ThesisItem Open AccessPROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION TO JACK FRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus) SEED(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-12) SUCHARITHA, SIRIVELLA.; NIRMALA DEVI, G.In Asia, especially India, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), an evergreen tropical tree belonging to the Moraceae family, is widely cultivated. The fruit's seeds and tasty yellow sweet bulbs are present when it is fully ripe. Although the seeds are underutilised waste products in many tropical nations. The underutilised crop jackfruit, though less well recognised, has the potential to be used as a source of food for people. Studies on "Processing and value addition to jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed" were conducted. Jackfruit seeds were obtained from Krishi Vighyan Kendra in Amadalavalasa and used to develop value-added products such as biscuits, bread, cupcakes, doughnuts, and muffins. The current study focused on the use of jackfruit seed for the development of value-added products and the evaluation of their quality. The physical characteristics of the seeds, including linear dimensions such as length, breadth, and thickness, were measured to be 3.32±0.44cm, 1.72±0.40cm, and 1.61±0.26cm, respectively. The mean geometric diameter was 2.03±0.34cm. The surface area, sphericity, and aspect ratio were calculated to be 12.57cm2, 0.63, and 57.04%, respectively. The proximate composition of jackfruit seed flour revealed that it contained a significant amount of moisture (6.2g%), protein (11.43g%), fat (1.8g%), ash (1.3g%), fibre (2.5g%), carbohydrate (76.8g%), and energy (369 kcal/100g). Mineral analysis revealed that potassium was the most abundant mineral present in the seed flour xvi (750.66mg%), followed by calcium (230mg%), magnesium (153.01mg%), and phosphorous (100.53mg/100 g). Jackfruit seed flour had an iron content of 10.05±0.03 mg/100 g. Copper, zinc, and manganese content were respectively 3.21±0.02 mg/100 g, 1.93±0.01 mg/100 g, and 1.86±0.04 mg/100 g. Total sugar and reducing sugar were estimated to be 1.84% and 1.62%, respectively, and soluble solids to be 30.40Brix. Standardization of value-added products, such as biscuits, bread, cupcakes, doughnuts and muffins, was accomplished by incorporating JSF:RWF in 0:100, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75, and 30:70 ratios. The developed JSF:RWF blended value added products were sensory evaluated in terms of colour, texture, taste, and overall acceptability. Sensory evaluation of the developed products was performed with various attributes in four concentrations, namely 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% when compared to the standard. Sensory evaluation revealed that the developed products were more acceptable up to a level of 10 and 15%, and that they varied significantly across all products. Sensory evaluation of the products revealed that 10%, 15% and 20% jackfruit seed flour incorporation was acceptable. The proximate composition of JSF value added products per 100g ranged from moisture (5.45 - 21.49%), protein (5.45 - 21.49 g), fat (2.91 - 22.05 g), ash (0.72 - 1.48g%), fibre (0.19 - 1.97g%), CHO (50.98 - 69.85g%), energy (331 - 474 K.cal). Among all the products doughnuts has highest protein (11.41g). Total sugar content, reducing sugar content and TSS content (chemical parameters) ranged from 12.31 to 24.84%, 4.3 to 8.56, and 9.4 to 42.00 Brix per 100g, respectively. Doughnuts had the highest protein and fat content among the value-added JSF items, while cupcakes had the highest moisture, ash, total sugars, and reducing sugars, followed by muffins. Bread also had a high carbohydrate, fibre, and TSS content. Biscuits had the lowest moisture content. The most acceptable treatment and control sample were packed in HDPE foil for storage studies. Nutritional analyses of the biscuits were carried out for one month and the results of nutritional analysis showed that, there were significance differences (p<0.05) between 10% JSF and control. The results revealed that there were declining trends in protein, fat, fiber, ash and total sugar and an increasing trend in moisture content of the biscuits. According to the findings of the study, jackfruit seeds are a good source of various nutrients, functional and mineral properties and have enormous potential for jackfruit product development and increasing farm income through entrepreneurship and industrial exploitation of the fruit. ThesisItem Open