The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad.
The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966.
The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter.
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication.
Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers
1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country...
1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country...
1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country...
1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension...
1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted...
June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University...
June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)...
20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India...
1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State...
23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India...
July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture...
May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department...
7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga...
15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005...
26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007...
2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now...
serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...
The Smart class room is a modernized classroom with computers, projectors, internet connectivity and other multimedia devices. Designing a Smart classroom is a challenge to interior designers. To fill the research gap, the present study was taken up. The recommended design guidelines proposed by higher educational institutes, official bodies and researchers served as a guide to identify the dependent variables. Type of management, year of establishment and total strength of the institute were the independent variables.
The educational institutes were providing recommended circulation space per student. Attention was not paid to incorporate sound absorbing measures. Noise generation in the corridors was found to be a disturbing factor in most of the educational institutes. Location and size of the door was found to be as per the recommended guidelines. Educational institutes had not paid attention to provide vision panel. In most of the institutes the windows were located at north side. Wall coverings and acoustic paneling were almost nil in all the institutes.
Nearly one fourth of the institutes had no provision in the ceiling to accommodate required acoustical mechanisms. Almost all the institutes maintain at least 13 feet height in front of screen. The concept of the lighting zones was adopted by most of the educational institutes. Width and size of the tablet arm chair was below recommended sizes in most of the institutes.
Nearly three fourth (73.33%) of the institutes had not paid attention towards clearance spaces.63.33 per cent of the educational institutes followed design guidelines when designing instructor’s seat height. Slightly less than half of the educational institutes designed instructor’s console as per recommendation. Attention was not paid to provide accessible workstations for students in wheelchair. Educational institutes were not paying attention for the modified fan-shaped design configuration, theatre-style seating and seating for students with disability.
The class room in higher education institutes were not found to be as per recommended design guild lines with reference multimedia network requirement, provision of pc, data projector with a screen and video conferencing. Most of the educational institutes have not paid attention to provide advanced equipment related to
multimedia such as data projector, crestron touch panel, audio system like microphones, amplifiers and speakers, wireless microphones and digital slate.
Out of the three variables total strength of the institute was found to be the major contributor in deciding the class room size and dimensions, followed by type of management. The circulation space per student and gross area per student were found as per the standard guidelines in institutes with more number of students.
Year of establishment was the major forward planner in deciding the location of the class room in the institutional building. Total strength of the institute was the strong contributing variable in deciding the provision for class room storage. The design features of class room door such as width of door leaf, door clearance space, type of handle and approach area and vision panel were found to be more on equivalence with the standard specifications in institutes with more number of students. The two variables, total strength of the institute and type of management made more or less equal noteworthy contribution towards class room window design. Total strength of the institute was found to be the one single forecaster of the provisions made for maintaining the quality of wall finishes, wall coverings and acoustic tiles treatment in the existing class room.
Year of establishment of the educational institute was the major contributory factor that determined the height of the class room ceiling, minimum head room, acoustical properties of ceiling and ceiling height in tiered floor classrooms. Educational institutes with relatively more number of students were taking on standard design guidelines regarding the floor type, slope of the floor, rise of floor from one row to the next row, nosing, flooring in teaching area and carpeted flooring.
Class room lighting design linked with lighting in student seating area, lighting zones, types of bulbs, illumination level, and lighting fixtures were influenced by the total strength of the institute. Total strength of the institute was found to be the one single forecaster of the quality of electrical fitting and fixtures used. These guidelines related to the standard acceptable Noise Criterion (NC), Ambient noise level, Reverberation time and Room criteria (RC) were mostly adopted by Institutes with relatively more number of students.
Total strength of the institute and type of management were found to be the contributing factors for deciding on class room furniture such as podium specification, dimensions of large desk, tablet arms chairs, width of tablet arm chair, clearance space for tablet arm chair, writing surface for tablet arm chair and so on. The major predictor of instructor’s workstation design in educational institutes was total strength of the institute. One fifth contribution for instructor workstation design was from year of establishment and one tenth was from type of management.
