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Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur

The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad. The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966. The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter. HISTORICAL MILESTONE Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) was established under the name of Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) on the 12th of June 1964 through the APAU Act 1963. Later, it was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on the 7th of November, 1996 in honour and memory of the noted Parliamentarian and Kisan Leader, Acharya N. G. Ranga. At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. The ANGRAU at LAM, Guntur is serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication. Genesis of ANGRAU in service of the farmers 1926: The Royal Commission emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development in the country... 1949: The Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country... 1955: First Joint Indo-American Team studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country... 1960: Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as Institutional Autonomy, inclusion of Agriculture, Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science, Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension... 1963: The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) Act enacted... June 12th 1964: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established at Hyderabad with Shri. O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first founder Vice-Chancellor of the University... June 1964: Re-affilitation of Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatla (estt. in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati and Andhra Veterinary College, Tirupati (estt. in 1961, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University)... 20th March 1965: Formal inauguration of APAU by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... 1964-66: The report of the Second National Education Commission headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State... 23, June 1966: Inauguration of the Administrative building of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India... July, 1966: Transfer of 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture... May, 1967: Transfer of Four Research Stations of the Animal Husbandry Department... 7th November 1996: Renaming of University as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayukulu Gogineni Ranga... 15th July 2005: Establishment of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU) bifurcating ANGRAU by Act 18 of 2005... 26th June 2007: Establishment of Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University (APHU) bifurcating ANGRAU by the Act 30 of 2007... 2nd June 2014 As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014, ANGRAU is now... serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication...

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 2029
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EXPLORING THE GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN INDIGENOUS LANDRACES OF RICE (Oryza sativa L.)
    (Acharya n G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-04-15) KUMBHA DINESH KUMAR; Dr. M. SREEVALLI DEVI
    The present investigation entitled “exploring the genetic diversity for yield and quality traits in indigenous landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was carried out with 41 genotypes of rice at Agricultural Research Station, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during Kharif, 2021 to estimate the genetic variability (PCV and GCV), genetic parameters (heritability, genetic advance and genetic advance as per cent of mean), genetic divergence, association studies and direct and indirect effects for yield and grain quality traits. All the landraces were screened for stem borer, leaf folder and whorl maggot of incidence. Based on screening on pest incidence Dhadega and Sugandhi landraces showed resistance to stem borer with damage score 0; out of 41 landraces 36 landraces were found to resistance leaf folder incidence with damage score 1 and 26 landraces found resistance to whorl maggot with damage score 1. Estimation of variability, heritability and genetic advance was recorded high for grain yield plant-1, gel consistency, number of filled grain panicle-1, number of total grain panicle-1, alkali spreading value, number of chaffy grain panicle-1, grain size and test weight indicating the predominance of additive gene action for these