ThesisItem Open AccessMARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION FOR MINOR FOREST PRODUCE IN HIGH ALTITUDE AND TRIBAL AREA ZONE OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-14) SATISH KUMAR, CHITTAPULI; RAVI KUMAR, K. N.In High Altitude and Tribal (HAT) zone of Andhra Pradesh, Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is an important livelihood source for several communities, particularly those living in forest fringe villages. However, it is disheartening to note that until the last decade and half, the transactions of MFP in tribal areas has been very poor due to lack of necessary infrastructure and technology, especially Marketing Information System (MIS). So, by strengthening MIS, marketing of MFP becomes more transparent so that stakeholders can make informed choices about collection and sale decisions. Hence, the present research study on Marketing Information System and its application for Minor Forest Produce in High Altitude and Tribal Area Zone of Andhra Pradesh was considered for in depth investigation with a view to explore the existing MIS in HAT zone, pattern, dissemination and utilization of MIS by different stakeholders, growth trends in market arrivals and prices of selected MFP, determinants for strengthening MIS, market arrivals and prices of MFP, impact evaluation of MIS on prices realized for MFP, and need-based policy suggestions for effective implementation of MIS among stakeholders in HAT zone. MFP like hill broom (Thysanolaena maxima), honey, markingnut (Semecarpus anacardium), myrobalan (Terminalia chebula), naramamidi bark (Litsea deccanensis) and seeded tamarind (Tamarindus indica) were purposively selected for this study, as they together accounted for nearly 85 per cent share of total value of MFP procured by Girijan Primary Co-operative Marketing Societies (GPCMS) in the HAT zone of Andhra Pradesh (average of 2011-2018). A sample of 240 farmers from 20 shandies; 120 farmers from 10 xviii GPCMS, 120 traders and all the Managers working in GPCMSs and five Divisional Managers of Girijan Cooperative Corporation (GCC) are randomly selected to elicit requisite information. The major findings of the study revealed that 57 per cent of selected tribal farmers are women involved in collection and transacting MFP in HAT zone and remaining 43 per cent are men. Major source of market information to farmers and traders at village level and market level are SMS messages and display boards in Primary Procurement Centers (PPCs)/GPCMS respectively. Unlike farmers, traders are highly aware about prices, quality and grades of MFP. Compared to market arrivals, prices of selected MFP showed significant positive growth rates in GPCMS/PPCs. It was found interesting that the major influential factors for strengthening of infrastructure (MIS) in GPCMS/PPCs are arrivals and funds received from GCC for MFP in GPCMS/PPCs. Similarly, prices, timely market information and prompt payment of sales proceeds had shown significant influence on market arrivals of MFP in GPCMS/PPCs. Access to market information and availability of storage and investment on MIS in GPCMS/PPCs are the major influential factors for realizing higher prices to MFP. Propensity score matching technique revealed that MIS contributed to higher prices realized by the treated farmers compared to untreated counterpart for all the selected MFP. Mobile network issue is the top most prioritized constraint expressed by the tribal farmers in HAT zone. Formation of farmers cooperatives/FPOs, strengthening of wireless telecommunication infrastructure, improving road connectivity, strong coordination among Government departments like Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), GCC, Banks, Andhra Pradesh Forest Department etc., should deserve special attention to promote efficient transactions of MFP in HAT zone. ThesisItem Open AccessIMPACT ANALYSIS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON PADDY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-13) ANTHONY, REMALLI; SUSEELA, K.The sudden imposition of the lockdown, with very little grounding or scheduling, has impacted agriculture and the food systems in many different ways. Rice is an important food crop and it has greater economic importance among the food crops, rice was majorly affected by the restrictions during COVID-19 since the harvesting period coincided with the restrictions on the movement of people and machinery. Andhra Pradesh is the major rice-producing state in India, especially West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh with highest area of 1.7 million hectares, with a production of 2.65 million tonnes production and with 6723 kg ha-1 productivity (Agricultural Statistics at a glance, 2019-2020) too got affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The problems Viz., lack of accessibility to market, timely and non-availability of inputs, high wage rate and scarcity of labour due to social distancing measures, high transporting costs and restrictions on transport, high input cost and non-availability of the required information on price in other markets were also experienced by the rice farmers of West Godavari district. Keeping in view of the above problems the research study was designed “Impact analysis of covid-19 pandemic on paddy production and marketing in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh” with the following objectives examined the factors determining paddy production and marketing during COVID-19 regime. 1. to study the socio-economic conditions of the paddy farmers. 2. to analyse the factors determining production and marketing of paddy during COVID-19 Regime. 3. to analyse the challenges faced by the farmers both in paddy production and marketing during COVID-19 regime. 4. to suggest the coping strategies to be followed by the farmers during COVID-19 regime. Multistage sampling design was used for selection of sample at different levels of district, mandal and village for the present study. West Godavari district that positions highest paddy production in Andhra Pradesh was selected. Three mandals were selected based on the highest area under paddy cultivation from West Godavari district were Tadepalligudem, Ungutur, Pentapadu. Two villages with xi maximum area of paddy and production were selected from each mandal, thus making a total of six villages selected for the present study. Twenty farmers from each of the selected villages were randomly selected, thus comprising a total of 120 farmers from six villages for collecting necessary information related to the objectives of the present research study. The data pertains to the year 2019-20. