Thumbnail Image

Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...




Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 18
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-11-09) . ANILA, P; RAGHU BABU, M.
    Water requirement has been increasing by 1% since 1980. Over two billion people live in countries experiencing high water stress. Water stress is not a factor that solely depends on water availability. At the same time it depends on the management of available resources. Watershed based study is considered as the best way to manage water resources properly. The study was conducted on Pothakamuru watershed of Darsi Mandal in Prakasam District. Prakasam District is one of the drought affected districts in coastal Andhra Pradesh. A number of soil and water conservation works has done on this watershed from 2012 to 2018. So that Pothakamuru watershed has been selected for fulfilling following objectives. i) To assess surface and groundwater resources and estimate the water demand for agricultural sector of Pothakamuru watershed. ii) To develop sustainable water resources plan for the watershed using appropriate optimization techniques. iii) To assess the impact of soil conservation measures on crops and water bodies. DEM of the study area was downloaded for the generation of watershed boundary, drainage lines, drainage area and slope map of watershed. The watershed comprises an area of 12952.85 ha with a population of 54599 people. The farmers on the watershed mainly depend on groundwater for irrigation. The surface waterbody on the watershed comprises an area of 574.68 ha. The watershed has a stream having a water spread area of 198.96 ha. LISS III data of 2012 and 2018 were downloaded from BHUVAN website, for the generation of LULC map and NDVI map. Sentinel 2 satellite image from USGS Earth Explorer was used for the extraction of agricultural areas on different agricultural seasons of the hydrological year 2017-2018. Total agricultural water demand was estimated by adding the crop water requirement and livestock water demand. The crop water demand of the study was estimated from Modis ET data product( MOD16A2) by the extraction of crop area. Livestock water demand was obtained from livestock population. Total water demand for the agricultural sector was obtained as 21.14Mm3 for the year 2017-2018 where crop water requirement is obtained as 20.7Mm3 and livestock water demand is found to be 0.44Mm3. Water requirement for the domestic sector is obtained as 1.09Mm3. Hydrological soil group map and LULC map were made in for the estimation of runoff. Highest percentage of of soil came under the category of moderately high runoff potential. The runoff from the watershed was estimated using SCS Curve number method. Out of 572.4 mm of average rainfall, 151.41 mm of water was going as runoff from the watershed which is 26.45% of the total precipitation. This runoff joins into the surface water resources. Drainage map of the watershed was obtained from SRTM DEM file.the study has drainage order four. Drainage density of watershed was obtained and drainage density map was generated. Runoff map of the watershed was prepared in ArcMAP. Runoff coefficient for the entire watershed was obtained as 0.3. Runoff coefficient map was generated with the help of the GIS platform. Most of the soil and water conservation measures on the study area were concentrated on the upstream side of the watershed. A better water resource management plan was needed for the study area. Water resource management plan for the study area was adopted from decision rules which are separate for water conservation structures and soil conservation measures. Soil conservation measures were adopted by considering LULC and slope of the study area. Water conservation measures were adopted by considering slope, drainage order and runoff potential of the area. Contour bunding, grassed water way, farm ponds, silt application, drainage disposals, forest restoration and crop plantation were the soil conservation measures selected. Farm ponds, percolation ponds, gully plugs and subsurface dykes were the water conservation structures adopted for the watershed. Decision rules were applied in the study area, by considering a grid of 25 ha in ArcGIS. Soil conservation works on the watershed between 2012 to 2018 were collected. LULC map of the study area in 2012 and 2018 was prepared from LISS III satellite image. The LULC map showed a noticeable change in land use pattern. Built up area, agricultural area, plantation area and water spread area of watershed had increased. At the same time, the area of wasteland was reduced. A portion of wasteland was converted into agricultural land and plantation. NDVI maps of respective years were prepared. Area came under the category of no vegetation on 20111-2012 and decreased on 2017-18. Area came under moderate vegetation which includes agriculture and plantation on 2011-12 increased on 2017-18.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-11-09) PALLAVI, CHIPPE; HEMA KUMAR, H. V.