traits, hence direct selection may be highly effective. Mahalanobis D2 analysis grouped 41 genotypes into 8 different clusters indicating that there is no parallelism between the test entries and their regions. The character grain breadth contributed maximum towards divergence followed by alkali spreading value, kernel breadth, kernel breadth after cooking, grain length and kernel length after cooking. Maximum inter cluster xiii distance was observed between cluster III and VII followed by cluster II and III indicating that maximum genetic diversity between these clusters Character association and path analysis revealed that, the studies among yield attributing characters, number of filled grains panicle-1, number of total grain panicle-1, harvest index, test weight, number of chaffy grains panicle-1, number of panicles plant-¹ and grain length had significant positive association with grain yield plant-1 and selection based on these traits may be effective to develop the high yielding genotypes. Among grain quality traits, kernel length and kernel length after cooking exhibited significant association with amylose content. Based on divergence analysis, the crosses between NLR 33892 (cluster III) x Kalabhati (cluster IV) and NLR 9674 (cluster III) and Kalabhati (cluster IV) were suggested for improving yield, cooking quality in terms of gel consistency as well as nutritional quality in terms of zinc. The crosses between Ramjeera (Cluster I) and NLR 33892 or NLR 9674 in (cluster III) were suggested for exploitation of transgressive segregants for grain yield as well as protein content in rice.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES, MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE TO INSECT VECTOR AND HOST VECTOR RELATIONSHIP OF SESAME PHYLLODY
    (Acharya n G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-04-15) KALAPUREDDY REVATHI; Dr. K.V. HARI PRASAD
    A field experiment entitled “Studies on identification of sources, mechanisms of resistance to insect vector and host vector relationship of sesame phyllody” was conducted at dry land farm, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati; Department of Entomology, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati and Institute of Frontier Technology (IFT), RARS, Tirupati during two consecutive years i.e., 2019-20 and 2020-21. Hundred and seven sesame genotypes were screened to identify the resistant source against phyllody. The pooled results of 2019-20 and 2020-21 on leafhopper population in different sesame genotypes indicated that the mean leafhopper population was 1.08, 1.01, 1.11 and 1.02 leafhoppers/plant during kharif, 2019; late rabi, 2019 20; kharif, 2020 and late rabi, 2020-21, respectively. The leafhopper population was found to be statistically non-significant; however, the overall pooled results on leafhopper population for two consecutive years were found to be statistically significant. The mean per cent phyllody incidence was in the range of 6.25 to 86.90 per cent during kharif, 2019; 2.09 to 56.73 during late rabi, 2019-20; 9.77 to 92.61 per cent during kharif, 2020 and 6.25 to 68.42 during late rabi, 2020-21. The cumulative results on mean phyllody incidence during kharif, 2019 and kharif, 2020 indicated that out of 107 genotypes screened for resistance against phyllody, one genotype (IC 203871) was found resistant, three genotypes (EC 377002-2, YLM 141 and IC 204132) as moderately resistant, seven genotypes as tolerant, 13 genotypes as moderately susceptible, 25 genotypes as susceptible and 58 genotypes were found as highly susceptible to phyllody with an average of 49.80 per cent phyllody incidence; while, pooled results during late rabi, 2019-20 and late rabi, 2020-21 revealed four genotypes to be resistant, 28 genotypes as moderately resistant, 31 genotypes as tolerant, 19 genotypes as moderately susceptible, 22 genotypes as susceptible and three genotypes as highly susceptible to phyllody with 28.45 per cent mean disease incidence. xvi moderately susceptible, 22 genotypes as susceptible and three genotypes as highly susceptible to phyllody with 28.45 per cent mean disease incidence. Studies on biophysical characters of resistance revealed that trichome density and leaf thickness were negatively correlated with mean leafhopper population and per cent phyllody incidence, while, leaf area was positively correlated with mean leafhopper population and per cent phyllody incidence. Studies on biochemical characters of resistance revealed that phenols and chlorophyll content were negatively correlated with mean leafhopper population and per cent phyllody incidence, while, proteins, amino acids and