ThesisItem Open AccessVARIETAL PERFORMANCE OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SCHEDULES UNDER HAT ZONE CONDITIONS OF A.P.(Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2023-11-15) P. VENKATA SWAMI RAMUNAIDU; D. SEKHARA field experiment entitled “VARIETAL PERFORMANCE OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SCHEDULES UNDER HAT ZONE CONDITIONS OF A.P.” was carried out on sandy clay soils of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Chintapalle of Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur during rabi, 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three irrigation schedules as main plots and four varieties as sub plots with a total of twelve treatments and replicated thrice. Three irrigation schedules i.e., irrigation at CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages (M1), irrigation at CRI, flowering and milking stages (M2) and irrigation at CRI and milking stages (M3) were imposed in main plots and four varieties i.e., DBW-252(V1), HI-1544 (V2), HI-8759 (V3) and HI-8713 (V4) as subplots. Wheat crop was sown on thoroughly prepared experimental plot. The crop was supplied with recommended fertilizer dose of 120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha-1. At basal 60 kg of N and entire dose of P2O5 and K2O were applied. Remaining 60 kg of N was applied in two splits at 25 DAS and 45 DAS. Application of irrigation was done to the respective treatments as specified. Field operations such as weeding and plant protection measures were taken as per recommendations of ANGRAU. The data on plant height (cm), number of tillers m-2, drymatter production (kg ha-1), CGR (g m-2 day-1), days to 50 % flowering, spike length (cm), spike weight (g), number of productive tillers m-2, number of grains spike-1, number of filled grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight (g), grain, straw xv and biological yield (kg ha-1), harvest index (%), consumptive use (mm), soil moisture use rate (mm day-1), moisture use efficiency (kg ha-mm-1) and economics were recorded as per standard procedures. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the significance was tested by Fisher's least significance difference. Plant height, number of tillers m-2, drymatter production (kg ha-1) and CGR (g m-2 day-1) values were found superior with five irrigations scheduled at CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages and among the varieties HI-8759 recorded the higher growth parameters which were on a par with HI-8713. Number of days taken to 50 per cent flowering was found early with application of irrigations scheduled at CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages. There was no significant difference among the varieties for number of days taken to 50 per cent flowering. Spike length and spike weight were found significantly higher with five irrigations scheduled at CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages and among the varieties DBW-252 recorded the maximum spike length and spike weight was highest with the variety DBW-252 and was at par with HI-8759. Number of productive tillers m-2, number of grains spike-1, number of filled grains spike-1 and 1000 grain weight were significantly highest in five irrigation schedules and lowest were recorded with two irrigation schedules and it remained on a par to three irrigation schedules in terms of number of grains spike-1 and number of filled grains spike-1. However, among the varieties significantly highest number of productive tillers and test weight were recorded with the variety HI-8759 and the lowest were recorded with DBW-252. Although DBW-252 recorded significantly highest number of grains and filled grains spike-1 and remained on a par with HI-8759 in terms of grains spike-1. Higher grain, straw and biological yields were recorded under five irrigation schedules. Despite of lower grain yield observed with two irrigations but straw yield remained statistically on a par with three irrigations. Biological yield was recorded significantly highest with five irrigation schedules and lowest with two irrigation schedules. The harvest index (%) was significantly highest with five irrigations and lowest with two irrigations. However, among the varieties HI-8759 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield. Straw & biological yields remained at par with HI-8713. Harvest index of HI-8759 was significantly superior over all the varieties. Lowest grain, straw and biological yields were recorded with HI-1544. Consumptive use of water and soil moisture use rate were higher with five irrigation schedules followed by three and two irrigation schedules which were on par to each other. Among the varieties HI-8759 recorded significantly the higher consumptive use and on a par with HI-8713. xvi Scheduling two irrigations resulted in higher water use efficiency which was on par with three irrigation schedules. Among the varieties HI-8759 resulted in higher water use efficiency. Among different irrigation schedules, five irrigations scheduled at CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages recorded higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio over rest of the treatments. While, among the varieties HI-8759 recorded the higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio over rest of the varieties. The overall results of the experiment revealed that irrigation at five critical phenological stages viz., CRI, maximum tillering, jointing, flowering and milking stages for wheat resulted higher productivity in the High Altitude and Tribal Area zone of Andhra Pradesh. Wheat cultivar HI-8759 performed better in terms of economics and proved to be beneficial for the farmers of High Altitude and Tribal Area zone of Andhra Pradesh. ThesisItem Open AccessMARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION FOR MINOR FOREST PRODUCE IN HIGH ALTITUDE AND TRIBAL AREA ZONE OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-14) SATISH KUMAR, CHITTAPULI; RAVI KUMAR, K. N.In High Altitude and Tribal (HAT) zone of Andhra Pradesh, Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is an important livelihood source for several communities, particularly those living in forest fringe villages. However, it is disheartening to note that until the last decade and half, the transactions of MFP in tribal areas has been very poor due to lack of necessary infrastructure and technology, especially Marketing Information System (MIS). So, by strengthening