AccessUTILIZATION OF WHEY WATER FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTIC FRUIT JUICES BASED BEVERAGES AND STUDY OF THEIR FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-12) HARIKA, AKURATHI; LAKSHMI, K.Whey is a by-product of dairy industry obtained after coagulation of milk in paneer and cheese manufacturing. This whey is thrown away into the environment which causes serious environmental pollution as it possesses high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Whey is a nutritious dairy product which contains 45-55% of total milk solids, 70% milk sugar (lactose), 20% milk protein and 70-90% milk minerals. To reduce the environmental pollution and for use of nutrients as a human food, whey is utilised in production of fruit juices based probiotic beverages. Investigations were carried out on utilization of whey water for development of probiotic fruit juices based beverages and their functional properties were studied. Three fruits, namely – watermelon, grapes and pomegranate were selected to prepare whey-fruit juices blended beverages and probiotic beverages. Organoleptic evaluations were conducted for understanding the acceptability of the beverages. The functional characteristics of the prepared beverages were determined initially and during storage. The results revealed that acceptability was high for WWB4, WGB2 and WPB3. The highly accepted beverages were taken and inoculated with 1% L. acidophilus and the storage behaviour was studied for 28 days. The functional characteristics such as TSS, pH, protein, reducing sugar and lactose of beverages were calculated at regular intervals of storage. xix The TSS, pH, protein, reducing sugar and lactose content of WWB at the end of storage was 8.70 °Brix, 4.00, 0.78%, 19.12% and 5.33%, respectively. Similarly the TSS of 8.73 °Brix, 3.82 pH, 0.62% protein, 21.79% reducing sugar and 4.45% of lactose was found in whey-watermelon juice blended probiotic beverage (WWPB) at 28th day of storage period. At the end of storage period, the TSS of 14.13 °Brix, 5.56 pH, 0.83% protein, 22.35% reducing sugar and 12.99% lactose content was observed in WGB. Similarly the TSS of 14.33 °Brix, 5.15 pH, 0.78% protein, 25.31% reducing sugar and 12.17% of lactose was found in whey-grape juice blended probiotic beverage (WGPB) at 28th day of storage period. The TSS of 14.17 °Brix, 3.5 pH, 0.80% protein, 26.81% reducing sugar and 10.30% lactose content was found in WPB at the end of storage period. Similarly the TSS of 14.50 °Brix, 3.06 pH, 0.77% protein, 27.19% reducing sugar and 12.31% of lactose was found in whey-pomegranate juice blended probiotic beverage (WPPB) at 28th day of storage period. The initial bacterial count was zero in all the beverages. At 28th day of storage, the bacterial count was 2.70×107 cfu/ml in WWB, 2.73×107 cfu/ml in WGB and 2.60×107 cfu/ml in WPB. The fluctuated probiotic count was observed in WWPB and WGPB, while in WPPB the probiotic count decreased with the increase of storage period. The initial probiotic count of WWPB, WGPB and WPPB were 7.90×107 cfu/ml, 7.95×107 cfu/ml and 7.92×107 cfu/ml, respectively. The probiotic count primarily increased upto day 14 followed by decrease in the count with advancement of storage period. The whey-fruit juices blended beverages were delicious and highly nutritious. And also they are easily digestible, thirst quenching, refreshing and energizing drinks that improve health and meet nutritional requirements. Thus the whey-fruit juices blended beverages are important items in processing industries. ThesisItem Open AccessGRAIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF IMPROVED BLACK RICE (Oryza sativa L.) GENOTYPES AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR SUITABILITY FOR PREPARATION OF SOUTH INDIAN FOODS(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-12) VIJAYA SHAMA, PULLAGURA; NIRMALA DEVI, G.Black rice is a speciality rice variety with black bran covering the endosperm. Despite being nutrient-dense, it is not widely consumed by people because of a lack of awareness among public and no preference for its colour. In the present study, six improved black rice varieties including Burma black (control), BPT 2841, BPT 2848, BPT 3136, BPT 3137 and BPT 3145 grown in Kharif- 2021 were obtained from the Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Bapatla. These genotypes were investigated for physicochemical, cooking quality, nutraceutical properties, biochemical profile, proximate composition, micronutrients (iron and zinc), glycemic