    Commercial aqua ponds and aquaculture has experienced a remarkable increase in global production in the last decades. Rice farms are the favored sites for conversion into aqua ponds because they provide several characteristics well suited for aquaculture. The coastal belt of Guntur district is one such area where aquaculture activity is spreading at a rapid pace. Conversion of agricultural lands into aqua ponds leads to salinization of soil and ground water resources reducing crop production and fertile paddy croplands. Hence, it is desirable to monitor the problem and trends in conversion of paddy fields to aqua ponds by the modern techniques of remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). The present study is proposed to assess the impact of aqua ponds in Guntur district coastal area which consists of Bapatla, Karlapalem, Nagaram, Nizampatnam, Pittalavanipalem and Repalle mandals as major concern. The assessment of extent of area under aqua ponds were estimated by the NDWI image thresholding method, the Hybrid classification approach which combines the benefits of unsupervised and supervised classification approaches were used for the estimation of area under paddy cultivation in the study area. The effect of aqua ponds on crop production was estimated by the reduction of area (ha) under paddy cultivation and the total yield obtained (t/ha). Soil and ground water samples were collected during pre and post-monsoons (2019-20) at various distances away from aqua ponds (100, 500 and 1000 m). Various physico-chemical and chemical properties of soil and ground water were analyzed. The benefit cost analysis of aqua pond enterprise considering economic water productivity was performed by using necessary data collected from well- structured questionnaire through technical survey. The classified images of aqua ponds and paddy cultivation from 2012 to 2019 showed the total area of 954.39 ha of paddy lands were converted in aqua ponds. Among, the six mandals under study Nizampatnam with 335.1 (ha) has the maximum and Bapatla with 63.0 (ha) has the minimum area under conversion of paddy lands into aqua ponds. The results showed that the total reduction in crop yield due to aqua ponds under the study area from 2012 to 2019 was 5,156.57 (t). The pH values of soils from six mandals ranked from neutral (6.5 to 7.5) to strongly alkaline (8.5 to 10.0). The electrical conductivity values recorded in soils ranked from low salinity ( 2.25 dSm-1). The results showed that soil samples collected in 6 mandals has shown soil salinization. The available nitrogen content in soils adjacent to ponds ranked low (< 280 kg ha-1). Available phosphorus content in soils ranked between low (< 25 kg ha-1) and medium (25 to 59 kg ha-1). The soils indicated that they are low (< 145 kg ha-1) with respect to available potassium. Available calcium content in soils was grouped under low category (< 145 meq l-1). A minimum of 5.6 meq l-1 in Nagaram and maximum of 63.7 meq l-1 in Repalle of available magnesium content was recorded in six mandals under study. The organic carbon of soils ranged from low productive to average productive. The pH of ground water samples from six mandals was neutral to slightly alkaline, whereas, EC was found to be saline (1.74 to 18.34 dSm-1). Bicarbonates were in excess of permissible limits of 200 ppm. The chlorides and sulphates were also very much higher than the permissible limit of 250 ppm in all six mandal. The concentration of calcium, magnesium, sodium, RSC and SAR of water samples were all in excess of permissible limits and indicated that most samples studied were not suitable for irrigation All the cations & anions indicated ground water contamination. All the cations and the anions in ground water samples have shown to decrease with increase in distance in both seasons, except carbonates which were not detected in some mandals. The aquaculture has shown to have negative effect in water properties than soil properties. The overall analysis for pooled farmers in aquaculture showed that benefit cost ratio of 1.51 means that aqua farming gives net benefit cost ratio of Rs. 0.51 with a payback periods of 156 culture days. Study revealed that one crop in a year Rs.5,75,529/ha of net profit. The overall gross and net economic water productivity obtained as Rs.93.6/m3 and Rs.31.5/m3. The overall analysis for pooled farmers in paddy cultivation showed that benefit cost ratio of 1.18 means that aqua farming gives net benefit cost ratio of Rs. 0.18 with a payback periods of 206 culture days. Study revealed that one crop in a year Rs.16,441.46 /ha of net profit. The overall gross and net economic water productivity obtained as Rs.6.5/m3 and Rs.1.0/m3 Keywords: Aqua Ponds, Paddy Cultivation, NDWI, Hybrid Classification approach, Crop production, soil and ground water quality, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, Aquaculture, Benefit cost analysis, Economic water productivity.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) RAJA KUMAR, K. N.; MANI, A.
    Water is most valuable gift of nature to the mankind and has been recognized as most important natural resource for increasing agricultural production. Irrational use of water for growing crops led to decrease the country’s water use efficiency (WUE) in agriculture sector. Drip fertigation is an efficient and economically viable method to improve WUE due to its localized application of water and nutrients to crop. Improving the WUE of the system requires the optimization of operational parameters such as irrigation amount and irrigation threshold. Numerical models are a fast and accurate means to optimize such operational parameters with different irrigation scenarios. Therefore, field experiment and simulation study was conducted during kharif 2018, rabi 2018-19 and kharif 2019 at Department of Soil Water Engineering, Dr. NTR College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh to study the soil moisture and nutrient dynamics in the drip fertigated maize crop using Hydrus 3D. The experiment was laid out in split plot design consisting of three irrigation levels (0.6 ETc (I1), 0.8 ETc (I2) and 1.0 ETc (I3)) and four nitrogen levels consisting of fertigation levels (80% RDN (N1), 100% RDN (N2), 120% RDN (N3) and Manual application (N4) on sandy clay loam soil. Water requirement of the maize crop was calculated on the daily basis by using CROPWAT 8.0. Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) Sensor was used to measure soil moisture data by installing 34 access tubes up to a depth of 100 cm with an interval of 10 cm from the soil surface and measured soil water content during crop period. Soil samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45 cm distance from emitter across the lateral in the depths of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 40-60 cm using soil augur at crop initial stage, development stage, maturity stage and post harvest to determine the available nitrogen. Plant growth parameters, plant height, dry matter production, days to maturity and yield parameters of grain yield, stover yield and 100 grain weight were recorded. A finite element model Hydrus - 3D was selected to simulate the water and nitrogen movement in the root zone and to evaluate different irrigation and fertigation scenarios. Hydrus - 3D was calibrated for simulation of soil moisture and nitrogen distribution in the root zone of the maize crop for kharif 2018 and validated using xix kharif, 2019 dataset. Irrigation scenarios were evaluated for 1.0, 3.0, 4.0 lph emitter discharges at 3h after irrigation, 6h after irrigation, 24h after irrigation at emitter, 15 cm from emitter, 30 cm from emitter and 45 cm from emitter for 70%, 90%, 110% and 130% RDN for soil moisture and available nitrogen in the soil for arriving the best irrigation and fertigation strategy. The highest WUE of 15.44, 34.66 and 16.89 kg ha-1 mm-1 was obtained in I2N3 treatment during kharif 2018, rabi 2018-19 and kharif 2019 respectively. The lowest WUE of 10.10, 19.05 and 10.33 kg ha-1 mm-1 was obtained in I3N1 treatment during kharif 2018, rabi 2018-19 and kharif 2019 respectively. The highest NUE of 32.88 and 33.95 kg kg-1 was estimated in I2N1 treatment during kharif 2018 and kharif 2019 respectively. During rabi 2018-19, the highest NUE of 32.85 kg kg-1 was found in I2N2. The lowest NUE of 21.35 and 22.36 kg kg-1 was obtained in I1N3 treatment during kharif 2018 and rabi 2018-19. During kharif 2019 the lowest NUE of 27.46 kg kg-1 was estimated in I1N4 treatment. The SWC reached above field capacity (28.24%) with 3 lph and 4 lph emitters in the root zone leading to deep percolation. Hence, the emitters with more than 2 lph may not be recommended for irrigating in sandy clay loam soil. The SWC for 1 lph discharge rate with 80% of crop water requirement was low even 3h after irrigation. Soil water content attained field capacity in upper layers after 3h irrigation and maintained well upto 6h and dropped slightly below the field capacity after 24h and even upto 48h before irrigation around 20% of SWC is existing. Therefore, Irrigation scheduling with emitter discharge of 2.0 lph on alternate day basis is appropriate for maize crop in sandy clay loam soil. With drip fertigation nitrogen availability in the active root zone was more than the initial nitrogen content resulting in adequate nitrogen availability in the active root zone of maize crop. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference in the yield, water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency within the treatments for kharif 2018, rabi 2018-19 and kharif 2019. Soil moisture and nitrogen distribution was not uniform in middle and lower layers of sandy clay loam soil with lower discharge rates (1.0 lph). Higher emitter discharge rates (3.0 lph and 4.0 lph) increased the N distribution in lower soil layers for sandy clay loam soil. Variation of soil moisture between 31.08 % to 18.47 % at 30 cm from emitter clearly indicated the emitter spacing of 30 cm is suitable for irrigating maize crop. Hence, Hydrus model could be used to simulate soil water and solute movement in the soil during crop period and also to develop irrigation and fertigation strategies for increasing WUE. Key words: Hydrus 2D/3D, drip fertigation, Simulation of soil moisture and N, Maize crop
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) MURALI KRISHNA, CH.; RAMANA, M. V.
    There is a significant increase in the irrigated agriculture in India, enhancing irrigation potential by huge investments on irrigation projects. Andhra Pradesh is one of the states in which massive irrigation infrastructure is existing under more than 100 projects and huge irrigation potential was created (~40 Lakh ha) and many more projects are in progress. Monitoring of irrigation projects for making an assessment of irrigation potential utilisation is essential on a regular basis in order to have a continuous performance evaluation. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were found to be effective tools for monitoring the irrigation projects on a regular basis. Spatial and temporal monitoring of the projects during the crop growing seasons viz., kharif, and rabi would be necessary to monitor the irrigation potential utilization and take necessary steps for making interventions for improvement. This objective would require spatial-temporal information in a synoptic view to know the progressive and problematic pockets in different irrigated agricultural lands. Satellite data provides a great scope for the synoptic coverage and multi-temporal datasets. At present, there are many satellites which provide such datasets and most of them are available in public domains. Methodology was established for the use of public domain satellite datasets from Landsat 4. The present study was focused on performance evaluation of Telugu Ganga