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed through tabular analysis using descriptive statistics, ordinal logistic regression and Garrett’s ranking technique were followed. Socio-economic conditions of the paddy farmers were analysed by using descriptive statistics and results revealed that the majority of the respondents were belonged to age 31-50 years category. About 22.50 percent of the respondents were illiterate, majority of the respondents were belonged to primary school and high school i.e., 57.50 per cent, 20 per cent were in high school category. Majority of the respondents i.e., 71.67 per cent were had the experience between 11-30 years, it was observed that 85 per cent of the respondents belongs to the nuclear family. Half of the respondents were belonged to small size (1-4) family i.e., 50.83 per cent followed by 34.17 per cent belonged to medium size (5-7). Average annual income of the farmer respondents per year from the paddy crop was about 40.93 per cent of the total household annual income. From agricultural labour it was about 38.98 per cent. The average annual income of the farmer respondents from other occupations was about 20.10 per cent of the total household annual income. Large portion of the respondents were belonged to marginal (<1 ha) and small (1 ha – 2 ha) category i.e., 20.83 percent and 38.33 percent respectively. About 20.83 per cent of respondents were tenants. Among the respondents, 65.00 per cent were agricultural labour and 17.50 per cent of the respondents were involved in dairy activities as secondary occupation. About 57.50 per cent of the sample farmers had access to institutional credit and 50.83 per cent of the farmers had access to non-institutional credit. Significant source of water structure of rice crop was observed to be canals 88.11 per cent followed by bore wells 11.71 per cent. The factors determining production of paddy during COVID-19 regime was analysed using ordinal logistic regression and results revealed that the availability of machinery to the farmers had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remains constant, a unit increase in availability of machinery the probability of being in the low yield loss category was increased by about 26.06 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was decreased by about 7.87 per cent and 18.17 per cent respectively. The shortage of the inputs to the farmers had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in shortage of inputs the probability of being in low yield loss category was reduced by 11.58 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss level was increased by 3.75 per cent and 7.82 per cent respectively. The increase in wage rate of labour had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in wage rate of labour the probability of being in low yield loss category was reduced by 78.41 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by 41.20 per cent and 37.20 per cent xii respectively. The labour scarcity had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in labour scarcity the probability of being in low yield loss level was reduced by 78.21 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by about 19.63 per cent and 58.59 per cent respectively. The increase in cost of inputs had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in cost of inputs the probability of being in low yield loss level was reduced by about 16.30 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by about 7.68 per cent and 8.62 per cent respectively. Marginal effects of education, extension contacts, experience and size of the land holding implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in education, extension contacts, experience and size of the land holding increase the probability of being low yield loss category by about 6.22 per cent, 16.37 per cent, 0.58 per cent and 0.78 per cent respectively. The factors determining marketing of paddy during COVID-19 regime was analysed using ordinal logistic regression and results revealed that the non-availability of storage facility had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in non-availability of storage facility the probability of being in low income loss level decrease by 24.89 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high income loss level increased by about 9.36 per cent and 15.53 per cent respectively. The restrictions on movement of produce had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in restrictions on movement of produce the probability of being in low-income loss level decreased by 82.89 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high-income loss level increased by about 49.36 per cent and 33.53 per cent respectively. The labour scarcity had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in labour scarcity the probability of being in low-income loss level decreased by 37.36 per cent, whereas, the probability of being medium and high-income loss level increased by about 16.01 per cent and 21.35 per cent respectively. The availability of transportation facility had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in availability of transportation facility the probability of being in low-income loss level increased by 17.64 per cent, whereas, the probability of being medium and high-income loss level decreased by about 2.70 per cent and 14.94 per cent respectively. The access to market information had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in access to market information the probability of being in low-income loss level increased by 30.81 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high-income loss level decreased by about 15.65 per cent and 46.46 per cent respectively. Challenges faced by farmers both in paddy production and marketing during the COVID-19 regime were analysed by using Garretts ranking technique and results revealed that major were high input cost (rank I) followed by High wage rate of labour (rank II), High Transportation cost (rank III), Delay in crediting the amount by govt. after procurement (rank IV) and Nonavailability of farm labour (rank V). Constraints can be mitigated with the following suggestions xiii i.e., Government should make arrangements to establish custom hiring centers on cluster basis and thus, enable the farmer to mechanize the farm operations, Government should make arrangements to provide adequate inputs to the farmers through Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) at judicious time and prices, periodical trainings should be provided to the farmers on low-cost mechanization techniques developed by various research agencies, labour scarcity issue should be addressed by diverting MGNREGA workers towards farm operations, Government should promote Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in a big way to disseminate correct and reliable market information to the farmer in right time, Government should encourage the construction of scientific warehouse facilities at rural/mandal level and these should be integrated to e-NAM for efficient marketing, Government should promote marketing linkages by establishing paddy FPOs and linking these FPOs with e-NAM there by promoting online marketing of paddy, farmers should enter into contractual arrangements with the millers/processors so as to procure the farm produce at farm gate in view of COVID-19 pandemic, link roads should be strengthened to transport the produce efficiently to the nearby markets. ThesisItem Open AccessANALYSIS OF CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR FOR PURCHASING