total reducing sugars were positively correlated with mean leafhopper population and per cent phyllody incidence. The studies on transmission of phytoplasma clearly indicated that there was no mechanical transmission of phytoplasma into healthy plants, while, the per cent phyllody transmission by leafhopper, Orosius albicinctus was in the range of 13.3 to 93.3 per cent with a mean of 54.67 per cent. The results from the transmission studies with leafhopper, Hishimonus phycitis revealed that the leafhopper could not be able to disseminate phytoplasma (zero per cent transmission rate) from infected sesame plants to healthy seedlings. The potential insect vector identified in successful transmission of phytoplasma was confirmed taxonomically with the help of keys and by dissection of male genitalia. LCO-HCO primers were used to amplify part of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for further confirmation of insect at molecular level. Results on BLAST analysis of obtained DNA sequence showed 96.85 per cent resemblance with existing sequences of Orosius albicinctus available in Genbank, NCBI. The findings on per cent identity matrix of mitochondrial gene sequence of test insect, O. albicinctus indicated that it showed highest per cent similarity of 96.62 with O. albicinctus (Accession no: MK690286.1, MT621035.1 and LN8790006.1). The sequence was submitted in GenBank, NCBI with accession number OL818327. Investigation on management of sesame leafhoppers with newer insecticides during two seasons i.e., kharif, 2019 and kharif, 2020 revealed that pymetrozine 50 WG @ 0.6 g l-1 was found to be most superior and effective by recording the highest per cent reduction of leafhopper population over control (90.58%), followed by dimethoate 30 EC @ 2.0 ml l-1 (79.71%) and thiamethoxam 20 WG @ 0.2 g l-1 (78.01%). The insecticidal treatments dimethoate and thiamethoxam were at par with each other. The next effective treatments in the descending order of their efficacies were dinotefuran, diafenthiuron, flonicamid and thiacloprid with 73.84, 70.51, 64.52 and 64.15 per cent reduction over control, respectively. The lowest per cent reduction over control was observed in plots treated with spinosad and spiromesifen showing 55.78 and 50.31 per cent reduction over control, respectively and was found least effective in reducing leafhopper population. Pymetrozine treated plots recorded highest yield of 527 and 472 kg ha-1 during kharif, 2019 and kharif, 2020, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON BIO-SYSTEMATICS, POPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF MANGO LEAFHOPPERS
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-04-12) SIRASANI JAMMI PRASANTHI; Dr. M. S. V. CHALAM
    The present experiment titled “Studies on Bio-systematics, Population Dynamics and Management of Mango Leafhoppers” was conducted for two consecutive years viz., 2019-20 and 2020-21 at S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati. An extensive survey was conducted in major mango growing regions of 48 mandals of Rayalaseema zone, Andhra Pradesh to determine the species diversity of leafhoppers. The collected leafhoppers were segregated into males and females of different groups and were identified as three different species viz., Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker), Idioscopus nagpurensis (Pruthi) and Amritodus atkinsoni (Lethierry) (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) based on external morphology and characters of male genitalia. Among the three species identified, I. nitidulus was the most abundant species followed by A. atkinsoni and both the species were collected from all the four districts viz., Kurnool, Kadapa, Chittoor and Anantapur surveyed during both the years, whereas I. nagpurensis was collected from Chittoor district only. Diagnostic key along with the characters of male genitalia for the identification of leafhoppers in mango ecosystems of Rayalseema zone was provided. The total DNA was extracted from the legs of taxonomically confirmed species of mango leafhoppers and the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit-I (mtCO-I) gene was amplified. The final aligned sequences of mtCO-I gene of three mango leafhopper species viz., A. atkinsoni, I. nagpurensis and I. nitidulus were 636, 658 and 658 bp in size respectively. MtCO-I sequences of I. nitidulus, I. nagpurensis and A. atkinsoni showed a maximum similarity of 93.92, 98.63 and 95.75 per cent with Indian populations of same species retrieved from NCBI database, respectively. Phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters of subfamilies viz., Typhlocybinae (Amrasca