project (TGP) from public domain satellite datasets, and the use of sophisticated modern tools of technology like remote sensing and GIS in the field of canal irrigation management. The project was started initially for supplying the drinking water to Chennai metro city about 15 TMC water. But the command area is in upland areas of Rayalaseema. So these farmers benefitted the regular water supply over the years. The remote sensing technique was used for assessing the crop condition, crop inventory, crop calendar, irrigation potential, irrigation scheduling, yield estimation and yield modelling etc. in the TGP command. xix The Satellite data availability in public domain greatly providing the scope for making a cost-effective solution for acquiring the temporal satellite data at the monthly interval over several irrigation commands. The cost-free satellites like Landsat 4 with spatial resolution of 30 m and Sentinel 2A with spatial resolution of 10 m data were found to be very much suitable for the study at regional level as 16 days interval data are available from USGS (United States Geological Service) Earth archives in the near real time. It was found that the methodology developed in the study would be useful for making a quick analysis of cropping patterns in the study area and also for reporting the same for near real time analysis. For finding out irrigation water requirement, CROPWAT8.0 software has been used successfully. The relationship between canal water, rainfall and yield etc., was established for making crop yield assessment. When 1997 and 2018 were compared, the paddy area has significantly increased by 129.2% (78688 ha to 180351 ha). This was due to improvement of canal water supply in the whole command area. Maximum NDVI images were derived during 1997 and 2018 kharif and rabi seasons data. The performance assessment was carried out in the TGP command area. In total, nine performance indicators were analysed both at macro level and micro level. The mean Irrigation intensity was found to be 71.1% for Chittoor district (for past 6 years), 72.1% for Nellore district (for past 7years), 94.2% for Kurnool district (for past 7 years), and 23.7% for Kadapa district (for past 6 years). This shows that the Irrigation intensity was very good in Kurnool district command and very poor in Kadapa district. The mean irrigation efficiencies were found to be 37.2% for Chittoor district, 50.9 % for Nellore district, 57.3% for Kurnool district, and 37.2 % for Kadapa district. The efficiencies of Chittoor and Kadapa districts were comparatively low. This would imply that nearly 62.8% of the irrigation water has been drained into the sea in one of the losses like (i) seepage losses, (ii) evaporative losses, and (iii) open drainage etc. The mean Adequacy was found to be 255.7% for Chittoor district, 159 % for Nellore district, 188% for Kurnool district, and 131.5% for Kadapa district. This indicated that 155.7%, 59 %, 88%, 31.5% excess water was available in the respective commands. Similarly, uniformity was also found to be 78.1% for Chittoor district, 69% for Nellore district, 81.3% for Kurnool district, and 80.5% for Kadapa district commands. It was found to be highest in Kurnool and lowest in Nellore district commands. The Equity was found to be not distributed uniformly in the entire TGP command. This implied poor managerial conditions existing in the delivery mechanism. The crop water utilization indices were found to be 84% for Chittoor district, 83% for Nellore district, 73% for Kurnool district, and 75% for Kadapa district commands. These values have indicated that, there is a necessity of crop scientists for intervening to increase the yields in the TGP command by advocating suitable crop management practices. Ranking has been carried out for the existing canal commands. The Ranking list has been prepared from better performing canal commands to poor performing canal commands. Nellore district canal command was performing best (1st Rank), xx Kurnool, Chittoor and Kadapa district canal commands received 2nd, 3rd and 4th ranks respectively. High water supply and low command area was the reason for Kadapa district command. The linear and quadratic regression analysis was carried out for 22 years from 1997 to 2018.From this analysis, it can be found that, the significant influence of yield by canal water with R2values. The standard statistical analysis was done for optimal allocation of canal water for major crops grown in the study area. This procedure was useful for identifying the maximum yield for major crops like paddy, groundnut, sugarcane, jowar and cotton. The maximum paddy yield of 5440 Kg/ha was attained at mean canal water supply of 1768.3 Mcum. In groundnut maximum yield of 2195 Kg/ ha was attained at mean canal water supply of 1822.6 Mcum. The maximum sugarcane yield of 934 q/ha was attained at mean canal water supply of 1950.3 Mcum. In jowar maximum yield of 1488 Kg/ ha was attained at mean canal water supply of 1822.6 Mcum. In cotton maximum yield of 1356 Kg/ ha was attained at mean canal water supply of 1893.5 Mcum. The analysis was carried out for estimating the crop water demand and also, canal water effect in command area. This is useful for the impact of Telugu Ganga project command area on farmers. Because the selected command was on Rayalaseema upland area which is severely affected by drought continuous. So, the canal water supply regularly over the years, they can cultivate the remunerative crops. Though the study is conducted under selected irrigation commands, the approach and the experience would be useful for the extension of the same in several irrigation commands in Andhra Pradesh state. Key words: Telugu Ganga Project, Remote Sensing and GIS, Canal water, Irrigation potential, irrigation efficiencies, Performance Indicators and Crop Water demand
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) ASHOKKUMAR, NARALASETTY; RAMANA, M. V.