MIS, marketing of MFP becomes more transparent so that stakeholders can make informed choices about collection and sale decisions. Hence, the present research study on Marketing Information System and its application for Minor Forest Produce in High Altitude and Tribal Area Zone of Andhra Pradesh was considered for in depth investigation with a view to explore the existing MIS in HAT zone, pattern, dissemination and utilization of MIS by different stakeholders, growth trends in market arrivals and prices of selected MFP, determinants for strengthening MIS, market arrivals and prices of MFP, impact evaluation of MIS on prices realized for MFP, and need-based policy suggestions for effective implementation of MIS among stakeholders in HAT zone. MFP like hill broom (Thysanolaena maxima), honey, markingnut (Semecarpus anacardium), myrobalan (Terminalia chebula), naramamidi bark (Litsea deccanensis) and seeded tamarind (Tamarindus indica) were purposively selected for this study, as they together accounted for nearly 85 per cent share of total value of MFP procured by Girijan Primary Co-operative Marketing Societies (GPCMS) in the HAT zone of Andhra Pradesh (average of 2011-2018). A sample of 240 farmers from 20 shandies; 120 farmers from 10 xviii GPCMS, 120 traders and all the Managers working in GPCMSs and five Divisional Managers of Girijan Cooperative Corporation (GCC) are randomly selected to elicit requisite information. The major findings of the study revealed that 57 per cent of selected tribal farmers are women involved in collection and transacting MFP in HAT zone and remaining 43 per cent are men. Major source of market information to farmers and traders at village level and market level are SMS messages and display boards in Primary Procurement Centers (PPCs)/GPCMS respectively. Unlike farmers, traders are highly aware about prices, quality and grades of MFP. Compared to market arrivals, prices of selected MFP showed significant positive growth rates in GPCMS/PPCs. It was found interesting that the major influential factors for strengthening of infrastructure (MIS) in GPCMS/PPCs are arrivals and funds received from GCC for MFP in GPCMS/PPCs. Similarly, prices, timely market information and prompt payment of sales proceeds had shown significant influence on market arrivals of MFP in GPCMS/PPCs. Access to market information and availability of storage and investment on MIS in GPCMS/PPCs are the major influential factors for realizing higher prices to MFP. Propensity score matching technique revealed that MIS contributed to higher prices realized by the treated farmers compared to untreated counterpart for all the selected MFP. Mobile network issue is the top most prioritized constraint expressed by the tribal farmers in HAT zone. Formation of farmers cooperatives/FPOs, strengthening of wireless telecommunication infrastructure, improving road connectivity, strong coordination among Government departments like Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), GCC, Banks, Andhra Pradesh Forest Department etc., should deserve special attention to promote efficient transactions of MFP in HAT zone. ThesisItem Open AccessIMPACT ANALYSIS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON PADDY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-13) ANTHONY, REMALLI; SUSEELA, K.The sudden imposition of the lockdown, with very little grounding or scheduling, has impacted agriculture and the food systems in many different ways. Rice is an important food crop and it has greater economic importance among the food crops, rice was majorly affected by the restrictions during COVID-19 since the harvesting period coincided with the restrictions on the movement of people and machinery. Andhra Pradesh is the major rice-producing state in India, especially West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh with highest area of 1.7 million hectares, with a production of 2.65 million tonnes production and with 6723 kg ha-1 productivity (Agricultural Statistics at a glance, 2019-2020) too got affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The problems Viz., lack of accessibility to market, timely and non-availability of inputs, high wage rate and scarcity of labour due to social distancing measures, high transporting costs and restrictions on transport, high input cost and non-availability of the required information on price in other markets were also experienced by the rice farmers of West Godavari district. Keeping in view of the above problems the research study was designed “Impact analysis of covid-19 pandemic on paddy production and marketing in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh” with the following objectives examined the factors determining paddy production and marketing during COVID-19 regime. 1. to study the socio-economic conditions of the paddy farmers. 2. to analyse the factors determining production and marketing of paddy during COVID-19 Regime. 3. to analyse the challenges faced by the farmers both in paddy production and marketing during COVID-19 regime. 4. to suggest the coping strategies to be followed by the farmers during COVID-19 regime. Multistage sampling design was used for selection of sample at different levels of district, mandal and village for the present study. West Godavari district that positions highest paddy production in Andhra Pradesh was selected. Three mandals were selected based on the highest area under paddy cultivation from West Godavari district were Tadepalligudem, Ungutur, Pentapadu. Two villages with xi maximum area of paddy and production were selected from each mandal, thus making a total of six villages selected for the present study. Twenty farmers from each of the selected villages were randomly selected, thus comprising a total of 120 farmers from six villages for collecting necessary information related to the objectives of the present research study. The data pertains to the year 2019-20. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed through tabular analysis using descriptive statistics, ordinal logistic regression and Garrett’s ranking technique were followed. Socio-economic conditions of the paddy farmers were analysed by using descriptive statistics and results revealed that the majority of the respondents were belonged to age 31-50 years category. About 22.50 percent of the respondents were illiterate, majority of the respondents were belonged to primary school and high school i.e., 57.50 per cent, 20 per cent were in high school category. Majority of the respondents i.e., 71.67 per cent were had the experience between 11-30 years, it was observed that 85 per cent of the respondents belongs to the nuclear family. Half of the respondents were belonged to small size (1-4) family i.e., 50.83 per cent followed by 34.17 per cent belonged to medium size (5-7). Average annual income of the farmer respondents per year from the paddy crop was about 40.93 per cent of the total household annual income. From agricultural labour it was about 38.98 per cent. The average annual income of the farmer respondents from other occupations was about 20.10 per cent of the total household annual income. Large portion of the respondents were belonged to marginal (<1 ha) and small (1 ha – 2 ha) category i.e., 20.83 percent and 38.33 percent respectively. About 20.83 per cent of respondents were tenants. Among the respondents, 65.00 per cent were agricultural labour and 17.50 per cent of the respondents were involved in dairy activities as secondary occupation. About 57.50 per cent of the sample farmers had access to institutional credit and 50.83 per cent of the farmers had access to non-institutional credit. Significant source of water structure of rice crop was observed to be canals 88.11 per cent followed by bore wells 11.71 per cent. The factors determining production of paddy during COVID-19 regime was analysed using ordinal logistic regression and results revealed that the availability of machinery to the farmers had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remains constant, a unit increase in availability of machinery the probability of being in the low yield loss category was increased by about 26.06 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was decreased by about 7.87 per cent and 18.17 per cent respectively. The shortage of the inputs to the farmers had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in shortage of inputs the probability of being in low yield loss category was reduced by 11.58 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss level was increased by 3.75 per cent and 7.82 per cent respectively. The increase in wage rate of labour had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in wage rate of labour the probability of being in low yield loss category was reduced by 78.41 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by 41.20 per cent and 37.20 per cent xii respectively. The labour scarcity had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in labour scarcity the probability of being in low yield loss level was reduced by 78.21 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by about 19.63 per cent and 58.59 per cent respectively. The increase in cost of inputs had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in cost of inputs the probability of being in low yield loss level was reduced by about 16.30 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high yield loss category was increased by about 7.68 per cent and 8.62 per cent respectively. Marginal effects of education, extension contacts, experience and size of the land holding implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in education, extension contacts, experience and size of the land holding increase the probability of being low yield loss category by about 6.22 per cent, 16.37 per cent, 0.58 per cent and 0.78 per cent respectively. The factors determining marketing of paddy during COVID-19 regime was analysed using ordinal logistic regression and results revealed that the non-availability of storage facility had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in non-availability of storage facility the probability of being in low income loss level decrease by 24.89 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high income loss level increased by about 9.36 per cent and 15.53 per cent respectively. The restrictions on movement of produce had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in restrictions on movement of produce the probability of being in low-income loss level decreased by 82.89 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high-income loss level increased by about 49.36 per cent and 33.53 per cent respectively. The labour scarcity had negative marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in labour scarcity the probability of being in low-income loss level decreased by 37.36 per cent, whereas, the probability of being medium and high-income loss level increased by about 16.01 per cent and 21.35 per cent respectively. The availability of transportation facility had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in availability of transportation facility the probability of being in low-income loss level increased by 17.64 per cent, whereas, the probability of being medium and high-income loss level decreased by about 2.70 per cent and 14.94 per cent respectively. The access to market information had positive marginal effect implies that, other things remain constant, a unit increase in access to market information the probability of being in low-income loss level increased by 30.81 per cent, whereas, the probability of being in medium and high-income loss level decreased by about 15.65 per cent and 46.46 per cent respectively. Challenges faced by farmers both in paddy production and marketing during the COVID-19 regime were analysed by using Garretts ranking technique and results revealed that major were high input cost (rank I) followed by High wage rate of labour (rank II), High Transportation cost (rank III), Delay in crediting the amount by govt. after procurement (rank IV) and Nonavailability of farm labour (rank V). Constraints can be mitigated with the following suggestions xiii i.e., Government should make arrangements to establish custom hiring centers on cluster basis and thus, enable the farmer to mechanize the farm operations, Government should make arrangements to provide adequate inputs to the farmers through Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) at judicious time and prices, periodical trainings should be provided to the farmers on low-cost mechanization techniques developed by various research agencies, labour scarcity issue should be addressed by diverting MGNREGA workers towards farm operations, Government should promote Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in a big way to disseminate correct and reliable market information to the farmer in right time, Government should encourage the construction of scientific warehouse facilities