index and correlation among these parameters to identify black rice variety possessing desirable quality and nutritional traits suitable for consumption. Except for the proximate composition of rice genotypes, ANOVA revealed significant differences among all the attributes studied. All the black rice genotypes along with control had desired parameters such as high hulling, milling and high head rice recovery percentage; medium and long kernel length, medium and long slender grain type; long kernel length after cooking; medium kernel elongation ratio; high volume expansion ratio and good water absorption index. In terms of chemical quality, all the rice varieties differed from control by having intermediate amylose content (20-25) and intermediate alkali spreading value (4-5), which give a soft and flaky texture to the cooked rice, which are the important traits to determine the rice quality. The proximate composition does not differ significantly among the rice genotypes. The mean values of moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates and energy per 100g of the black rice were noted as 10.78g, 10.08g, 1.95g, 0.91g, 1.16g, 75.14g and 358 kcal. Burma black had the highest total anthocyanin content (30.57 xviii mgC3G/100g), followed by BPT 2841 (26.76 mgC3G/100g). The BPT 2841 recorded the highest total phenol content and total antioxidant activity (238.17 mgGAE/100g and 99.52 mgAAE/100g), followed by control (218.89 mgGAE/100g and 97.52 mgGAE/100g). The phytates and oxalates ranged from 351.38 to 410.36 mg/100g and 2.24 to 5.38 mg/100g; the highest values were recorded in Burma black. The Burma black had the highest values for moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber, followed by BPT 2841, BPT 2848, BPT 3137, BPT 3136 and BPT 3145. Burma black had medium iron and zinc (1.55 mg/100g and 2.05 mg/100g). The black rice genotypes such as BPT 2841, BPT 2848 and BPT 3136 were categorized as medium iron rice varieties. BPT 2848 was categorized under low glycemic index variety; the remaining rice genotypes and control were classified under medium glycemic index varieties (56-69). Correlation studies revealed a significant positive association among the parameters such as hulling with head rice recovery; thousand grain weight with kernel length and kernel breadth; kernel length after cooking with kernel breadth after cooking, alkali spreading value with gel consistency, water uptake and Iron; kernel elongation ratio with L/B ratio; total phenol content with total anthocyanin content, total antioxidant activity and protein; carbohydrate with volume expansion ratio, bulk density, water solubility index and energy; iron with zinc and ash; fat with energy. Glycemic index showed a non-significant negative correlation with amylose, carbohydrates and energy. Selection of these significantly correlated characters will improve the overall quality of the genotypes. The suitability of black rice for product development was evaluated for traditional foods like payasam and vadiyalu; baked products like cake; extruded products like vermicelli using the nine point hedonic rating scale. The highest overall acceptability was scored in payasam and cake by BPT 2848 (8.80 and 8.92), in vadiyalu by BPT 3137 (8.72) and in vermicelli by BPT 3136 (8.76). The payasam and cakes of all black rice genotypes were displayed similar values compared to the control. However the vadiyalu and vermicelli made from Burma black (control) scored the lowest in terms of sensory score since the cooked foods became mushy and sticky due to its low amylose content. So, Burma black is not suitable for products like vadiyalu and vermicelli. The highly accepted samples of vermicelli and vadiyalu were assessed with control and white rice products for shelf-life study (30 days), which revealed that all samples were suitable for consumption, since the sensory and nutritional parameters remain unchanged. On comparison with control, the black rice genotypes had varied traits such as intermediate amylose and alkali spreading values, whereas all the biochemical quality profile, nutritional parameters and glycemic index showed similar trends. So, the black rice genotypes would be preferred over the control for desired eating quality and value added products. In addition to the desired quality characteristics, it had a low and medium glycemic index, antioxidant properties, a high protein content, and a high and medium iron and zinc content. The daily consumption of black rice could reduce several non communicable