    The present study entitled “Assessment of irrigation potential and optimization of available water resources for sustainable agriculture in Anantapur district” was conducted to identify probable drought hit areas, identify water bodies, estimate irrigation water requirement and to develop software for designing location specific water harvesting structures in Anantapur district. Cluster analysis was carried out for 63 mandals in the Anantapur district based on mean annual rainfall using SPSS 26 software. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for 12 months values was estimated using "MDM" (Meteorological Drought Monitoring) software application to identify the drought affected mandals. The mandals viz., Madakasira (Cluster 1), Singanamala and Parigi (Cluster 2), Bukkapatnam (Cluster 3) Gummagatta (Cluster 4) and Bommanahal and Chenne Kothapalle (Cluster 5) were found to be most affected by drought. Monthly rainfall forecasting was carried out using seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARIMA) model by testing 267 combinations using SPSS 26 software. Based on the best SARIMA models, the maximum probable annual rainfall values were observed in Brahmasamudram (Cluster 1), Gandlapenta (Cluster 2), Kadiri (Cluster 3), Kambadur (Cluster 4) and D. Hirehal (Cluster 5) mandals of Anantapur district respectively. The area of the surface water bodies for pre-monsoon (May) and post-monsoon (November) seasons from 2006 to 2015 in Anantapur district were estimated using QGIS. The minimum and maximum area of the surface water bodies for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were 1081, 5236 and 3480, 9032 ha for the years 2009 and 2010 respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of change of area of surface water bodies in post monsoon were 221.9 and 48.1 per cent as compared to pre-monsoon season due to distribution of rainfall in Anantapur district. xviii The crop water requirements for five major crops viz., groundnut, sunflower, paddy, jowar and maize were computed. The highest crop water demand and available surface and ground water resources were observed to be 4805.2 and 1958.83 MCM respectively. By using LINGO 11.0 software, the current scenarios of irrigation vs cultivated area of the availability of water resources, the highest net benefits, show highest net benefits of Rs. 22363 crores for the year 2017 followed by Rs. 20610 crores for the year 2014 due to higher available surface and ground water resources compared to other years 2004, 2009, 2011. For higher available surface and ground water resources, highest net benefit crops may be grown. The potential scenarios of irrigation vs cultivated of availability of water resources, highest net benefits i.e., Rs.18,291 crores got in Scenario 1 as compared to other 6 scenarios. For the prediction of future scenarios, it was assumed to be available ground and surface water resources i.e., 195883 ha-m may be present in the future and also considering the minimum cultivation area for highest crop water demand crops like., Paddy and Sunflower reduced by 75, 50 and 25 per cent and got maximum net benefits of Rs. 23841, 23249 and 22856 crores respectively. Based on highest net benefits, the optimum values of irrigation potential areas for the major crops like., groundnut, sunflower, paddy, jowar and wheat crops were 590311.4, 1260.5, 4180.75, 12530 and 10824 ha respectively. Location specific farm pond design was developed for the benefit of line department officials like., Department of Agriculture, Horticulture and DRDA etc. Based on the mathematical formulae and these designs are developed in Visual basic13. Design can be used for rectangle/square, inverted cone based on requirement and storage capacity and cost estimation for local conditions very effectively and accurately. This software is easy to install and run-in windows 10 operating system and also user friendly. The construction cost of the farm pond, gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio of the fish farming were Rs. 99794, Rs. 33000, Rs. 11416 and 1.53 respectively. There is to encourage the local farmers to adopt this technology in drought prone areas of Anantapur district Key words: Irrigation potential, optimization of water resources, SPSS, LINGO, QGIS, MDM, Cluster, cultivated area and SARIMA
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) CHENNAKESAVULU, B.; RAVI BABU, G.
    Water and land are two essential resources for agricultural growth and economic development of any country and shall not be considered as available in abundance and free forever. Due to increase in population, the requirement for these two resources shall continue to grow day by day. The key inputs which directly affect the plant growth and development, yield and quality of produce are irrigation and fertilizer. Application of irrigation water and fertilizers through drip irrigation system is the most effective way of supplying water and nutrients to the plants. The present experiment was conducted on guava crop with the variety of VNR bhihi to study the influence of frequency of nitrogen and irrigation management on the movement of nitrogen ions in the soil under the high density planting. The purpose of this study was to observe the water movement under four irrigation treatments and its role in nitrogen distribution under four fertigation frequencies and their effect on guava yield. Experiments were conducted at research farm of college of horticulture, Venkataramannagudem, West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh to study the effect of different irrigation and fertigation levels on plant growth, yield, soil moisture and nitrogen distribution patterns of guava under high density planting system. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with sixteen treatments and each replicated thrice. During crop growth period four levels of irrigation water (120 % of ETc, 100 % of ETc, 80 % of ETc and 60 % of ETc) and four levels of recommended dose of fertilizers (120 % of RDF, 100 % of RDF, 80 % of RDF and 60 % of RDF) were imposed. Soil samples were taken from different depths (both vertically (90 cm depth) and horizontally from the dripper to study the soil moisture and nitrogen distribution patterns during crop growth period. Soil sampling was done three times in the growing period (i.e. 30 days after pruning) vegetative stage, (90 days after pruning) mid stage and (150 days after pruning) harvesting stage during both the seasons of 2018-19. A finite element model Hydrus-2D was selected to simulate the water and nitrogen movement in the root zone. Simulations were done in axi-symmetrical polar coordinate system for the radius of 30 cm and depth of 90 cm. xviii Analysis of crop performance parameters (based on pooled data) revealed that treatment T5 (I2F1) gave 39% more yield compared to T16 (I4F4) treatment. Irrigation, fertigation and their interaction had significant effect on water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. WUE was highest in T13 (I4F1) (224.93 kg ha-1 mm-1and 226.12 kg ha-1 mm-1) in first and second season respectively. NUE was found significantly higher in T8 (I2F4) treatment (128.77 and 130.00 kg kg-1) during first and second Seasons. The moisture distribution patterns 48 h after irrigation for different irrigation levels were at field capacity and soil is at saturation at emitter, 15 cm away from the emitter and 22.5 cm away from the emitter in horizontal plane. The analysis of results also revealed that the moisture content for I1 and I2 treatments in the top two soil layers were at field capacity and soil is at saturation at emitter, 15 cm away from the emitter and 22.5 cm away from the emitter in horizontal plane. However, there was a deficit in moisture content in the top soil layer also for I3 and I4 treatments. It was noticed that higher values of nitrogen concentration was found in top 30 cm soil profile in all the four levels of fertigation. This may be due to the presence of more ammonical nitrogen in this layer because of more moisture content. In the lower soil profiles lower nitrogen concentration were observed in all the four levels of fertigation treatments. Similar trend was also observed in T5 (I2F1) , T6 (I2 F2), T7(I2F3) and T8(I2F4) treatments respectively at 48 h after fertigation. The lowest nitrogen concentration was recorded in T8 treatment in the lower soil profiles. This may be due to lower (60 % of RDF) application of nitrogen in that particular treatment. The simulation results for soil water and nitrogen distribution by HYDRUS-2D model revealed that, there was a good agreement between observed data in the field experiment and predicted by model. The results provide support for using HYDRUS-2D as a tool for investigating and designing drip irrigation management practices The economic analysis was done for guava crop cultivation under drip irrigation. The highest benefit cost ratio (4.6 in season -1 and 5.8 in season -2) and lowest payback period (21 months in season -1 and 18 months in season-2) was found in treatment I2F1 during the crop period. Hence, I2F1 treatment may be more beneficial for the farmers. Key words: Drip irrigation, fertigation, HYDRUS-2D, soil moisture content, nitrogen content, benefit cost ratio.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) SAI GANGADHARA RAO, D.; HEMA KUMAR, H. V.
    Irrigation in agriculture plays a major role. Nagarjuna Sagar Project is built across river Krishna at Nandikonda village of Nalgonda District. The Project is having right main canal namely Jawahar canal. The Right main canal (Anonymous, 1999) has Guntur, Zulakallu, Bellarnkonda, Peddanandipadu, Addanki, Eddanapudi, Darsi, Pamidipadu and Ongole branch canals. Conjunctive use is the technique which envisages the use of groundwater in conjunction with canal water in the command area. The productivity is reduced due to irregular operation and maintenance of canals. Hence, this doctoral research entitled “Water Resources Planning under Uncertainty of Water Releases for Crops in NSP (Nagarjuna Sagar Project) Right Canal Command, Andhra Pradesh” is proposed to fulfil the following objectives. i) To assess the annual water resources in the NSP (Nagarjuna Sagar Project) Right Canal Command. ii) To analyse the canal flows of NSP (Nagarjuna Sagar Project) Right Canal Command using canal simulation models. iii) To analyze the deficit of water availability for the crops grown in the command area and iv) To develop location specific Decision Support System (DSS) for adopting the best water management strategies to maximize the production for Guntur branch canal of NSPRCC. Nagarjuna Sagar Right (Jawahar) Canal Command area is spreaded over 37 mandals in Guntur and 23 mandals in Prakasam districts. Surface water availability has been estimated from different sources namely water releases data obtained by Water Resources Department, Lingamguntla and Ongole Circles of Nagarjuna Sagar Right Canal (Jawahar) Command Area, Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater monitoring is being carried-out by continuous monitoring of 300 Observation wells in the command area comprising I to XXII Andhra Pradesh by the State Groundwater Department. NSPRCC flows were analyzed using the FlowPro2.1 version software at three different sections like head, middle and tail end of the main canal. The crop water requirements were estimated for all the crops grown in command area by CROPWAT model. The Decision XIX Support System (DSS) was designed and developed in visual basic. The software was a powerful tool for computing crop water demand, domestic water requirement and conjunctive use of water. The mean water releases at head section of 11 years of data was 128.13 TMC (3,627.71 MCM). Overall conveyance efficiency of the Nagarjuna right bank canal (all together evaporation losses and seepage losses etc.,) as 61.45% recommended by the CWC, Government of India and then total availability of the surface water is 2,229 MCM. For the efficient utilization of groundwater, the quality plays a major role in terms of selection of crop variety for sustainable agriculture. Finally, the ground available volume is 61% of total volume (i.e. 2270 MCM) of the command area as 1385 MCM. The computed values of velocity of flow at head, middle and tail sections of the main canal were 3.05 m/s, 0.85 m/s and 0.719 m/s and as per the design 3.048 m/s, 0.85 m/s and 0.814 m/s respectively. The variation in values is also not more than 11%. Hence, the flowpro2.1 software simulated discharges were compared with designed discharges, velocities and there is no much variation (only 10%) in flow. The crop water requirements for paddy, cotton, chilies, millet and pulses were computed. The crop water requirement for paddy in NSRC command area