at rural/mandal level and these should be integrated to e-NAM for efficient marketing, Government should promote marketing linkages by establishing paddy FPOs and linking these FPOs with e-NAM there by promoting online marketing of paddy, farmers should enter into contractual arrangements with the millers/processors so as to procure the farm produce at farm gate in view of COVID-19 pandemic, link roads should be strengthened to transport the produce efficiently to the nearby markets. ThesisItem Open AccessANALYSIS OF CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR FOR PURCHASING ORGANIC VEGETABLES IN THRISSUR CORPORATION OF KERALA(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY) SOORYA, C; .PAUL, K. S. RIndia ranks 8th in terms of organic agricultural land and 1st in terms of total number of producers as per 2020 data. Organic Farming is showing a positive growth trend in the country and the organic food market in India is estimated to be growing at a 25-30 per cent, mainly due to lower base. The major factors attracting public and private attention include; increasing prospects of organic agribusiness trade because of increasing demand for safe food and an approach to sustainable development of farming. Similar situation prevails in Kerala also where there appears to be a strong demand for organic food. Rise in income levels, greater health consciousness and environment friendly attitude motivates people to prefer organic produce. As vegetables constitute a major portion of food consumption of people, changes has undergone in the nature, type and quality of vegetables consumed by them. In the context of changing behaviour of consumers towards organic vegetables, study on consumer behaviour and WTP towards organic vegetables is very important. Keeping in view of above facts the present study entitled “Analysis of consumers‟ behaviour for purchasing organic vegetables in Thrissur Corporation of Kerala” has been undertaken with the following objectives 1. to study the consumers‟ behaviour towards organic vegetables 2. to assess the consumers‟ willingness to pay (WTP) and consumer surplus for organic vegetables 3. to identify the factors that contribute to the consumers‟ willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for organic vegetables 4. to prioritize the constraints in purchasing organic vegetables Thrissur Corporation was purposively selected as it is one of the corporations having the highest number of functioning eco shops in Kerala. All the 4 functioning eco shops in the Thrissur Corporation area were selected for the study. A total of 200 consumers, constituting 50 consumers from each eco shops were selected. For calculating consumer Willingness to Pay (WTP) three vegetables, cowpea, bitter xii gourd and ash gourd were selected according to the average annual stock arrivals in the concerned eco shops. Primary data was collected from the consumers through personal interview method and secondary data about the information of distribution of eco shops in the corporations was obtained from the Office of the Principal Agricultural Officer of the concerned districts. Majority of the consumers believed that vegetables distributed through eco shops are organic and strongly agreed with the fact that organic vegetables are healthier. Most of the consumers agreed that organic vegetables are nutritious and taste better than conventional vegetables. Majority of the respondents disagreed that organic vegetables are more perishable and agreed that organic vegetable production is environment friendly. The mean WTP estimated for cowpea, bitter gourd and ash gourd was 70.860 ± 1.301, 68.384 ± 1.326 and 34.370 ± 0.400 respectively. By subtracting the actual price paid by the consumer from the estimated mean WTP, consumer surplus calculated for cowpea, bitter gourd, and ash gourd was ₹20.1, ₹18.5 and ₹9.4 respectively. Health consciousness, taste, trust and eco-friendly nature of organic vegetables were the important factors that determined consumers‟ WTP for concerned organic vegetables. Monthly income and education, even though were significant factors had very less impact on consumer WTP when compared to other variables. The major constraints faced by the consumers were unavailability, poor range of varieties in the available organic vegetables and lack of advertisement on organic vegetables, which ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd, respectively. Distance to the eco shops was another important barrier mentioned by the consumers and occupied the 4th position. The study explored the market potential of organic vegetables by analysing consumer behaviour and estimating their WTP and pointed out the factors affecting the consumers‟ WTP. The study also revealed the difficulties faced by the consumers in purchasing organic vegetables and provided suggestions to improve organic vegetable marketing, which helps in refinement of policy decisions. ThesisItem Open AccessANALYSIS OF NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION (NFSM) - PULSES PROGRAMME IN PRAKASAM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-14) SRI SAI AKHILA PRATHYUSHA, RAVIPATI; SUSEELA, K.Pulses are an important source of dietary protein for developing and under developed countries. Farmers in India are known to cultivate more than a dozen and a half pulse crops for consumption in various seasons across the country. In India, per cent share of pulses to the total food-grain basket in terms of area and production was 19.62 and 16.55 per cent, respectively, during 1950-51. From 1950-51 to 2006-07, the total acreage under pulses had almost been stagnated. As a result of stagnant pulse production and continuous increase in population, the per capita availability of pulses has decreased considerably. Due to this, during XIth Plan (2007-08 Rabi), in pursuance of the resolution adopted in the 53rd meeting of National Development Council, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on National Food Security Mission was launched. In India, pulses are grown in 29.4 million ha area with a production of 23.92 million tonnes and with a productivity of 816 kg ha-1. The current initiative is an effort to bridge the above gap between production and consumption. In Andhra Pradesh, production of pulses is less than one million tonnes (0.96 MT) and the productivity is also less even after implementing NFSM-Pulses programme which needs critical examination. Hence, the present study on “Analysis of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) - Pulses programme in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh” was designed. The present investigation was to study all factors which affect the participation of farmers in NFSM-Pulses programme and also to identify the constraints faced by farmers in implementation of NFSM-Programme, besides analysing the impact of NFSM-Pulses programme on production of pulses. xiii The research study entitled “Analysis of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) - Pulses programme in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh” was taken up with the following objectives. 