splendens) and Idiocerinae. The main cluster of Idiocerinae was further diverged into three subclusters where xix each represented A. atkinsoni, I. nitidulus and I. nagpurensis, respectively. Each sequence of identified leafhoppers diverged separately within the sub clusters indicating genetic variations between the populations of Andhra Pradesh and from other parts of India along with China and Pakistan. Mitogenomes of mango leafhoppers were A-T rich with 41.2, 15.6, 28.3 and 14.9 per cent of thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine, respectively. Studies regarding the influence of weather parameters on the incidence of leafhoppers were carried out from 31st SW, 2019 to 30th SW, 2021. Overall average number of leafhoppers present per sticky trap, twig and panicle ranged from 0.00 to 26.79 during the first year of study. Initially, very low number of leafhoppers (0.01 to 3.36 leafhoppers) was recorded till 38th SW and later the population increased gradually reaching a peak of 16.13 leafhoppers during the emergence of new flush of shoots and leaves in 46th SW. A second peak in the population was observed during the emergence of panicles recording 26.79 leafhoppers in the 16th SW which later declined with the flower drop. During the second year of experiment, mean number of leafhoppers ranged from 0.00 to 31.09. Though a very low initial population ranging from 0.00 to 2.20 leafhoppers was recorded, population increased during vegetative stage reaching a peak of 17.01 leafhoppers in 44th SW after which the population took a decreasing trend. A second peak of 31.09 leafhoppers was recorded in the reproductive stage during 12th SW followed by a decrease in the population reaching a minimum of 0.03 leafhoppers during the last week of experiment i.e., 25th SW, 2021. During 2019-20, the incidence of leafhoppers revealed a significant positive correlation with evaporation (r = 0.600) and sunshine hours (r = 0.646), a non-significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.134), whereas a negative correlation with minimum temperature (r = -0.259), mean relative humidity (r = -0.404), rainfall (r = -0.508) and rainy days (r = -0.527) and the relationship was significant except for minimum temperature. During 2020-21, incidence of leafhoppers was positively correlated to the maximum temperature (r = 0.330), evaporation (r = 0.530) and sunshine hours (r = 0.531), whereas it was negatively correlated to minimum temperature (r = -0.284), relative humidity (r = -0.559), rainfall (r = -0.465) and rainy days (r = -0.511) and the result was significant. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 60 and 56 per cent of leafhopper population was under the influence of weather parameters during 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively. A field trial was conducted at farmer’s orchard, Tirupati to screen four popular cultivars of mango viz., Baneshan, Bangalora, Neelum and Cherukurasam against leafhoppers during flowering period of 2020 and 2021. Significantly lower population of 12.58 leafhoppers per panicle was recorded in the cultivar, Bangalora followed by Cherukurasam (18.78 leafhoppers panicle-1) and Baneshan (20.80 leafhoppers panicle-1). Whereas, significantly higher incidence i.e., 27.23 leafhoppers per panicle was recorded in the cultivar, Neelum. Healthy and infested leaves and panicles of all the four test varieties were analysed for the concentration of total phenols, total proteins, free amino acids, xx total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Significantly lower concentrations of phenols (2011.0 & 1757.0 µg g-1), total sugars (7475.0 &11581.0 µg g-1) and non-reducing sugars (2100.0 & 2063.0 µg g-1) and higher concentrations of proteins (2018.0 and 5512.0 µg g-1), free amino acids (1430.0 & 2318.0 µg g-1) and reducing sugars (5264.0 & 9409.0 µg g-1) were recorded in the healthy leaves and panicles of the cultivar, Neelum, respectively. Significantly higher levels of phenols (3146.0 & 2676.0 µg g-1), total sugars (92.06.0 & 14974.0 µg g-1) and non-reducing sugars (5197.0 & 7530.0 µg g-1) and lower levels of proteins (1019.0 & 4361.0 µg g-1), free amino acids (502.0 & 1254.0 µg g -1) and reducing sugars (3735.0 & 7048.0 µg g-1) were recorded in the healthy leaves and panicles of the cultivar, Bangalora, respectively. Infested leaves and panicles of all the four test varieties recorded significantly lower concentration of total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and proteins and higher concentrations of phenols and free amino acids when compared to the healthy leaves and panicles. Significantly maximum increase of phenols (47 & 56 %) and