ORGANIC VEGETABLES IN THRISSUR CORPORATION OF KERALA(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY) SOORYA, C; .PAUL, K. S. RIndia ranks 8th in terms of organic agricultural land and 1st in terms of total number of producers as per 2020 data. Organic Farming is showing a positive growth trend in the country and the organic food market in India is estimated to be growing at a 25-30 per cent, mainly due to lower base. The major factors attracting public and private attention include; increasing prospects of organic agribusiness trade because of increasing demand for safe food and an approach to sustainable development of farming. Similar situation prevails in Kerala also where there appears to be a strong demand for organic food. Rise in income levels, greater health consciousness and environment friendly attitude motivates people to prefer organic produce. As vegetables constitute a major portion of food consumption of people, changes has undergone in the nature, type and quality of vegetables consumed by them. In the context of changing behaviour of consumers towards organic vegetables, study on consumer behaviour and WTP towards organic vegetables is very important. Keeping in view of above facts the present study entitled “Analysis of consumers‟ behaviour for purchasing organic vegetables in Thrissur Corporation of Kerala” has been undertaken with the following objectives 1. to study the consumers‟ behaviour towards organic vegetables 2. to assess the consumers‟ willingness to pay (WTP) and consumer surplus for organic vegetables 3. to identify the factors that contribute to the consumers‟ willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for organic vegetables 4. to prioritize the constraints in purchasing organic vegetables Thrissur Corporation was purposively selected as it is one of the corporations having the highest number of functioning eco shops in Kerala. All the 4 functioning eco shops in the Thrissur Corporation area were selected for the study. A total of 200 consumers, constituting 50 consumers from each eco shops were selected. For calculating consumer Willingness to Pay (WTP) three vegetables, cowpea, bitter xii gourd and ash gourd were selected according to the average annual stock arrivals in the concerned eco shops. Primary data was collected from the consumers through personal interview method and secondary data about the information of distribution of eco shops in the corporations was obtained from the Office of the Principal Agricultural Officer of the concerned districts. Majority of the consumers believed that vegetables distributed through eco shops are organic and strongly agreed with the fact that organic vegetables are healthier. Most of the consumers agreed that organic vegetables are nutritious and taste better than conventional vegetables. Majority of the respondents disagreed that organic vegetables are more perishable and agreed that organic vegetable production is environment friendly. The mean WTP estimated for cowpea, bitter gourd and ash gourd was 70.860 ± 1.301, 68.384 ± 1.326 and 34.370 ± 0.400 respectively. By subtracting the actual price paid by the consumer from the estimated mean WTP, consumer surplus calculated for cowpea, bitter gourd, and ash gourd was ₹20.1, ₹18.5 and ₹9.4 respectively. Health consciousness, taste, trust and eco-friendly nature of organic vegetables were the important factors that determined consumers‟ WTP for concerned organic vegetables. Monthly income and education, even though were significant factors had very less impact on consumer WTP when compared to other variables. The major constraints faced by the consumers were unavailability, poor range of varieties in the available organic vegetables and lack of advertisement on organic vegetables, which ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd, respectively. Distance to the eco shops was another important barrier mentioned by the consumers and occupied the 4th position. The study explored the market potential of organic vegetables by analysing consumer behaviour and estimating their WTP and pointed out the factors affecting the consumers‟ WTP. The study also revealed the difficulties faced by the consumers in purchasing organic vegetables and provided suggestions to improve organic vegetable marketing, which helps in refinement of policy decisions. ThesisItem Open AccessANALYSIS OF NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION (NFSM) - PULSES PROGRAMME IN PRAKASAM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-14) SRI SAI AKHILA PRATHYUSHA, RAVIPATI; SUSEELA, K.Pulses are an important source of dietary protein for developing and under developed countries. Farmers in India are known to cultivate more than a dozen and a half pulse crops for consumption in various seasons across the country. In India, per cent share of pulses to the total food-grain basket in terms of area and production was 19.62 and 16.55 per cent, respectively, during 1950-51. From 1950-51 to 2006-07, the total acreage under pulses had almost been stagnated. As a result of stagnant pulse production and continuous increase in population, the per capita availability of pulses has decreased considerably. Due to this, during XIth Plan (2007-08 Rabi), in pursuance of the resolution adopted in the 53rd meeting of National Development Council, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on National Food Security Mission was launched. In India, pulses are grown in 29.4 million ha area with a production of 23.92 million tonnes and with a productivity of 816 kg ha-1. The current initiative is an effort to bridge the above gap between production and consumption. In Andhra Pradesh, production of pulses is less than one million tonnes (0.96 MT) and the productivity is also less even after implementing NFSM-Pulses programme which needs critical examination. Hence, the present study on “Analysis of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) - Pulses programme in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh” was designed. The present investigation was to study all factors which affect the participation of farmers in NFSM-Pulses programme and also to identify the constraints faced by farmers in implementation of NFSM-Programme, besides analysing the impact of NFSM-Pulses programme on production of pulses. xiii The research study entitled “Analysis of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) - Pulses programme in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh” was taken up with the following objectives. 1. to compare the socio-economic conditions of beneficiary farmers and non-beneficiary farmers of NFSM-Pulses programme. 2. to study the impact of NFSM-Pulses programme on production of pulses. 3. to evaluate the implementation of NFSM-Pulses programme. 4. to analyse the factors influencing farmers participation under NFSM-Pulses programme and 5. to identify the constraints and suggest means for better implementation of NFSM-Pulses programme. Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample at different levels in the present study. Andhra Pradesh was selected purposively. In Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam district was selected purposively for the study. Three mandals were selected and from each mandal, two villages were selected based on the highest area under Pulses. From each village, 10 beneficiary and 10 non-beneficiary farmers were selected, making a total sample of 120 farmers comprising 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiary farmers. The data pertains to the year 2020-21. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed through tabular analysis using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and Garrett’s ranking technique were followed. Descriptive statistics results showed that participation of women farmers (8.33 per cent) is lesser than male farmers (91.67 per cent) in NFSM-Pulses programme. Average family size of the respondent households was 4 members. About, 51.31 per cent of total respondents’ household members were engaged in farming. Most of the respondents belongs to 25-50 years age group. Majority of respondents were found to be small farmers. Majority of the beneficiary respondents were literates with primary level of education. Majority of the non-beneficiary respondents were illiterates. Institutional credit sources were highly preferred by respondents. The main source to obtain credit was PACS. As far as cropping pattern of beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents were concerned, red gram and bengal gram were found to be dominating crops in kharif season, while in rabi season cropping pattern of beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents is dominated by green gram and black gram, respectively. In Prakasam district, pulses production recorded a positively significant growth during 8th (19.18 per cent), 9th (72.95 per cent), 10th (15.21 per cent) and 12th FYP (11.99 per cent). But, during 11th FYP pulses production was negatively significant with -5.85 per cent due to decline in area under pulses crop. xiv The overall progress of physical and financial achievement of NFSM-Pulses programme during the period of 2016-17 to 2020-21 were 68.60 and 62.46 per cent, respectively. The physical achievement progress had increased from 22.48 per cent (2016-17) to 78.15 per cent (2020-21) and financial achievement progress has increased from 26.39 per cent (2016-17) to 88.71 per cent (2020-21). The results of decomposition analysis showed that per hectare returns of beneficiary farmers was 17.01 per cent higher than that of non-beneficiary farmers. The NFSM-Pulses technology component was contributing 11.49 per cent to the total increase in output. The total contribution of changes in the levels of input use to the outcome differences between the two groups was 5.51 per cent. The binary logistic regression showed that farmers participation in NFSM-Pulses programme was influenced positively by number of exposure visits, adoption of certified seed, adoption of IPM practices, number of trainings received, use of bio-fertilizers and mechanization of farm. The problems faced by NFSM-Pulses beneficiary farmers were long time gap between purchase of inputs and receiving the subsidy amount, non-availability of comprehensive information on NFSM-Pulses, technical advice is not provided under the programme, etc. The government should ensure the close monitoring of flow of funds in order to ensure that the interventions reach the target beneficiaries on time. Government should be taken appropriate measures for increasing the area, production and productivity under pulses by providing incentives to farmers. The time gap between inputs purchased and the subsidy received by the NFSM-Pulses beneficiaries should be minimized. The awareness about the NFSM-Pulses programme needs to be increased through holding gram sabha and group meetings. More number of training programmes and exposure visits should be conducted to the beneficiary farmers to increase their knowledge base on improved technologies. This could have a synergistic effect on the efforts of NFSM-Pulses programme. KVK, DAATTC and ARS of Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University should play a major role to ensure the adoption of interventions under NFSM-Pulses programme by the beneficiary farmers in Prakasam district. Exposure visits/ trainings at national and international organizations like IIPR, ICRISAT could be organized in-order to enrich the knowledge base of technical personnel involved in the NFSM-Pulses programme which intern may be useful to the NFSM –Pulse beneficiary farmers in better adoption of interventions. ThesisItem Open AccessA STUDY ON INCOME INEQUALITIES AMONG AGRICULTURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN ANDHRA PRADESH STATE(guntur, 2022-08-04) AREEF, MULLA; RADHA DEPARTMENT, Y.For this study, primary data on agricultural households were collected through personal interview method for the agricultural year 2018-19 from Andhra Pradesh state to analyse the agricultural household’s annual income from different sources, determinants of different income sources, construction & decomposition of the income inequality and the consumption expenditure pattern across landholding size of farmer households. Totally 300 agricultural households were selected with 100 farmers each from three selected districts (viz., Srikakulam, Guntur and Ananthapuramu) based on highest number of operational holding. One hundred farmers in each district were further distributed among top two mandals with highest operational holding by adopting the proportionate stratified random sampling method. To meet the objectives of present study, fifty farmers in each mandal were conveniently distributed among five categories of landholdings with ten farmers in each category. The descriptive statistics and various cost concepts (Cost A, B, C) were used to calculate the agricultural household’s income from different sources viz., cultivation, agricultural wages, livestock, business/ services, off-farm and other sources and analysed total annual net income of different landholding categories of farmers in the study area. Ogive Index (OI), Simpson Index (SI) and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) were employed to capture the number of income generating activities. Seemingly Unrelated Regression Estimator (SURE) model was used to identify factors which help in distribution of income among various sources. Lorenz curve, Gini ratio, Atkinson’s coefficient, Mean Log Deviation (MLD) and Theil’s index were employed to measure the income inequality for agricultural households across landholding categories. Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985) methodology was followed to decompose the Gini coefficient of total income by income sources and XIII regression based inequality decomposition (Shorrocks, 1982) approach was employed to identify each factor contribution to income inequality. Average propensity to consumption (APC) was formulated to know the proportion of income consumed by agricultural households and Engel ratio was estimated to know the difference in expenditure on each of food and non-food items separately by the agricultural households. Lorenz curve, Gini ratio, Atkinson’s coefficient, MLD and Theil’s index were employed to measure the consumption expenditure inequality for agricultural households across landholding categories. For marginal and small farmer households, income from livestock and agricultural wages combinedly contributed to nearly 50 per cent of total income. Semi-medium, medium and large farmer households received nearly 50 per cent of income from cultivation only. Access to credit, access to extension services, access to irrigation, access to price information, age of household head, education, farming experience, non-farm income earning members, number of animals, family size of household, size of landholding, size of operational holding and value of farm assets were the major determinants to access various income sources among agricultural households. Across the landholding size wise categories, except large farmers higher unequal distribution of income was reported by other sources. Gini, Atkinson, MLD and Theil indices vary across the landholding size categories. Among different sources, the highest proportion of income inequality share was contributed by cultivation across the landholding size categories except marginal farmer households. Similarly, among the factors analysed, the highest proportion of income inequality share was contributed by access to credit followed by access to irrigation, age of household head, etc. Medium farmer households were observed with highest consumption expenditure share on high value commodities followed by large, small, marginal farmers and semi-medium farmer households. Marginal farmer households were recorded with lower monthly income and showed higher average propensity to consumption expenditure. However large farmers were with higher monthly income but lower average propensity to consumption expenditure. Diversification of income earning activities towards cultivation and animal husbandry will be useful to marginal and small farmer households to maintain minimum level of income per month. There is a need to emphasize on intensification as well as diversification of fragmented landholdings especially for marginal and small farmer households. Village level remunerative price realization (viz., FHP, MSP, etc.) may act as a push factor to enhance farmers income. Income received from non-farm activities, if reinvested in business activities through purchase of raw materials will improve the farmer’s income from non-farm activities. Government should focus on improving public provisioning of quality medical services and education, so as to reduce the share of expenditure on non-food items and enhance the consumption expenditure on high value commodities, among the food items. ThesisItem Open AccessAN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CROP INSURANCE IN RISK MITIGATION OF FARMERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH(guntur, 2022-08-04) SHWETHA, SOJU; RADHA, Y.The study was conducted to include crop insurance data collected from the selected sample and the state of Andhra Pradesh as a whole. The selected sample consists of 30 farmers each from Peddapasapula village of Peddamudium mandal of Kadapa district, Naganathana Halli village of Adoni mandal of Kurnool district, Upputur village in Parchur mandal of Prakasam, Jaganathapuram village in Tadepalligudem mandal of West Godavari district, Tajangi village of Lambasinghi mandal of Visakhapatanam and Ammanoru village in Regidi Amadala Valasa mandal of Srikaklam, hence there are 180 farmers sampled from 6 villages. The primary data collected from the farmers was pertained to the period of 2017-18. The study consists of analysis of the performance of crop insurance in Andhra Pradesh involving data of area covered, farmers covered, farmers benefitted and insurance premium for the years 1985-86 to 2016-17. The sources of secondary data include Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy, Statistical Abstracts, Season and Crop Reports published by Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Andhra Pradesh and NSSO Reports, Books, Journals, Periodicals, Websites etc. The collected raw data were classified and computed according to the objective requirements of the study. The study was conducted primarily to determine the risk associated with crop production at farm level in Andhra Pradesh, the impact of crop insurance on the farm economy. The growth and performance of the Crop Insurance schemes through the years of 1985-86 to 2016-17 was studied and the constraints in adoption and implementation of crop insurance in the sampled villages and districts were analysed. The crops raised in the sampled villages and districts were found to varying in a scale in moderate to highly by the Cudde Della Valle Instability Index. The crops that were raised rainfed showed maximum instability while the irrigated crops of West Godavari district exhibited moderate instability. xii The statistics of numbers of farmers and area covered under Crop insurance, the sum insured and premium collected were found to show steady growth from 1985-86 to 2016-17; while the claims approved and farmers benefitted from the crop insurance scheme showed frequent peaks and lows as it depends on the incidence of crop losses and extent of adoption of crop insurance scheme. The various indicators of performance of crop insurance, such as beneficiary ratio, claims to sum insured ratio and premiums to sum insured, also showed favourable results regarding the effectiveness in operation and growth of the crop insurance schemes. While the premium to sum insured shows dismal inference on the non sustainability of the operating crop insurance. All farming systems that had adopted crop insurance gave an optimum solution for crop production, while the cropping systems of non adopter farmers were not feasible, implying a stark contrast between the insured and uninsured. Thus crop insurance impact cropping systems of farmers in achieving optimum production according to the MOTAD model. The factors affecting the adoption of crop insurance were mostly the age of the farmer, the access to non institutional credit, size of the land holding, etc. Separate regressions were carried out for each zone to see how the various factors affected the adoption of crop insurance in these zones of differing cropping systems. In the districts of Kadapa, Kurnool, Prakasam and Visakhapatanam, the status of irrigation of the crops also favoured adoption of crop insurance. In the district of Visakhapatanam, the presence of an off farm source of income also enabled the adoption of crop insurance by the farmers. The rate of premium collected from the farmers was found to have no significant effect in the adoption or lack of it by the farmers. The major constraints in adoption of crop insurance by the farmer were: the lack of definite demarcation of notified area, resulting in overlapping areas of coverage and the inability to disburse the indemnity on time before the next cropping season. The major constraint in implementation of crop insurance by the Lead