1. to compare the socio-economic conditions of beneficiary farmers and non-beneficiary farmers of NFSM-Pulses programme. 2. to study the impact of NFSM-Pulses programme on production of pulses. 3. to evaluate the implementation of NFSM-Pulses programme. 4. to analyse the factors influencing farmers participation under NFSM-Pulses programme and 5. to identify the constraints and suggest means for better implementation of NFSM-Pulses programme. Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample at different levels in the present study. Andhra Pradesh was selected purposively. In Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam district was selected purposively for the study. Three mandals were selected and from each mandal, two villages were selected based on the highest area under Pulses. From each village, 10 beneficiary and 10 non-beneficiary farmers were selected, making a total sample of 120 farmers comprising 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiary farmers. The data pertains to the year 2020-21. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed through tabular analysis using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and Garrett’s ranking technique were followed. Descriptive statistics results showed that participation of women farmers (8.33 per cent) is lesser than male farmers (91.67 per cent) in NFSM-Pulses programme. Average family size of the respondent households was 4 members. About, 51.31 per cent of total respondents’ household members were engaged in farming. Most of the respondents belongs to 25-50 years age group. Majority of respondents were found to be small farmers. Majority of the beneficiary respondents were literates with primary level of education. Majority of the non-beneficiary respondents were illiterates. Institutional credit sources were highly preferred by respondents. The main source to obtain credit was PACS. As far as cropping pattern of beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents were concerned, red gram and bengal gram were found to be dominating crops in kharif season, while in rabi season cropping pattern of beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents is dominated by green gram and black gram, respectively. In Prakasam district, pulses production recorded a positively significant growth during 8th (19.18 per cent), 9th (72.95 per cent), 10th (15.21 per cent) and 12th FYP (11.99 per cent). But, during 11th FYP pulses production was negatively significant with -5.85 per cent due to decline in area under pulses crop. xiv The overall progress of physical and financial achievement of NFSM-Pulses programme during the period of 2016-17 to 2020-21 were 68.60 and 62.46 per cent, respectively. The physical achievement progress had increased from 22.48 per cent (2016-17) to 78.15 per cent (2020-21) and financial achievement progress has increased from 26.39 per cent (2016-17) to 88.71 per cent (2020-21). The results of decomposition analysis showed that per hectare returns of beneficiary farmers was 17.01 per cent higher than that of non-beneficiary farmers. The NFSM-Pulses technology component was contributing 11.49 per cent to the total increase in output. The total contribution of changes in the levels of input use to the outcome differences between the two groups was 5.51 per cent. The binary logistic regression showed that farmers participation in NFSM-Pulses programme was influenced positively by number of exposure visits, adoption of certified seed, adoption of IPM practices, number of trainings received, use of bio-fertilizers and mechanization of farm. The problems faced by NFSM-Pulses beneficiary farmers were long time gap between purchase of inputs and receiving the subsidy amount, non-availability of comprehensive information on NFSM-Pulses, technical advice is not provided under the programme, etc. The government should ensure the close monitoring of flow of funds in order to ensure that the interventions reach the target beneficiaries on time. Government should be taken appropriate measures for increasing the area, production and productivity under pulses by providing incentives to farmers. The time gap between inputs purchased and the subsidy received by the NFSM-Pulses beneficiaries should be minimized. The awareness about the NFSM-Pulses programme needs to be increased through holding gram sabha and group meetings. More number of training programmes and exposure visits should be conducted to the beneficiary farmers to increase their knowledge base on improved technologies. This could have a synergistic effect on the efforts of NFSM-Pulses programme. KVK, DAATTC and ARS of Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University should play a major role to ensure the adoption of interventions under NFSM-Pulses programme by the beneficiary farmers in Prakasam district. Exposure visits/ trainings at national and international organizations like IIPR, ICRISAT could be organized in-order to enrich the knowledge base of technical personnel involved in the NFSM-Pulses programme which intern may be useful to the NFSM –Pulse beneficiary farmers in better adoption of interventions. ThesisItem Open AccessIMPACT OF CHITIN ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SYNTHETIC DYED COTTON FABRIC AND DYE EFFLUENT LOAD(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-13) POORNIMA, A.; ANITHA, D.With increasing awareness of environmental pollution and health hazards associated with the use of synthetic textile dyes, use of eco-friendly processes during and after dyeing processes has become imperative. This could be achieved by surface functionalization of fabrics with biopolymers that aids in enhanced dye uptake, improving functional properties and simultaneously remove chemical load from the textile effluent. Among biopolymers, chitin and chitosan are used for various diversified applications