of Guntur district for black soils was 488.2 mm. The irrigation water requirement was 368.9 mm. Similarly, computed for all the crops and overall crop water demand for both districts of NSRC command area for different soils and different crops was 4,456 MCM, without considering cattle and domestic water use. Finally, the available water is not sufficient and choose other alternative crops for bringing entire area into cultivation. The decision support system was designed and developed in visual basic. The software was a powerful tool for computing crop water demand and domestic water requirement and conjunctive use of water. The DSS analyse data and computed values represented in graphical form. The maximum surface volume was observed in the year 2008-09 as 6051 MCM, minimum at 2015-16 as 490 MCM and the average surface water volume as 3628 MCM. The average groundwater volume noticed was 2269.89 MCM and maximum 3062.21 MCM in the year 2008-09 and minimum 1825.55 MCM in the year 2015-16. The cumulative crop water requirement calculated for all the seasons was 4455.32 MCM, Domestic water demand was 155.9 MCM, net surface water availability was 2,229.41 MCM, net groundwater availability was 1384.63 MCM and conjunctive use water was 3,614.04 MCM. The agricultural water demand and domestic water demand is more than the conjunctive use water. It is concluded that the developed DSS will help the policy makers and water resources planners for cropping pattern to be adopted to save the water in satisfying water demand of the other sectors also. The results obtained from the study can be used as a guide for the farmers for selecting the crops in view of availability of water. Key words: surface water, groundwater, conjunctive use, flowpro, cropwat, canal hydraulics, decision support system
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (guntur, 2022-08-18) KISHORE KUMAR, G.; RAGHU BABU, M.
    Climate change has been considered to have calamitous effects on agriculture and global fresh water. Due to the alteration in climate, crop productivity is being affected adversely resulting in food and livelihood security issues. In view of climate changes, there is a need to increase agricultural water productivity for better management in view of less resources and demand. Proper water management is the only option that ensures a squeezed gap between the demand and supply. For proper planning and efficient utilization of the land and water resources it is necessary to understand the hydrological cycle and estimate the hydrological parameters. Rainfall is the major component of the hydrologic cycle and this is the primary source of runoff. Worldwide many attempts have been made to model and predict rainfall behavior using various empirical, statistical, numerical and deterministic techniques. They are still in research stage and needs more focused empirical approaches to estimate and predict rainfall accurately. This study investigated the Impact of Climate change on Crop Water Productivity using CROPWAT 8.0, AquaCrop, RS&GIS and statistical tools used for climate data. Estimation of mean rainfall over Godavari eastern delta of Andhra pradesh and mandals in the delta has been done using different deterministic methods. Weathercock and Mann-Kendall software were used to compute Rainfall variability and trend analysis on time series data for 30 years period from 1987 to 2016 collected at local stations and departments. Godavari eastern delta comprises of around 15 mandals and the same being considered for the present study. The normal rainfall of the area is 1197 mm. Crop land occupying 70% of the area of Godavari eastern delta. Different thematic maps for the study area have been developed for water resources assessment and for the runoff estimation using SCS-CN. Runoff generated through rainfall with the help of RS&GIS softwares, it is very important in various activities of water management. Results indicated that over 30 years of rainfall-runoff 1996 year showing highest 34.79 % runoff following 2006 with 34.13%. NDVI was derived to observe the change in land productivity for 2011-12 and 2016-17 years using RS&GIS techniques. Vegetation has a distinctive spectral signature that is characterized by low reflectance in visible region of solar optical spectrum as xvi well as high reflectance in infrared (IR) spectrums. The combination of these two spectral regions allows classification of vegetation. In this normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Where NIR is the reflectance in near infrared band and R is the reflectance in red band of satellite data. NDVI indicates the vigor of vegetation. Higher NDVI indicates higher amount of green vegetation on ground. NDVI of non-vegetation classes are generally lower than vegetation classes. Vegetation was influenced by time due to land usable changes. There was nearly 11% of change in kharif and whereas it was 30% change in rabi season. Estimation of crop water productivity of rice for prime rice-producing region using CROPWAT and AquaCrop model using soil, climate, crop data and management details. With the help of relatively few conservative crop parameters, AquaCrop simulates final crop yield. The results (WP) for the different years and the different mandals in the study area were varied from 0.75 kg/m3 in 1987-88 to 1.17 kg/m3 in 2016-17 for rabi season. In kharif water productivity is varied from 0.46 kg/m3 in 1990-91 to 0.86 kg/m3 in 2016-17. The average water productivity for 30 years in the study area is 0.68 kg/m3 in kharif and 0.98 kg/m3 in rabi season. WP is higher for the rabi (dry) season than for the kharif (monsoon) season. This is may be due to poor irrigation management practices such as inundation, waterlogging and less sunlight due to cloudiness in crop growth stage. Crop water productivity is highly depending upon weather; therefore, future climate change could affect productivity. Conclusively, CROPWAT 8.0 and AquaCrop models may be used to estimate crop water productivity, water requirements for different cultivars in different climatic conditions to ascertain their minimum water requirements for maximum yields. Thus, further study in Crop water productivity should be carried it out. Key words: Water Productivity, Rainfall-Runoff, CROPWAT, AquaCrop, NDVI, RS&GIS
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-09-07) GANESH BABU, R.; RAVI BABU, G.