banks and the Mandal Agriculture office was the inadequacy in filing details regarding the farmers, which in turn affects timely disbursement of indemnity to the farmers and the unclear demarcation of the notified units of land area in the districts. ThesisItem Open AccessSTUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY SECTOR IN ANDHRA PRADESH(guntur, 2022-08-04) VYKHANESWARI, K.; SUNIL KUMAR BABU, G.India surpassed the major milk producing countries and continued as the largest milk producing nation with milk production 187.7 MT in 2018-19 by contributing about 22% of the world‟s milk production. The dairy sector contributes significantly to generating employment opportunities and supplementing the income of small and marginal farmers and landless labourers of rural India, besides providing food security. Cooperative and private dairy industries play a major role in the procurement, processing, and marketing of milk and milk products. As dairying is gaining more importance in providing livelihood to a large number of farmers and various disputes are being faced in the existing situation of the dairy sector. Hence, the present study entitled “Study on performance of the dairy sector in Andhra Pradesh” was taken up with the following objectives 1. to study the growth and performance of dairy sector in Andhra Pradesh 2. to study the structural changes in dairy sector of Andhra Pradesh 3. to identify and analyse the factors influencing the performance of cooperative vis-à-vis private dairy industries of Andhra Pradesh and 4. to identify the problems faced by the different stake holders in dairy sector of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage sampling technique was used for the study and Andhra Pradesh state was purposively selected. Three districts based on the highest milk production were selected viz., Krishna, Guntur, and Kurnool. Three cooperative and three private dairy industries were selected, two from each district includes one cooperative and one private dairy industry. A total of 180 xi farmers were selected, 30 from each dairy industry i.e., 60 from each district. A number of 30 wholesalers, 30 retailers and 30 consumers were selected as five from each dairy industry. The primary data was collected through interview schedule in the agricultural year of 2018-19 and secondary data from various sources like the department of animal husbandry, websites, chief planning office of the district, reports, etc. The overall compound growth rate of the livestock population was observed to be 0.99%, a positive and significant. It was observed that a positive and significant growth rate was recorded for the buffalo population from 1956 to 2019 with a growth rate of 0.57%. The cattle population was recorded with a negative growth rate of -0.44% from 1956 to 2019. Milk production in Andhra Pradesh has been increased from 4036 to 15044 „000 metric tonnes during the period of 2000-01 to 2018-19. The compound annual growth rate of milk production was observed to be positive and significant from 2000-01 to 2018-19 with 7.6%. The compound growth rate of milk yield (kg/day) was noticed to be 3.2% which was positive and significant from 2000-01 to 2018-19. The overall compound annual growth rate of milk production density (kg/day/sq.km) showed a positive and significant growth rate of 7.5% for the entire period. The overall compound annual growth rate of dairy cooperative societies from 2000-01 to 2018-19 was observed to be a positive and significant growth rate of 0.33%. The compound annual growth rate of veterinary institutions was observed to be a positive and significant rate of 0.49%. The highest annual growth rate was recorded with 27.21 % in the year2010-11 and the lowest with -22.79% in the year 2014-15. The overall compound annual growth rate of AI centres was recorded to be positive and significant with 5.28%. The number of AIs done showed a positive and significant growth rate of 4.00% for the overall period of 2000-01 to 2018-19. The area under fodder development („000 acres) has increased from 285.63 (2000-01) to 538.63 (2018-19). The overall compound annual growth rate of the area was recorded at 3.59%. Chow test was employed to study the structural change in the dairy sector of Andhra Pradesh. The outcome of the Chow test shows that F calculated value is greater than F table value at 5% level of significance which concluded that there exists a structural change in the two sub-periods. Differential slope coefficients of bovine population (X1) and average procurement price per litre (X4) variables were found to be positive and negative significant, with coefficient values of 3.64 and -0.28, respectively. The statistically significant differential slope coefficients indicate that the two sub-periods have a different slope. It can be noticed that differential intercept was significant at 1% level of significance with the value of -12.38 indicates the existence of the structural change between the two sub-periods. xii KMO and Bartlett‟s test was used to indicate the suitability of the data for structure detection. Initial eigen values display the amount of variance that can be explained by a given principal component. The number of extracted four components contributed to 60.465 per cent of the total variance. The overall analysis showed the performance of different dairy industries branched under four components with related aspects of their performance. The extensive constraint faced by the cooperative dairy was high competition among other dairy industries Maintenance costs of the entire dairy industry was the dominant constraint faced by the private dairy industries. Less remunerative price was the major constraint as the farmers were not getting the reasonable price for their produce sold to the cooperative dairy industries. The predominant constraint faced by the private dairy farmers was the inadequate availability of feed and fodder. Maintenance cost was the major impediment faced by the wholesalers and retailers. The major constraint faced by the consumers was product availability i.e., required products were not available at all the time. The focal point of the study was productivity per animal has to be increased. Initiative should be taken to provide uniform price based on fat content by the both cooperative and private dairy industries. To reduce the cost of feed & fodder and increase its availability, time for the dairy farmers to rely on hydroponics system of fodder cultivation and farmers should concentrate more on growing wide varieties of fodder. ThesisItem Open AccessIMPACT OF COVID-19 ON SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF VEGETABLES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH(guntur, 2022-08-04) VYSHNAVI, VUDUMULA; SITARAMBABU, V.Horticulture in India contributes about 30 per cent to Agricultural GDP. Total horticulture production in 2019-20 is 0.84 per cent higher than 2018-19. In Andhra Pradesh area under horticulture crops is 17.48 lakh hectares with a production of 312.34.73 lakh metric tonnes. In Guntur district total area under vegetable crops in 2019-2020 