especially in dyeing and printing areas. Chitin has diverse applications when converted to chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin. The solubilised form of chitin, the chitosan assists greater amount of dye molecules to transfer on to the textile substrate because of its adsorptive character, thereby reducing dye wastage in the bath. This in turn helps reduces the colour part of the dye effluent. Cotton fabric a natural cellulosic fibre and popularly used by the consumers was selected for the study. Chitosan extracted from shrimp shells that is 75 per cent deacetylated was used for treatment. Reactive, naphthol and vat dyes that are used in local dyeing units and small dyeing industries were selected. Blue colour, the darkest colour among primary colours was selected from the specified dye classes Remazol Brilliant Blue R, ASBO and blue B Base and Indantherene Blue RS Colloisol. Method of chitosan treatment was optimized based on the stiffness and colour strength maintained by the treated sample after five washes. Volume by volume method was selected for the treatment with four concentration levels 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 per cent. Along with pre and post treatment, fabrics were subjected to solar radiation+pretreatment and pretreatment+solar radiation at all four chitosan concentration levels. Chitosan treated samples were dyed in 1 and 2 per cent dye shade in selected dye classes using both exhaust and padding methods. Fabric samples with maximum colour strength, dyed in combination of different treatment and dyeing methods were selected for assessment of comfort and other properties. In exhaust method of dyeing, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% of chitosan was selected for pretreatment and dye using naphthol dyes. Two chitosan concentration levels 1.5 and 2.0 per cent, treated with solar radiation+pretreatment method were selected for reactive dyes. Pre treated and vat dyed sample have exhibited maximum colour strength at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% concentration levels of chitosan. Solar radiation+pretreatment in pad dyeing method yielded maximum colour strength with all the three selected dyes. Chitosan concentration levels of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 per cent with reactive and vat dye and 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 per cent concentration in xvi naphthol dyed fabrics gave higher colour values in dyed fabrics. Higher colour strength values were noted in samples of pad dyeing method over exhaust method. All treated and dyed samples were evaluated for colourfastness properties to all the serviceable conditions namely washing, sunlight, crocking and perspiration. All dyed samples exhibited fair to good fastness in exhaust method and fair to excellent fastness in samples dyed using padding method. Solar radiation + pretreatment with chitosan exhibited better fastness properties than pretreatment with chitosan alone. Among comfort properties and other properties of selected dyed fabrics, reduced wicking property was seen in all dyed fabrics over control. Pad dyed fabrics had less wicking property over exhaust dyed ones. In all fabrics, water repellent rating was same irrespective of chitosan concentration and dyeing method, with initial time delay in absorption. Air permeability decreased as the chitosan concentration has increased in exhaust method while pad dyed fabrics had higher decrease over their counterparts. Thermal conductivity reduced in all with higher chitosan concentration. Electrical conductivity of test fabrics indicated that these treated fabrics can be used for electrostatic discharge textiles and does not have the conductivity properties similar to metals. The protection against UV transmission is not significant but decrease in transmission of UV rays was observed in contrast to untreated sample. Blocking of UVB % was more in all tested samples. Antibacterial activity against E.coli, S.aureus and A. niger was observed in treated and dyed samples. Increase in zoi was observed as the chitosan concentration has increased. Dye effluent for BOD and COD showed that effluent load in dye liquor after chitosan treatment was lower than control dye liquor. Padding method of dyeing was found superior over exhaust method. Cost of treatment was found to be less as the fabric was treated using volume and volume concentration method. Hence it is economically viable to adopt it in small scale dyeing units as treating cotton with little amount of chitosan would produce enhanced properties in the fabric. The above results suggest that chitosan treatment of cotton fabric through volume-by-volume method had yielded a supple fabric with insignificant stiffness, enhanced dye fastness properties and with notable functional properties. Reduced effluent load is an encouraging aspect of the study which was due to biodegradable polymer used in treating the fabric. ThesisItem Open AccessMENTAL HEALTH AND STRESS: STUDY OF TEACHERS AND SOFTWARE PROFESSIONALS WORKING FROM HOME(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-13) SRAVANI, GURUVELLI; BILQUIS, Dr.The work from home concept is one of the various ways of flexible work arrangement apart of part time work system. The COVID-19 pandemic has different every aspect of work and life. In response to the national and local containment policies, companies, organizations and institutions encouraged their employees to work remotely at home to stay safe during the pandemic. Many companies believed that work from home will become more common after the pandemic due to the fact that employers have already paid the fixed cost to set up remote work systems for their employees. The extended stay at home during the pandemic may contribute to general depressed and anxious feelings, physical activities and mental well-being changes in their daily life. The covid-19 pandemic has affected the well-being of the people. Particularly the physical and psychological well-being was found to be affected in all the age-groups. Due to the covid-19 guidelines issued by the government employees remained inside the house and continued to work through online mode. Similarly students were made to attend the classes through online. Comparatively software professionals and teachers affected more due to new modes of working from home. The survey reported that employees are facing more stress and pressure due to this pandemic situation which has badly affected their