Year of establishment of the education institute was the major predictor of writing space design. Institute with more number of students in a class paid attention in designing location of the chalkboards, chalk board area, chalk boards frames and outside measurement, writing surfaces, colour of chalkboards, chalk tray and marker boards. Number of screens, location of projectors in lecture hall, minimum distance between projection screen and front row, screens placement, screen height in a flat-floor classroom were decided by the total strength in a class room. The institutes total strength and year of establishment were the two major contributing factors that decided the design of class room signage in educational institutes.
The deciding factors in designing the seating arrangement in a class, row to row clearances, passage clearance., minimum and maximum distance between the last row to end wall, clearance from the student desk to adjacent wall, desk to desk clearance, seating
for students with a disability and seating design configuration were total strength of the institute and year of establishment of the institute. The single forward planner in multimedia design in a class room was total strength of the institute. Institutes with more number of students planned teaching stations with computer equipment, plus the necessary space for student materials. Provisions for audio system like microphones, amplifiers and speakers, network requirement were made in institutes with more number of students.
The desires to live independently during old age throw challenge to interior designers to think up suitable dwelling that facilitate elderly to age in place. The present research aimed at identifying the gap between existing housing conditions and housing needs of elderly and design a studio apartment a self-contained housing unit that place the whole lot of activities in a single room except the bathroom. The standard design guidelines evolved through research by various Government and Non-government organizations and researchers served as a yardstick to identify dependent variables. Each design feature of the house was treated as a dependent variable.
Existing living rooms were found lacking in space allowances for circulation and wheelchair users. Irrespective of the provisions made in their existing living room, respondents wanted to have a living room with standard design features. The bath rooms in existing elderly houses were found lacking in features like sufficient space for wheel chair, fittings and fixtures to ensure safety and convenience in usage. While designing houses due thought was not given to plan bath rooms to accommodate the needs that may arise in old age. The elderly desired to have bath rooms with features like sufficient space for wheel chair, fittings and fixtures to ensure safety and convenience in usage.
The clearance space for making bed, for movement around bed, for making use of space on one side of the bed, shelves at proper height was preferred by more than half of the elderly. More than three fourth of the study sample desired to have additional space to perform other activities in the bedroom and bedrails on the sides of the bed, buzzer on the sides of the bed and alarm system.
The work counters in majority of the existing kitchen were found at appropriate height. Lighting fixtures, provision of exhaust fans, floor coverings were found as per design standards in most of the houses. Almost the entire sample selected for the study preferred kitchen strictly as per the design guide lines. Convenient accessibility was felt most essential design feature by elderly. The elderly felt essential to have both direct and indirect access between dining space and living space, entry/exit and private outdoor. The sample felt sufficient table space was essential.
No extra effort was taken to make flooring on-slippery in the existing elderly houses. The provisions to make the floor safe and assist the elderly to lead a comfortable life in the old age were not made. The elderly preferred to have houses with appropriate handles, pulls, latches and locks that were comfortable to use. Feature like Peep holes was felt essential by elderly respondents. The sample desired to avoid provision of thresholds and minor changes in floor level wherever possible, revolving doors and double hung doors.
Major lacuna was cross ventilation in common areas and corridors, and accessible curtains or blind controls for wheelchair users at a height of 2 feet 7 inches to 3 feet 3 inches. The elderly felt essential to have electric fixtures such as television socket, light switches in various rooms at proper reachable height.
The width of the tread, ends of handrails, curved treads, minimum depth at landing of stairs, number of risers in a plight were some of the features of a staircase that were not designed as per standards in most of the houses the elderly were residing. The design of entrance with provision of proper audio and visual contact, smooth walking surfaces, minimum walkway width, provision for firm landing of wheel chair were preferred by the elderly respondents.