diseases like diabetes and cancer due to the presence of phytochemicals. Hence, it may be possible to achieve nationwide sustainable nutritional security by including black rice in people's regular meals. ThesisItem Open AccessPHYSICOCHEMICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF VALUE ADDED GUAVA (Psidium Guajava) PRODUCTS(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-12) MANJUSHA, PADAMATI; LAKSHMI, K.Fruits are rich source of essential vitamins and minerals, high in dietary fibre and provides a wide range of health boosting antioxidants such as phenols and flavonoids. Inclusion of fruits in diet can prevent a risk of heart diseases, cancer, diabetes etc. Guava fruit is a concentrated source of vitamin C, antioxidants, unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibre etc. It is enriched with high amounts of vitamins and sufficient quantity of minerals. The present study was aimed to standardize the process for preparation of value added guava products and to analyze the sensory parameters, nutritional parameters, physicochemical properties, phytochemical properties and antioxidant activity of developed value added guava products. Guava pulp was prepared and nutrient analysis of processed guava pulp was done by using standard analytical techniques. In this study, standard formulations (SF) of different value added guava products such as jam (coded as JSF), toffee (TSF), nectar (NSF), squash (SSF) and ice-cream (ICSF) were processed and prepared. Marmalades (M) were prepared using guava pulp and orange pulpy juice in the ratios of 25:75 (coded as MF1), 50:50 (MF2) and 75:25 (MF3) respectively. Different proportions of RTS beverages (RTSB) were prepared - guava pulp as 20% (RTSBF1), 30% (RTSBF2) and 40% (RTSBF3). Dehydrated slices (DS) were prepared into two different formulations i.e., without peel (DSF1) and with peel (DSF2). Various additional ingredients such as orange juice, orange peel, sugar, condensed milk, glucose, butter, cream, pectin, citric acid, stabilizer, food color, SB and KMS powder were added. Thus 13 types of value added guava products were standardized. These 13 standardized value added guava products were subjected to organoleptic evaluation using hedonic rating scale and results revealed high acceptability for standard formulations of jam, toffee, nectar, squash, ice-cream, formulation 2 of marmalade, formulation 3 of RTS beverage and formulation 2 of dehydrated slices. The highly accepted value added guava products were taken for estimating nutritional, physicochemical, phytochemical parameters and antioxidant activity. xvii The protein, fat and fibre contents of all value added guava products per 100 g ranged from 0.76 - 5.16 g, 0.16 - 11.32 g and 1.52 - 10.13 g respectively. Among all variations, RTS beverage has low calorific value (43 K.cal). The TSS, acidity and ascorbic acid content (physicochemical parameters) of all value added guava products per 100 g ranged from 14 - 68 ºBrix, 0.28 - 1.51 per cent and 17.5 - 115 mg/100g respectively. The TPC and TFC (phytochemical parameters) of all value added guava products per 100 g ranged from 232 - 3457 mg of GAE/100g and 860 - 2774 mg of CE/100g respectively. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of all value added guava products per 100 g were differed from 75.93 - 867.59 μg/100g. Among the value added guava products, jam had high protein, fibre content and TSS value; toffee had high fat, titrable acidity and calories; ice-cream had high ascorbic acid; dehydrated slices had high phenolic, flavonoid content and marmalade had high antioxidant activity. Antioxidants in processed products can fight against free radicals by exerting antioxidant defense mechanism that protects from various diseases. It was concluded that the guava is rich in nutrients and processed guava pulp has a potential in preparation of value added products. The prepared value added guava products can be preserved and consumed in irrespective of their availability and has high nutritive content, high phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity rather than the regular products. ThesisItem Open AccessDEVELOPMENT OF NUTRI SNACK ITEMS FROM PUFFED AMARANTH SEEDS(guntur, 2022-09-12) SPURTHI, N.; LAKSHMI, K. ThesisItem Open AccessDEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS USING GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLE POWDERS FOR THE PREVENTION OF ANEMIA(guntur, 2022-08-25) SRAVYA, S; LAKSHMI, J.Pesticides are best tools for timely management of crop