mental health. The individual who lives alone without face-to-face interactions and social xiii support every day suffered from mental issues and depression. Balancing work-life was difficult for few people as they had to take care of children, share household responsibilities in between their work. In this pandemic female worker suffered more depression because of their increased responsibilities. They had to sacrifice their sleep hours and work at night or early mornings. During covid-19 pandemic all the schools, companies, colleges and organizations were closed and shifted to work from home which has increased stress among employees, which intern effected physical and psychological well-being. The current study attempts to study stress levels, physical and mental health, coping strategies and problems and prospects of teaching and Information technology professionals working from home in Andhra Pradesh. The study was done in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh State. The sample of the study consisted of 120 respondents among which 60 were software professionals and 60 were teachers with an equal number of men and women. The age group of respondents was 25-35 years. By using a developed general information schedule, Questionnaire on problems and prospects of working from home, Stress scale by Surbhi Sharma and Manisha Kumar Sharma (2019), P.G.I Health questionnaire N-1 (PGIHQN-1) by Verma, N.N.Wig and D.Pershad (1985), Coping strategies scale by prof. A.K.Srivastava (2001) the data was collected. Purposive and snowball technique was used select the respondents. Exploratory and retrospective research design was adopted for the study. The teachers (25-35 years) were selected from schools and colleges located in selected mandalas of West Godavari district. Similarly the software professionals were selected from the family members, friends and relatives using a snowball technique method. The current study revealed that the teachers had low levels of stress compared to software professionals as software professionals had increased workload, uncomfortable working environment, nightshifts, targets based work. However no significant difference between stress levels of teachers and software professionals was found. Significant difference in physical and mental health of teaching and IT professionals was observed. The teaching employees had both good physical health and mental health compared to software professionals. Teachers and software professionals adapted coping strategies to accept the situation, by spending time with family members. Software professionals suffered more health problems and psychological problems compared to teachers. The teachers had social and technical problems compared to software professionals. No significant difference was found in the type of coping strategies adapted by teachers and IT professionals. There was a positive and significant relationship between age and mental health, education and stress, marital status and physical, mental health of software professionals and negative relationship between age and mental health of teachers. ThesisItem Open AccessSTRESS AMONG NURSING PROFESSIONALS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC - IMPACT ON FAMILY(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-13) BABY NIHARIKA, PALISETTI; SEELAM, PRASANTHICOVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the novel virus SARS-COV-2 which was declared as pandemic by WHO in march 2020. This was the time when the government all over the world imposed different degree of restrictions to control spreading of infection. Many research studies have focused on the general population, frontline workers affected by covid-19. They found increase in mental health problems, psychological stress, anxiety and depression. Couple of studies focused on parenting during lockdown and found that parents reported high stress level due to work given by health agencies and possible risks of infection to their children. The present study was taken to study the impact of stress experienced by the nursing staff on parenting and family adjustment. The tools used for the study were general information schedule prepared by investigator, stress scale by Sharma & Sharma (2019) and parenting and family adjustment scale developed by Sanders et.al. (2014) Sample size for the present study was 120 Nurses which included 60 Nurses each from government and private hospitals respectively. Purposive sampling method was used to identify the sample from Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Interview method was used for collecting data. The data obtained from the study was coded, consolidated, tabulated and analyzed using suitable statistical methods. The results revealed that nearly fifty per cent of the respondents were 34-37 years old followed by 30-33 years (34.27 %) and 38-40 years (20.83 %). Regarding education 67.50 per cent of xviii respondents had diploma in nursing and nearly one fourth of them were graduated and only 6.67 per cent of the sample studied post-graduation. Results related to ordinal position showed that 44.50 per cent of the sample was second born followed by first (34.10 %) and third and above born (23.40 %). Majority of the nurses were married (92.50 %) and only 7.50 per cent of them were widowed. Majority of the nurses were having two children (70.83 %) followed by single child (25.80 %). Nearly fifty per cent of nursing professionals belonged to nuclear family followed by joint (28.33 %) and extended family type (25.83 %). Nearly two third of the sample belonged to small size followed by medium (23.33 %) and large (11.67 %) family size. Majority of the respondents were earning Rs.10000 – 20000 (87.00 %) and only a few were earning by Rs. 20001-30000 (9.00 %) and above Rs.30001 (4.00 %) per month. With regard to socio-economic status, majority (88.30%) of the nursing professionals were in lower middle class and very few were from upper middle class. Nearly two third of the respondents lived in rented houses and 38.33 per cent in own houses. Regarding working conditions nearly two third of the respondents attended the morning shifts followed by (20.00 %) worked in all three shift timings. Regarding shift flexibility 55 per cent of the respondents reported that they had shift flexibility and 45.00 %) had no flexibility for shift timings. Sixty−five per cent of the respondents reported that they worked for double shifts and 35.00 per cent had not worked in double shifts. Almost one