is 8739 hectares and production is 281240 million tonnes. The Covid-19 pandemic has emerged as a significant health risk, and countries around the world have responded with partial shutdowns of their economies to slow the pace of infections. These measures have reportedly led to massive disruptions in the global and domestic supply chains. Among all countries, India implemented one of the most stringent lockdowns to contain Covid-19 which could have put a strain on its supply chains. The first nationwide lockdown which was announced on March 24, 2020, was unanticipated, both in terms of timing and duration. Though the lockdown helped to keep the infections under control, it has disrupted the value chains of the high-value crops that are connected to regional and global markets. This disruption in the value chain could have serious ripple effects on the agricultural economy. It curtailed all economic activities, including transportation of goods, except those deemed essential like food and medical supplies. The reduction in freight services combined with the restrictions on inter-state transportation could have disrupted the food supply chains, with a larger impact on products that are procured from far. Wholesale prices of key seasonal vegetables have declined sharply by up to 60 per cent across the country, mainly due to higher production, compression of demand and market disruption amid COVID-19crisis. Keeping in view of disruptions caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the present study on Impact of covid 19 on supply chain management of vegetables in guntur district of Andhra Pradesh is proposed with the following objectives. xiii 1. to map the value chain mapping and analyse the degree of value addition by market players in transacting selected vegetables during pre-COVID-19 vs post COVID-19 scenario 2. to analyse the determinants of supply chain preference among selected farmers in transacting the vegetables 3. to identify the disruptions caused in supply chain of selected vegetables to different stakeholders due to COVID-19 4. to analyse the economic effect due to the disruptions in supply chain of vegetables to different stakeholders and 5. to identify various mitigating strategies adopted by different stakeholders in supply chain management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Guntur district was purposively selected for the research study. A total 360 farmers were selected at the rate120 farmers for each vegetable crop. Twenty wholesalers and 30 retailers were selected for the study. Primary data was collected through personal interview method from vegetable farmers. The secondary data of the study area were collected from the District Chief Planning Officer, Mandal Horticulture Officers, Village Horticulture Assistants and Village Agriculture Assistants. Three marketing channels were identified for bhendi, cucumber and ridge gourd they were channel I: Farmer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer, Channel II: Farmer-Retailer-Consumer and Channel III: Farmer- Consumer (Rythu bazar). Channel-III was found to be the efficient channel during both pre and post covid period. Marketing costs increased during lockdown for all stakeholders in all the three channels for three vegetables. Marketing margin was increased for retailers during lockdown in Channel I and Channel II. Price spread was increased during lockdown in all the three channels. Marketing efficiency decreased during lockdown in all the three channels. Degree of value addition increased for retailers during lockdown. COVID-19 lockdown had caused negative impact on all stakeholders, farmers had more impact and although margin had increased for retailers, they had negative impact because of lower volume transactions. The multinomial logit regression analysis was used to estimate the determinants of supply chain preference. The level of education, price offered, quantity of vegetables sold, family size and farming experience were significant in retail channel in bhendi and ridge gourd whereas level of education, price offered, quantity of vegetables sold were found to be significant in rythu bazar channel. In cucumber level of education, price offered, quantity of vegetables sold and family size were significant in retail channel while the level of education, price offered, quantity of vegetables sold were found to be significant in rythu bazar channel. xiv The major marketing disruptions faced by farmers during COVID-19 lockdown were high cost of transportation, perishable nature of the product, price fluctuations, less demand, lack of market information, non-availability of packaging materials and middlemen malpractices. The economic disruptions faced by the farmer were high cost of inputs, unawareness of credit facilities, no financial assistance and Lack of price policy. The technical disruptions faced by the farmer were non-availability of labour, lack of storage, lack of timely availability of inputs and lack of adequate extension support. The major disruptions faced by wholesaler were transportation cost, high cost of labour, and non-availability of labour. The major disruptions faced by the retailers were transportation cost, high labour cost and non-availability of labour. Majority of farmers experienced decline in sales and income during the pandemic. Over 32.5 per cent farmers lost half of their sales. The farm income decreased more than half for 61 per cent farmers. Almost 80 per cent of farmers realised decline in prices. 88 per cent farmers said that they spent more on transporting vegetables to the market, 69.5 per cent farmers faced labour scarcity, 11 per cent farmers faced more shortage of inputs, 61 per cent farmers said that the cost of inputs was increased, 69 per cent farmers harvested their produce later than normal, 75 per cent farmers spent more on harvest and 69 per cent farmers borrowed money to cope up with losses. About 50 per cent of wholesalers reported that their income had decreased during the COVID-19. Forty-five per cent reported that the price of the commodity decreased by more than half. Seventy-five per cent of wholesalers experienced labour scarcity, 85 per cent observed decreased demand of commodity and 25 per cent saw decreased supply. Similarly, 66.67 per cent of retailers reported that their income was decreased by less than half compared to pre covid times. About 20 per cent reported that the price of commodity decreased by less than half, 13.33 per cent reported that the price commodity decreased by more than half and 66.66 per cent reported that the price of the commodity increased. Majority of the retailers experienced labour scarcity, 20 per cent reported decreased demand of commodity and 36 per cent observed decreased supply. Most common strategy adapted by farmers was reduced price (60 per cent) followed by leave vegetables in the field (54 per cent), finding new markets (50 per cent), Compost vegetable (36 per cent), Feed to livestock (25 per cent), Plant less (20 per cent), Eat own produce (20 per cent), Sharing vegetables with others (15 per cent), Adapt crop choice (4 