pests and diseases which contain some amount of toxic substances that is also harmful to human beings and other domestic animals. Research proved that among the three routes of exposure, majority of the pesticide penetrates human body through skin. Hence, some type of protective clothing is essential and necessary for prevention of such entry. Survey was conducted on 120 pesticide sprayers in Chebrolu Mandal of Guntur district to understand the mode, frequency and type of pesticide used, related health aspects and constraints in using protective garments along with their opinion on user friendly protective gear. Survey results lead to designing of 16, protective garments. Full hands shirt with regular and raglan sleeve, 2 medium sized pockets in the front of shirt and bifurcated pant. Extra protection was provided by adding extra layer of material in scalp of hood and crotch of pant. Net material was provided at the neck of shirt and in hood to make the wearer comfortable. Beak mask, goggles, chemical protective gloves and shoes were provided. Designs were evaluated by experts of subject area and applicators for selection of 5 best designs. Selection of fabric for designed protective garments was done based on previous studies. Two blends were selected i.e. PC and PV in 2 different thickness with a blend ratio of 67:33. Spray testing was done to select one blend. Through spray test results both PC fabrics (PC1 and PC2) were considered. Both fabrics were treated with water repellent finishes - BOND-WR-12 A RTU (F1) and BOND-WR-12 NEAT (F2) following various finishing parameters, and were tested for functional properties. Air permeability values were lower in PC1 at pH 5 for all 4 conc. of finish. Higher pH and higher concentration of finish reduced the wicking ability of fabrics. Reduced wicking ability was observed in PC1 over PC2. PC1 had more thermal insulation than xvii PC2. PC1 fabric had better properties over PC2 with F1 finish. Optimized finishing parameters were conc. 5%., pH-4.5., Drying temperature 1050C., drying time 3 min., curing temperature: 1650C and curing time: 3min. The test fabric was used for construction of 5 protective garment designs selected based on subjective evaluation by applicators and experts. Further treated fabric was tested for barrier performance in the laboratory and in the field situations for 3 toxic pesticides, Phosphamidon, Monocrotophos and Dimethoate that are used by sprayers in chilli crop. Spraying of pesticide was done on samples in the laboratory using a hand spray while field testing consisted of patch test and swab test. After testing, extracts from both control and treated fabrics were evaluated in GC for quantification of pesticide residue. The residues present in 64 cm2 of fabric area were measured and expressed as ng/cm2. The results of the study were statistically analyzed by four factor experiment with CRD. Percentage reduction of absorption and penetration of pesticides in treated fabrics ranged from 42% to 57% over control. Torso front and thigh regions received higher averages in patch test with highest reduction values incase of Monocrotophos. Swab test indicated that skin covered with treated fabric gave good protection for all three pesticides. Higher residue values were observed in both control and treated fabric with Monocrotophos over the other two pesticides. The findings of various tests related to Phosphamidon, Monocrotophos and Dimethoate absorption, penetration and transmission with test fabric samples revealed that PC1 with F1 finish had better barrier properties. Survey on problems associated with de-stalking of dried chilli pods at chilli processing units in and around Guntur was studied and that the study reported that the majority de-stalkers faced the scorching on fingers, cracking on fingers and deformation on nails and hands while on removing stalks. Based on the survey a protective gadget was designed, constructed and evaluated to minimize the problems associated with de- stalking of dried chill pods. Initially 4 types of glove designs were designed and developed and out of which suitable one was selected through subjective evaluation by the subject experts as well as stake holders for their convenience and comfort in wearing. Final glove was made with two types of selected fabric such as 100% cotton and knitted material. Cotton was placed at palm view and knitted was placed at top view of the glove. Finally wear trials were conducted and recorded their opinion. Further, the survey on de-stalkers indicated