    Water is one of the most important and essential natural resources for sustaining human life through agricultural, economical and industrial growth. Rapid growth in industrialization, urbanization and rise in population resulted in decrease of per capita water availability. Nowadays climate change and variability in distribution and occurrence of water affect the sustainable development of the water resources. Sustainable groundwater development and management is a challenge under the present population growth, climate change and land degradation conditions. Groundwater models are playing an important role in decision making to achieve goals through assessment of groundwater potential and future scenarios Hence, a study has been carried out for assessment of groundwater potential in Nagarjuna Sagar Right Canal (NSRC) command area using regional groundwater balance method. The required data was obtained from various government departments such as groundwater, water resources and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. The gross and net groundwater recharges have been calculated using the regional groundwater balance equation. The negative net groundwater recharge was observed in the study area and estimated as - 2768.32 ha-m per annum which resulting in the declining trend of the groundwater table over the study period in the study area. Groundwater model visual MODFLOW was used to simulate the groundwater levels in NSRC command. Visual MODFLOW was used to simulate the groundwater levels in NSRC command area. The Visual MODFLOW was calibrated and validated using observed groundwater levels for the periods 2008-09 to 2012-13 and 2013-14 to 2016-17 respectively. During calibration, sensitivity analysis has been performed. The recharge is the most sensitive parameter among the other parameters for simulation of groundwater dynamics for the study area. The storage properties and hydraulic conductivity were identified as moderately and less sensitive parameters respectively. The validated groundwater model was used to predict the groundwater levels in the study area for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 with different recharge scenarios. Global climate model was used to generate future weather data. MarkSim developed by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) was used to generate the weather parameters like maximum and minimum temperatures for the years 2020, 2030 xxi and 2040. The different recharge scenarios with average, lowest and highest recharge over the study period and projected evapotranspiration have been used and revealed that the groundwater levels increase with the increase in recharge and decreases with the decrease in recharge. The storage of available static groundwater resources with an average recharge in the study area would be expected as 2184744.28 ha-m, 2169542.29 ha-m and 2148911.00 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. Delineation of waterlogged areas and depleted areas in study area was carried out using the contour maps of the depth to water levels and contour maps of groundwater fluctuations. The waterlogged area decreased during pre and post-monsoon seasons over the study period i.e. from 2008-09 to 2016-17. There is no water logging problem identified in the study area with projected weather data in future. The groundwater depleted area was increased in future with all recharge scenarios. Further, Visual MODFLOW used to simulate the impact of change in land use land cover on groundwater resources. The model was used to simulate the groundwater dynamics with future possible scenarios. The storage of available static groundwater resources with the scenario 50 per cent rice converted into ID crops would be expected as 2441006.54 ha-m, 2472496.39 ha-m and 2464895.39 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. Similarly, the storage of available static groundwater resources scenario with 100 per cent rice convert into ID crops would be expected as 2183658.43 ha-m, 2166284.72 ha-m and 2149996.86 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. Four scenarios were proposed with the combination of recharge and groundwater pumping. The declined groundwater table was observed with all scenarios and depleted groundwater resources. The storage of available static groundwater resources with scenario -1would be expected as 2118507.01 ha-m, 2108734.29 ha-m and 2100047.44 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. For scenario - 2, the storage of available static groundwater resources would be expected as 2079416.16 ha-m, 2051183.87 ha-m and 2024037.45 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. For scenario – 3, the storage of available static groundwater resources would be expected as 2051183.87 ha-m, 2029466.73 ha-m and 1974088.03 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively, For scenario – 4, the storage of available static groundwater resources would be expected as 2004492.02 ha-m, 1974088.03 ha-m and 1951285.03 ha-m for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040 respectively. The impact of change in land use land cover and climate change on the groundwater resources can be mitigated by implementing the preventive measures in the study area. The groundwater depleted area was increased in future with all future possible scenarios. The deeper groundwater table would be expected in future at Chimakurthy and Thalluru villages of Prakasam district and Karempudi and Piduguralla villages of Guntur district in the study area. For improving the groundwater resources, there is a need to establish rainwater harvesting structures in those villages and suggested to construct these structures immediately to avoid the problem of depletion of groundwater resources. The depletion of groundwater in the whole study area can be prevented by the implementation of preventive measures like change in cropping pattern, proper irrigation water management, plantation, construction of artificial recharge structures and water conservation structures.