free amino acids (59 % each) and maximum reduction in the levels of proteins (48 & 63 %), total sugars (56 & 60 %), reducing sugars (61 & 63 %) and non-reducing sugars (45 % each) was recorded in both the infested leaves and panicles of Neelum over healthy leaves and panicles, respectively. Bangalora recorded significantly minimum increase of phenols (9 & 15 %) and free amino acids (25 % each) and minimum reduction in the levels of proteins (28 & 31 %), total sugars (22 & 29 %), reducing sugars (37 & 30 %) and non-reducing sugars (11 & 28 %) in both leaves and panicles over healthy leaves and panicles, respectively. Correlation studies between the incidence of leafhoppers on panicles and biochemical components of all the four test cultivars revealed a significant positive correlation with reducing sugars (r = 0.988) and free amino acids (r = 0.958), whereas a non-significant positive correlation with proteins (r = 0.834). Incidence of leafhoppers was negatively correlated to the level of total phenols (r = -0.972), total sugars (r = -0.931), and non-reducing sugars (r = -0.983). The negative correlation between incidence of leafhoppers and total sugars was non-significant, whereas it was significant with phenols and non reducing sugars. Studies on evaluation of efficacies of certain newer insecticides against mango leafhoppers were carried out on the variety, Bangalora at farmer’s orchard, Tirupati during the flowering season of 2020 and 2021. Among nine insecticides evaluated, imidacloprid (40 %) + ethiprole (40 %) 80 WG @ 0.6 g l-1 recorded significantly maximum per cent reduction (95.68 %) of leafhoppers over untreated control and was at par with thiamethoxam (12.6 %) + lambda cyhalothrin (9.5 %) 247 ZC @ 1.0 ml l-1 (94.88 %). The next best treatment was buprofezin (15 %) + acephate (35 %) WP @ 2.5 g l-1 (92.54 %) followed by pymetrozine 50 WG @ 0.6 g l-1 (84.81 %), imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.3 ml l-1 (77.45 %) and lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 2.0 ml l-1 (73.65 %). The next effective treatment in the descending order of efficacy was flonicamid 50 WG @ 0.4 g l-1 (69.83 %) which was at par with dinotefuran 20 SG @ 0.3 g l-1 (68.10 %). A minimum of 53.85 per cent reduction of leafhoppers was recorded with spinosad 480 SC @ 0.3 ml l-1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON PERSISTENCE OF CERTAIN SEED TREATMENT PESTICIDES IN GROUNDNUT AGAINST SUCKING PESTS
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-27) PODILI VENKATA LAKSHMI PRAVALIKA; Dr. K. DEVAKI
    The present investigations on “Studies on persistence of certain seed treatment pesticides in groundnut against sucking pests” were carried out in Department of Entomology, Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Institute of Frontier Technology (IFT), Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Tirupati and College Farm, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati during kharif and rabi season of 2021-22. Groundnut seed was treated with three different seed treatment chemicals viz., imidacloprid 600 FS, thiamethoxam 30 FS and imidacloprid 200 SL at recommended dose and double dose and their persistence was studied. The residues of the test 3 insecticides were estimated at 0 days (treated seed) then 7, 14, 28, 35, 60 and 90 days after sowing and also in harvested pods. The initial deposit of residues in treated seed were 0.14 and 0.16 mg kg-1 incase of imidacloprid 600 FS at single and double dose, respectively and in imidacloprid 200 SL residue of 0.11 and 0.25 mg kg-1 and for thiamethoxam 30 FS residue of 0.20 and 0.35 mg kg-1 were observed. In 7days leaf samples the residue deposit of 0.06 and 0.21 mg kg-1 were observed in thiamethoxam 30 FS at single and double dose, respectively. In the leaf samples collected at 14, 28, 35, 60 and 90 DAS and also in harvested pods, no residues of insecticides were noticed. Four insecticides alone and in combination with two fungicides were applied to the groundnut seed and the subsequent effects were studied at Crop Physiology Laboratory, Tirupati. From this study, it was observed that treatments with thiamethoxam 30 FS + mancozeb 75% WP (T10), imidacloprid 200 SL + tebuconazole 2 % DS (T7), chlorpyriphos 20 EC + tebuconazole 2% DS (T8) recorded consistently effective on germination, seedling growth, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index - I and II till 60 days. There was reduction in germination loss as well physiological quality over time. xv Field experiment was conducted to evaluate “the efficacy of seed treatment and sequential spray on sucking insect pests incidence in groundnut” at