third of the respondents were 0-8 kms away from the hospitals followed by 9−16 kms (21.67 %) and 17 kms (11.66 %). Regarding transport 43.33 per cent of the respondents used 2-wheeler followed by walk (27.50 %), 3-wheeler (25.84 %) and 4-wheeler (3.33 %) as mode of transport. Stress levels among the sample showed that majority the sample working in private hospitals (71.66 %) experienced low level of stress and more than fifty per cent of the respondents working in government hospitals (56.67 %) experienced high level of stress. Regarding parent and family adjustment dimensions, majority of the respondents had high positive encouragement (81.70 %) and good parent child relationship (86.70 %), parental adjustment (75.00 %), family relationship (90.80 %) and parental team work (75.00 %). Majority of the respondents practiced coercive parenting (90.80 %) and nearly fifty per cent of the respondents had low parental consistency (57.50 %). Good parenting (89.20 %), family adjustment (86.70 %) and parenting and family adjustment (90.00 %). It was also found that age, monthly income, socio economic status, were significantly correlated with stress level at 0.01 level and type of organization, frequency of double duty and mode xix of transport family size and type of organization were positively related with stress level of respondents at 0.01 level. Results related to impact of stress on parenting and family adjustment showed that parent child relation was negatively correlated with stress level of respondents at 0.01 level of significant. Whereas parent team work was significant at 0.05 level with stress experienced by respondents. Overall parenting and family adjustment were negatively related with stress level at 0.05 level of significance. Impact of stress was negatively correlated with parent child relation (0.01 level of significance), parental team work (0.05 level of significance), parenting (0.05 level of significance) and parental and family adjustment (0.05 level of significance). ThesisItem Open AccessPROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION TO JACK FRUIT (Artocarpus heterophyllus) SEED(ACHARYA NG RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-07-12) SUCHARITHA, SIRIVELLA.; NIRMALA DEVI, G.In Asia, especially India, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), an evergreen tropical tree belonging to the Moraceae family, is widely cultivated. The fruit's seeds and tasty yellow sweet bulbs are present when it is fully ripe. Although the seeds are underutilised waste products in many tropical nations. The underutilised crop jackfruit, though less well recognised, has the potential to be used as a source of food for people. Studies on "Processing and value addition to jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed" were conducted. Jackfruit seeds were obtained from Krishi Vighyan Kendra in Amadalavalasa and used to develop value-added products such as biscuits, bread, cupcakes, doughnuts, and muffins. The current study focused on the use of jackfruit seed for the development of value-added products and the evaluation of their quality. The physical characteristics of the seeds, including linear dimensions such as length, breadth, and thickness, were measured to be 3.32±0.44cm, 1.72±0.40cm, and 1.61±0.26cm, respectively. The mean geometric diameter was 2.03±0.34cm. The surface area, sphericity, and aspect ratio were calculated to be 12.57cm2, 0.63, and 57.04%, respectively. The proximate composition of jackfruit seed flour revealed that it contained a significant amount of moisture (6.2g%), protein (11.43g%), fat (1.8g%), ash (1.3g%), fibre (2.5g%), carbohydrate (76.8g%), and energy (369 kcal/100g). Mineral analysis revealed that potassium was the most abundant mineral present in the seed flour xvi (750.66mg%), followed by calcium (230mg%), magnesium (153.01mg%), and phosphorous (100.53mg/100 g). Jackfruit seed flour had an iron content of 10.05±0.03 mg/100 g. Copper, zinc, and manganese content were respectively 3.21±0.02 mg/100 g, 1.93±0.01 mg/100 g, and 1.86±0.04 mg/100 g. Total sugar and reducing sugar were estimated to be 1.84% and 1.62%, respectively, and soluble solids to be 30.40Brix. Standardization of value-added products, such as biscuits, bread, cupcakes, doughnuts and muffins, was accomplished by incorporating JSF:RWF in 0:100, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75, and 30:70 ratios. The developed JSF:RWF blended value added products were sensory evaluated in terms of colour, texture, taste, and overall acceptability. Sensory evaluation of the developed products was performed with various attributes in four concentrations, namely 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% when compared to the standard. Sensory evaluation revealed that the developed products were more acceptable up to a level of 10 and 15%, and that they varied significantly across all products. Sensory evaluation of the products revealed that 10%, 15% and 20% jackfruit seed flour incorporation was acceptable. The proximate composition of JSF value added products per 100g ranged from moisture (5.45 - 21.49%), protein (5.45 - 21.49 g), fat (2.91 - 22.05 g), ash (0.72 - 1.48g%), fibre (0.19 - 1.97g%), CHO (50.98 - 69.85g%), energy (331 - 474 K.cal). Among all the products doughnuts has highest protein (11.41g). Total sugar content, reducing sugar content and TSS content (chemical parameters) ranged from 12.31 to 24.84%, 4.3 to 8.56, and 9.4 to 42.00 Brix per 100g, respectively. Doughnuts had the highest protein and fat content among the value-added JSF items, while cupcakes had the highest moisture, ash, total sugars, and reducing sugars, followed by muffins. Bread also had a high carbohydrate, fibre, and TSS content. Biscuits had the lowest moisture content. The most acceptable treatment and control sample were packed in HDPE foil for storage studies. Nutritional analyses of the biscuits were carried out for one month and the results of nutritional analysis showed that, there were significance differences (p<0.05) between 10% JSF and control. The results revealed that there were declining trends in protein, fat, fiber, ash and total sugar and an increasing trend in moisture content of the biscuits. According to the findings of the study, jackfruit seeds are a good source of various nutrients, functional and mineral properties and have enormous potential for jackfruit product development and increasing farm income through entrepreneurship and industrial exploitation of the fruit.