that they were not wearing any protective gadgets for hands while removing stalks of dried chilli pod. Hence, 4 different designs of gloves were designed of which one was selected by experts and subjects. It‟s a three fourth length style without quirks, with a combination of cotton and knitted material. Both the protective garment and the glove were rated high by maximum number of experts in terms of features and subjects have given high scores for aspects of ease in wearing, comfort and protection. Subjects also opined that developed protective gear will be used by them if available in the market. ThesisItem Open AccessGRAIN QUALITY AND GLYCEMIC INDEX STUDIES IN RICE (Oryza sativa L.) VARIETIES DEVELOPED BY ANGRAU(guntur, 2022-08-23) DIVYA PRASANNA KUMARI, S.; NIRMALA DEVI, G.Twenty popular rice varieties developed by ANGRAU, including sixteen released and four pre-released varieties obtained from Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Maruteru during Kharif – 2019, were screened for quality traits such as physicochemical and cooking properties, micronutrient content (iron and zinc), proximate composition, glycemic index and correlation between these parameters were also studied to identify the varieties with desirable quality, nutritional composition and glycemic index. Analysis of variance has revealed a significant difference for all the traits evaluated and among the varieties except for glycemic index. Mean values are described character-wise. For most of the characters, a vast difference was observed among varieties. Chandra, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Indra, Swarna and Samba Mahsuri among the released rice varieties and the pre-released rice varieties MTU 1210, MTU 1224 recorded high per cent hulling, milling and head rice recovery with intermediate amylose, alkali spreading value, soft gel and higher volume expansion ratio and minimum elongation ratio.Among the varieties investigated for mineral content six varieties namely Swarna, Sri Dhruthi, Indra, MTU 1210, MTU 1224 and MTU 1262 were under a high iron category. Five varieties Swarna, Sri Dhruthi, Indra, MTU 1224and MTU 1262, were under the high zinc category. Moreover, varieties such as Swarna, MTU 1224 and MTU 1262 have high iron and zinc levels. Mineral content (Iron and Zinc) decreased during polishing. The per cent loss during polishing was given according to the grain type. It is revealed that the percent loss of iron was more in 16 medium slender grains (61.90-74.02%) followed by long bold (64.66-73.88%) and long slender (62.77 -72.52 %) at 5% and 10%, respectively. Varieties such as Pushyami, Chandra, Swarna, MTU 1239 have recorded desirable proximate composition of high protein, ash, crude fiber and low fat. Glycemic index evaluation has shown no significant difference in the glycemic index within the varieties studied. Glycemic index ranged between 56.72 -66.43 with a general mean of 60.67. Furthermore, all the varieties were categorized as medium GI varieties (56-69). Among all the varieties, Pushyami has shown the least value (56.72) for glycemic index. Correlation studies have shown a significant positive correlation among the parameters such as hulling with milling, head rice recovery and iron; 1000 grain weight with kernel length, kernel breadth; Kernel length with elongation ratio; Alkali spreading value with water uptake and kernel length; zinc with protein and ash; iron with ash. A significant negative correlation was observed as kernel breadth with L/B ratio; kernel breadth with zinc content; carbohydrate with fat. Glycemic index had no significant correlation with any of the quality traits and nutritional parameters. However, it has nonsignificant positive relation with amylose, iron and negative correlation with fiber and carbohydrates. Selection for these significant positively associated characters will improve the overall quality trait. Among the twenty varieties studied, rice varieties such as Chandra, Indra, SriDhruthi, Swarna, Samba Mahsuri, MTU 1210, MTU 1224and MTU 1262 recorded intermediate amylose, alkali spreading value, high iron, zinc, medium GI, high protein, low fat which are desirable for rice consumers predominantly diabetic population while counting for rice variety with the best quality and glycemic index. ThesisItem Open AccessDEVELOPMENT OF VALUE-ADDED BISCUITS BY INCORPORATING FINGER MILLET (Eleusine coracana) AND COLOCASIA LEAF POWDER (Colocasia antiquorum)(guntur, 2022-08-23) ASWINI, POTHARAJU; LAKSHMI, J.ABSTRACT Increase in