Elderly respondents felt it was essential to avoid the installation of steep ramps and limit the length of ramp no higher than 29 feet 6 inches. Mostly the elderly had not expressed a firm view in the design of ramp. The elderly felt essential to have balconies with sufficient area and with provision of railings or balustrades at proper height. Design of corridors was not given importance. No standard guidelines were followed with reference to the width and height of corridor.
The elderly felt essential to provide a telephone with large easy to read keys for preferred numbers, an opening system on the doors which requires only one single type of key, sound proof waste ducts and pipes to limit annoying noises, burglar proof front doors, fuse boxes with automatic circuit breakers.
Education of the respondent was found to be a factor that determined the design of home communication system in the residences. Relatively highly educated elderly respondents were found having technical knowledge and taking the advantage of technology in designing a high quality home communication system. Occupation of the respondent had no influence on the adoption of advanced design guidelines in planning living room, bathroom, bedroom, kitchen, dining room, flooring, door hardware, windows, electric fixtures, stairs and lifts, entrance, ramp, balcony, corridor and home communication system.
Family income of the respondent was found to be a factor that influenced design of living room, bathroom, bedroom, kitchen, ramp and home communication system in the elderly houses. Relatively respondents with high family income were found planning as per standard design guidelines. Type of the house had an influence in the adoption of standard design guidelines while planning living room, bathroom, bedroom, kitchen, dining area, windows, electric fixtures, stairs and lifts, entrance, ramps, corridors and home communication system. Ownership of the house had influenced the adoption of standard design guidelines while designing kitchen and dining area.
Socio economic status influenced the adoption of standard design guidelines while planning of living room, bathroom, bedroom, kitchen, dining area, stairs and lifts,
entrance, ramps and corridors and it had no influence on the adoption of standard design guidelines with reference to the design of flooring, door hardware, windows, electric fixtures, balcony and home communication system.
Type of the house followed by socio economic status of the family and family monthly income were found to be the three major contributing factors towards the design of living room as per the recommended design guidelines. Along with income and socio economic status the occupation of the respondent was found to be a major contributing factor that influenced the design of bathroom in elderly housing.
The major variable that contributed in designing a bed room as per the design guide lines was the ‘Type of the house’. The independent large houses had bed rooms with clearance spaces between beds, space for bed making, space for least used side of bed as per the recommended guidelines. It was evident from the results that the families with relatively high income and high socio economic status designed kitchens with sufficient storage space under counters, shelves located at proper height, provisions for wall hung fixtures and exhaust fans and direct accessibility to various rooms as per the guidelines.
The dining rooms in independent large houses owned by elderly who were employed were found with dining space, space between wall and furniture, space for the person to rise from chair, area of storage units as per design guidelines. The own houses in which the respondents were living for quite few years were found with non-slippery floors in places like bathrooms and corridors. These houses had flooring that contrasts with wall.
The most prominent variable that was contributing towards the design of existing door hardware was type of the house. Next to type of house one fifth of the total contribution was from respondent’s occupation. The other variable that was contributing up to 16.88 per cent was education of the respondent. The single major variable that was contributing towards the design of existing windows was type of the house. The contribution of other variables was negligible. Among all the variables socio economic status of the family alone was the main contributing factor towards the design of existing electric fixtures.
The single major variable that contributed towards the design of existing stairs and lifts was Socio Economic status of the family. The houses that belonged to high socio economic category were found with stairs and lifts. The two major variables that contributed towards the design of existing entrance were socio economic status and family monthly income. The respondents who needed the provision of ramp for the use of wheel chair were found built the ramp. The two major variables that contributed towards the design of balcony were family monthly income and type of the house.
The two major variables that equally and together contributed up to 86.32 towards the design of existing corridor were age of the house and type of the house. Families with high monthly income and living in relatively big houses were found with advanced home communication system. These houses had opening system on the doors which required only one single type of key. Advanced communication devices were not popular among existing houses under the study.