college farm, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati during kharif, 2021 in Randomized Block Design with 12 treatments and 3 replications. At the time sowing, groundnut seed was treated with imidacloprid 600 FS @ 2.0 mL kg-1 (+4 mL water) and thiamethoxam 30 FS @ 2.0 mL kg-1 (+4 mL water). Imidacloprid 600 FS @ 2mL kg-1 seed treatment was the most effective in controlling thrips and leaf hoppers damage by 68.5 and 48.0 per cent reduction over control upto 35 DAS. At 35 days after sowing, foliar spray were imposed to known their efficacy in groundnut against sucking pests. Among the different treatments, imidacloprid 600 FS seed treatment + imidacloprid 200 SL spray (T8) and imidacloprid 600 FS seed treatment + thiamethoxam 25 WDG spray (T6 ) spray were the effective treatments with 64.3 and 63.9 per cent reduction over control against thrips and for leaf hoppers, imidacloprid 600 FS seed treatment + thiamethoxam 25 WDG spray (T6) and imidacloprid 200 SL spray (T5) were the best treatments with 66.5 and 63.4 per cent reduction over control. The highest pod yield was obtained from plots treated with (T8) imidacloprid 600 FS seed treatment + imidacloprid 200 SL spray (26.10 q ha-1) followed by (T6) imidacloprid 600 FS seed treatment + thiamethoxam 25 WDG spray (25.26 q ha-1) and (T10) thiamethoxam 30 FS seed treatment + thiamethoxam 25 WDG spray (22.33 q ha-1) as compared to untreated control (16.93 q ha-1).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON COMPATIBILITY OF PESTICIDE COMBINATIONS AGAINST MAJOR LEPIDOPTERAN PESTS AND SHEATH BLIGHT IN RICE”
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-27) AYYASWAMY TEJASWI; : Dr. P. RAJASEKHAR
    The present study was carried out at Agriculture Research Station, Nellore during late kharif, 2021 with an objective to determine the physical compatibility, bioefficacy and phytotoxicity of the novel pesticides used against major lepidopteran pests and sheath blight disease in rice. Based on the physical compatibility of the pesticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, cartap hydrochloride, azoxystrobin + tebuconazole, azoxystrobin + difenconazole and their combinations they were categorized into three classes viz., moderately acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline. Cartap hydrochloride and its combination with fungicides resulted in moderately acidic pH. Flubendiamide as a straight pesticide has slightly alkaline pH and its combinations with fungicides resulted neutral pH. The rest of the pesticides and combinations falls under the category of neutral pH along with control (distilled water). All the treatments were found to be physically compatible with no foaming, sedimentation and agglutination reactions. Bioefficacy of the pesticides were determined by imposing the treatments twice, one at 40 and other at 55 Days After Transplanting (DAT). Third spraying at 70 DAT was not taken up as the pest status reached below Economic Threshold Level (ETL). Per cent dead hearts and white ears were computed to study the efficacy of pesticides against stem borer and per cent leaf damage against leaf folder. To study the efficacy of combinations against sheath blight, Per cent Disease Index (PDI) was calculated and then effect of these combinations on natural enemies was recorded. Observations were recorded at one day before spraying, 5 and 10 Days After Spraying (DAS). Chlorantraniliprole was found to be equally effective against the stem borer followed by cartap hydrochloride, flubendiamide and their combinations with fungicides. For leaf folder both chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide were found effective followed by cartap hydrochloride and their combinations with fungicides. Sheath blight was not prominent during the late kharif season at ARS, Nellore. So, artificial inoculation xv of the sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) was done. Pure culture of Rhizoctonia solani was done on Potato Dextrose Agar and mass multiplication on the Typhal grass bits. The treatments azoxystrobin + difenconazole and its combination with chlorantraniliprole were highly effective against sheath blight, followed by azoxystrobin + tebuconazole. Rest of the combinations were on par in their efficacy. These treatments have not shown negative impact on the survival of the natural enemies and they found to have a striking increase rate of population during first spray and second spray. Phytotoxicity experiment was conducted by including double doses as treatments at 50 DAT, data was recorded at pre spray, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 DAS regarding the phytotoxicity