non-communicable diseases in the country is diverting the people to increase the inclusion of green leafy vegetables and millets in their diet to reduce the diseases. Finger millet is enriched with fibre, protein, calcium, chromium, magnesium, zinc, and sufficient quantity of manganese. Colocasia leaves are concentrated sources of protein, iron, phosphorous, calcium, fibre and vitamins (vitamin C and niacin). The study was aimed to standardize the process for preparation colocasia leaf powder and finger millet incorporated biscuits and to analyze the sensory parameters, physical properties, proximates and selected minerals as well as to determine the shelf life of developed biscuits using different packaging materials. Colocasia leaf powder was prepared and nutrient analysis of powder was done by using standard analytical techniques. The finger millet flour, wheat flour and colocasia leaf powder were used in the ratios of 90:10:0 (formulation 1), 70:20:10 (formulation 2), 65:20:15 (formulation 3) to develop the biscuits. Various additional ingredients such as choco powder, tuity fruities, dessicated coconut powder, jeera powder, vamu powder and strained ginger paste were added to prepare sweet and salt biscuits with all 3 formulations and thus 18 types of biscuits were standardized. These 18 standardized biscuits were subjected to sensory evaluation using hedonic rating scale and results revealed that acceptability was high for biscuits that had 10 g of colocasia leaf powder and 70 g of finger millet flour. The highly accepted biscuits (formulation 2 of all variations) along with their control biscuits (formulation 1) were taken for estimating physical properties and nutrient content. Data on analysis of physical properties revealed that the weight of the biscuits of all variations ranged from 12-14 g. The diameter, thickness, length and spread factor of the biscuits of all variations ranged from 41-45 mm, 7.5-7.8 mm, 45 - 47.7 mm and 52.5 - 58.4 respectively. There was no increasing / decreasing trends in the weights of biscuits 1 but a gradual decrease in the diameter and spread factor of biscuits was observed with increasing the colocasia leaf powder incorporation in all the variations. Addition of colocasia leaf powder and decrease in the ragi flour decreased the ‘L’ and ‘b’ values while ‘a’ value changed from + to –. Nutrient composition of colocasia leaf powder incorporated biscuits in comparison with control biscuits (without colocasia leaves) per 100 g proved that incorporation of colocasia leaf powder increased iron, calcium, protein, fibre and fat in the biscuits even with decrease of finger millet flour. The moisture, ash, fat, protein and fibre content of all formulation 2 biscuits ranged from 2.1- 2.8 %, 1.6 - 2.1 g, 11-13 g, 5.4- 6.5 g and 7.5 – 9 g per100 g respectively. The iron, zinc and calcium content of the biscuits differed from 3.3 - 4.1 mg, 1.23-1.49 mg and 205- 256 mg per 100 g respectively. Consumption of 100 g of this formulation 2 biscuits can meet 10-12 % protein, 19-20 % fibre, 34-43 % calcium, 12-15 % zinc and 16-20 % iron of RDA for adult woman. The shelf life qualities for most accepted formulation 2 biscuits were assessed for a period of one month. For assessing the shelf life of biscuits, the biscuits were packed in two different packaging materials i.e., High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) covers and aluminum foil and then samples were sealed and kept in a clean, dry and well ventilated room for a period of one month. Biscuits were drawn once in 15 days and evaluated for sensory quality, moisture content, free fatty acid analysis and microbial analysis. Organoleptic evaluation of stored biscuits revealed significant decrease in all sensory parameters in both the packaging materials with increase in storage period. However, overall acceptability ranged between “liked slightly to liked moderately” even after the 30 days of storage in both the packaging material. Moisture and free fatty acid content of stored biscuits increased with increase in storage period from 0th day to 30th day in all biscuits stored in HDPE covers and in aluminium foil. However, the increase in moisture and free fatty acid content of biscuits stored in HDPE covers was higher than that of biscuits stored in aluminium foil as, aluminum foil has impervious nature to air, water vapor and can protect against light by acting as a catalyst for oxidation process. Microbial estimation during storage showed that the fungal colonies growth ranged from 2.00× 105 CFU/g