produce which they were handling.It was their top most priority as revealed by the score. About 51.66 per cent of the farmer respondents were preferred to take the warehouse receipt finance from the Federal bank and 45 per cent of the trader respondents were preferred to take the warehouse receipts finance from the Tamilnad Mercantile bank. Among the farmers the factors which influence the selection of financial institution were identified, suggestion made by the manager of warehouse was one of the top most factors. Among traders interest rate was top notch factor. Among the farmers and traders prevailing low prices, was the factor that promoted the farmer to take a decision on selling while traders as a businessmen contemplate to make as much profits as they can make out in the business.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The present study entitled “Impact of eNAM on enhancement of farm income in Andhra Pradesh- An analytical study” was undertaken mainly to study impact of eNAM on income of farmers. The study covered Duggirala, Guntur and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh. Primary data was collected from 25 farmers from each market using a specially designed schedule pertaining to the year 2017-18. Secondary data was collected from different sources. The empirical findings of the study revealed that major commodities transacted in Duggirala, Guntur and Kurnool markets were Turmeric, Chilli and Groundnut respectively. In all the three markets majority of the respondents were medium farmers. With regard to arrivals, no significant change was observed in arrivals of turmeric before and after eNAM and prices of turmeric changed significantly after eNAM. In Guntur market both arrivals and prices changed significantly after introduction of eNAM. In case of Kurnool market arrivals changed significantly but prices does not show any significant difference at 5 per cent level of significance. Change in income of farmers in all the selected markets after introduction of eNAM was positive. In Duggirala marginal farmers had an increase of 8.59 per cent, small farmers (8.00 %), medium farmers (7.36 %) and large farmers (7.34 %) in their incomes. In Guntur market there was a positive increase of 6.06 per cent for marginal farmers, 7.54 per cent for small farmers, 7.29 per cent for medium farmers and large farmers 8.24 per cent in their incomes. In Kurnool market, there was a positive change of 7.69, 8.70, 6.40, and 7.38 per cent for marginal, small, medium and large farmers respectively. Opinion of the Duggirala respondents towards eNAM was that they were favourable towards eNAM helped in settlement of disputes, eNAM has reduced wastage of the products, eNAM has reduced manipulations during tendering, eNAM helped to sell entire produce in the single day and it has rationalized market fee, cess etc. Duggirala farmers were most unfavourable xii towards eNAM in promoting stable price realization and neutrally opined for eNAM has rationalized market fee and cess etc. Guntur respondents had favourable opinion for eNAM helped in settlement of disputes between purchasers and sellers and most unfavourable opinion was obtained for three statements i.e., eNAM reduced the difficulty to conduct physical auction during the peak season, eNAM increased the prices received by the farmers and eNAM has reduced wastage of the produce. Neutral opinion was obtained for eNAM has reduced time of auction for farmers. Kurnool respondents had favourable opinion towards eNAM helped in disputes settlement and neutral opinion towards eNAM rationalized market fee, commission charges, cess and taxes and eNAM prevented the entry of middlemen into supply chain. They were unfavourable towards eNAM has promoted stable price realization for the farmers. The major constraints of eNAM from three markets were identified and found that long process involved in eNAM was the major constraint for Duggirala respondents, lack of awareness about eNAM was major constraint for Guntur respondents and connectivity and server problem is the major constraint in Kurnool market.