per cent). The major strategy adapted by wholesalers was less prices (80 per cent), followed by buying less (70 per cent) and storing more (20 per cent). The major strategy adapted by retailers was buying less (45 per cent) followed by storing more (30 per cent) and less prices (5 per cent). ThesisItem Open AccessECONOMIC VIABILITY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY IN NORTH COASTAL ZONE OF ANDHRA PRADESH STATE(guntur, 2022-08-04) MOHANA RAO, METTA; RAMA RAO, I. V. Y.India is the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. The sugar industry is second largest agro-based processing industry in the country that impact livelihood of about five crore farmers and their family members and five lakh workers directly employed with the sugar mills. Sugarcane cultivated farmers from North Coastal Districts are linked with sugarcane industries, operating under organized cooperative and private sectors nearer to rural areas. The present study entitled “ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY IN NORTH COASTAL ZONE OF ANDHRA PRADESH STATE” has been undertaken with the following objectives: 1. to analyze the economic and financial viability of sugar factories. 2. to identify the methods of backward integration adopted by sugar factories. 3. to identify the problems and suggest measures to enhance the financial performance of sugar factories. Probability proportionate sampling procedure was adopted for selection of respondents in the present study. In Andhra Pradesh, North Coastal Zone was selected based on highest area under sugarcane cultivation. In North Coastal Zone all three districts were selected. Based on the highest turnover, one factory from each district was selected Viz., Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Limited, Govada, The NCS Sugars Limited, Latchayyapeta and EID Parry (India) Limited, Sankili for Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam respectively. Thirty farmers from each factory were selected, making total of 90 respondents, in which marginal ( 2ha) were selected according to their proportions. The present study was based on xii both primary as well as secondary data. The primary data was pertaining to problems faced by farmers in sugarcane cultivation and marketing; and the problems faced by sugar factories was obtained through survey method by using a pre-tested and well-structured schedule. The secondary data pertaining to financial aspects, balance sheet, cash flow statement and profit or loss statements were collected from respective sugar factories audit reports for a period of 5 years from 2014-15 to 2018-19. Financial ratio analysis was employed for sugar factories to know about the financial strength of organization over the study period. The average current ratio was found highest (9.24:1) in EID Parry (India) Ltd., Sankili. Average debt equity ratio was positive in EID Parry (India) Ltd. (0.13) and negative in The NCS Sugars Ltd. (-5.27) and The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Ltd. (-8.31). Tests of profitability ratios revealed that the average net profit to total assets ratio and net profit to fixed assets ratio both were negative in The NCS Sugars Ltd. and The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Ltd. and positive in EID Parry (India) Ltd. i.e., 0.04 and 0.08 respectively. The average gross ratio was more than 100 in Chodavaram Cooperative sugars (153.59) and NCS sugars (132.67) indicating lower net profit and it was below 100 in EID Parry (India) Ltd. (28.11) indicating higher profits. The average operating ratio was lowest i.e., 19.02 in EID Parry (India) Limited. Tests of financial strength ratios revealed the highest average net worth in EID Parry (India) Ltd. and in remaining two factories it was negative. The average net capital was less than unity in The NCS Sugars Ltd. (0.82) and The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Ltd. (0.87) and it was more than unity in EID Parry (India) Ltd. (15.39). The project evaluation techniques viz., Net Present Value, Benefit-Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Returns were employed to assess the economic viability of investment on sugar factory. Negative NPV and BC ratio below unity indicated that both the factories viz., The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Limited and The NCS Sugars Limited were economically not viable. Positive NPV and BC ratio of more than unity for EID Parry (India) Limited (3.488) indicated its economic viability. Internal Rate of Returns was 52.08, which was greater than the market rate of interest, so the project is considered as profitable and economically viable. Backward integration methods followed by sugar factories in NCZ of Andhra Pradesh is varying. The cane was purchased directly from contract farmers and payment was made through online by The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Limited and The NCS Sugars Limited, whereas, the cane was purchased directly from the contract farmers (66.67%) and through middlemen from non- contract farmers (33.33%) by EID Parry (India) Limited. The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars, NCS Sugars Ltd. and EID Parry (India) Ltd. were provided seed upto, 66.67, 50 & 66.67; fertilizer/pesticides upto, 80, 0 & 43.33; technical guidance upto, 100, 50 & 60; transportation upto, 66.67, 50 & 100 percentages respectively. ID Parry (India) Ltd. provided credit facilities upto 40 per cent & mechanical harvesters upto 33.33 per cent farmers and remaining two factories did not provide any mechanical harvesters & credit facilities. The farmer’s xiii satisfaction was highest in EID Parry (India) Limited followed by The Chodavaram Cooperative Sugars Limited (33.33%). and The NCS Sugars Limited (0%). For the identification of most important problem faced by cane growers and factories, RPI was employed. The most important constraint in sugarcane cultivation in the North Coastal Zone was shortage of labour (RPI = 0.89) followed by cane price (0.62), delay in payments (0.51), pest and diseases (0.32), high cost of cultivation (0.30), long duration of crop (0.26) and irrigation (0.12).The sugar factories in North Coastal Zone faced high cost of production (0.93) as biggest constraint, followed by scarcity of labour (0.87), problems of faulty government policy (0.33), low rate of recovery (0.33), lower yields of sugarcane (0.27), import/export policy (0.20) and levy sugar obligation (0.07). The policy suggestions emerged from the study are; as there is poor liquid assets with the sugar factories, especially with cooperative factories, government should provide short term financial assistance. Similarily sugar factories should produce up-to their maximum installed capacity, if any shortage of cane is occurring in this process, the cooperative sugar factory should purchase cane from non-contract farmers also. The sugar factories should be regular in payments to cane growers. To overcome the shortage of labour during critical operation of sugarcane cultivation Government/ Sugar factories/ CHCs should provide farm machinery on subsidy basis.