to 3.00× 105 CFU/g and bacterial colonies ranged from 2.00× 105 CFU/g to 3.00× 105 CFU/g on 30th day of storage , The increase in microbial load was high in biscuits stored in HDPE than the biscuits stored in aluminium foil. It can be concluded from the present study that the biscuits made with millets and green leafy powders especially colocasia leaves (up to certain level) possess the potential to enter bakery industry. ThesisItem Open AccessISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA FROM INDEGENOUS FERMENTED FOODS(guntur, 2022-08-23) SIRISHA, AGATHAMUDI; LAKSHMI, J.ABSTRACT Probiotics are considered as successful major category of food supplements. Probiotics can be considered as functional foods because of their health benefits and are significantly greater than traditional nutritional products. There are many evidences that probiotics can succeed in different types of infectious diseases, colon cancer, immune modulations and other chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders supported by high-quality scientifically based clinical information. Microbes combined with distinct favorable effects of animals and humans are used as probiotics. The probiotic bacteria are Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus& Streptococcus species. The present study was aimed to isolate, identify and characterize potential probiotic bacteria from fermented foods. The food samples of both dairy and non-dairy food samples were collected from local super markets and different households in Guntur while some samples were collected from online stores. Sensory evaluation was done for collected food samples by hedonic rating scale. The results of sensory evaluation studies revealed that acceptability was high for straw berry yoghurt in terms of sensory properties. Sixteen out of the thirty samples tested positive for lactic acid bacterial populations. The maximum population count was observed in buttermilk (JBM) and minimum population count was observed in idly batter. Biochemical characterization of probiotic isolates such as SA, KM, BM3, MY, BM2, LS3, MZC, HCU, IB, DB, BM1, HP, BCU, SYD, BC2, and PY showed some positive and some negative results for catalase test, oxidase test, methyl red test, gas formation from glucose, arginine hydrolysis test, aescualin fermentation test, nitrate reductase test, citrate utilization test, starch hydrolysis test and voges Prausker’s test. The isolates such as HCU, DB, HP, KM, MY, MZC, PY, SA, SYD and BC2 showed growth at 20℃; the five isolates such as BM2, HCU, DB, SA, BC2 showed growth at 35℃ and 40℃; None of the isolates could grow at 50℃. Eleven isolates showed growth in an aerobic environment, while three isolates showed growth in a micro aerobic environment. In anaerobic environment growth was observed in three isolates. In sugar fermentation test; some isolates showed positive results while others showed negative results. Six isolates showed growth at 2% concentration of NaCl. Twelve isolates showed growth at a 4% of NaCl, nine isolates showed positive results in 6.5 % of NaCl tolerance test. The results of in vitro evaluation showed that two probiotic isolates namely HP and IB expressed growth at acidic pH 2 while remaining isolates showed growth at pH 4 and 6. All isolates were survived at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 % of bile salts. Sixteen probiotic isolates expressed susceptibility towards the Ampicillin. Isolates from KM and SYD showed antibiotic resistance to Chloramphenicol while the remaining isolates showed susceptibility. Isolates from MZC and SYD 1 showed antibiotic resistance to Penicillin-G. Two isolates such as KM and MZC showed resistance to Streptomycin, one isolate KM showed resistance to Sulphatriad. Two isolates KM and SYD showed resistance to Tetracycline. The probiotic isolates such as SA, KM, BM1, BM2, BM3, HP, MZC and SYD showed strong inhibition zones against staphylococcus aureus. The probiotic isolates such as SA, KM, BM3, LS3, MZC, SYD and IB isolates showed a strong inhibition zone against Escherichia coli. The study concluded that Kombucha, Branded buttermilk, Mozzarella cheese and Strawberry yoghurt drink showed superior characteristics in terms of probiotic properties. These isolates contained majorly the LAB species which belonged to the genus Lactobacillus such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus. These strains could be used in the development of starter cultures for the production of fermented products in a controlled environment in future.