symptoms like chlorosis, yellowing, epinasty, hyponasty, leaf tip drying, leaf scorching and wilting. Results concluded that no phytotoxicity symptoms were recorded. Studies revealed that all the pesticides were physically compatible with safe pH and bioefficacy of the pesticides holds good both as straight and combination treatments. Thus, it is concluded that the efficacy of one pesticide is not affected by the other pesticide. All these treatments were found safer to the natural enemies and did not affect their survival. These pesticides don’t possess any phytotoxic symptoms even applied at double doses. Overall efficacy of the pesticide combinations is more which resulted in higher yields in combination treatments compared to the straight treatments as it controls both pests and diseases. Among the combinations, chlorantraniliprole + azoxystrobin + difenconazole resulted in 4992 Kg/ha, rest all other pesticide combinations and straight insecticides resulted in equal bioefficacy with a yield range of 3624 - 4408 Kg/ha. Lowest yield was recorded in untreated control (2349 Kg/ha).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHOSPHINE RESISTANCE MONITORING, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF Tribolium spp. IN STORED RICE
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-27) RANI KUMAR SAJANE; Dr. RAJASRI MANDALI
    Studies on “Phosphine resistance monitoring, molecular characterization and management of Tribolium spp. in stored rice” was conducted at Department of Entomology, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati and Institute of Frontier Technology, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Tirupati, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Andhra Pradesh, India during the year 2021-22. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum was collected from warehouses located in seven different districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Nellore, Chittoor, Guntur, Krishna, Godavari, Kurnool and Srikakulam. Laboratory reared susceptible populations collected from RARS, Tirupati storage godown have been maintained for six to seven generations in insectary, Department of Entomology, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati and used for bioassay studies using modified FAO method (FAO, 1980). All the seven test populations were found to be resistant to phosphine, but varied in their level of resistance compared to susceptible lab population. There was no mortality recorded in the untreated control. Probit analysis estimated LC50 and LC99 values at 0.80 and 3.86 ppm for laboratory susceptible population respectively. The LC50 for different Tribolium populations ranged between 25.38 ppm (Nellore population) to 69.95 ppm (Kurnool population) corresponding to 31.76 and 87.54 fold resistance compared to susceptible laboratory population. xxi Red flour beetle populations collected from eight different locations were also molecularly characterized through total genomic DNA method using partial mitochondrial COI gene. The multiple nucleotide sequence analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences of eight populations revealed that, Chittoor (T-2022-Ctr), Krishna (T-2022- Krs) and Nellore (T-2022-Nlr) population shared 100 per cent similarity with Indian populations of T. castaneum from Kerala (MT506942 and MT499228) and Maharashtra (MH910055) and T. castaneum population from Bangladesh (MK411585), Germany (KM439779) and South Korea (ON482353) while 99.8 per cent similarity with T. castaneum-complete genome (KM244661) sequence from China. The mitochondrial COI gene sequences of all the eight populations collected from Andhra Pradesh were submitted to NCBI (GenBank) and allotted with accession number viz., Nellore (ON811628), Chittoor (OP024180), Guntur (ON869466), Krishna (ON797460), Godavari (ON920194), Kurnool (ON811639), Srikakulam (OP021501) and susceptible lab population (ON869467). Different life stages of red flour beetle viz., larva, pupa and adult stages were irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation viz., 10, 25, 50, 70, 100, 250, 450 and 1000 Gy or left unirradiated as a control using Cobalt-60 Gamma irradiator (Gamma Chamber 5000) facility available at ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bengaluru. Mortality of adults was recorded at different time intervals, 1000 Gy resulted in 100 per cent mortality after one week indicating that dose killed the beetles efficiently compared to 3 to 4 months survival of Tribolium adults in the untreated control. Radiation dose of ≥ 50 Gy resulted in complete sterility of adults and 100 per cent pupal mortality. There was no F1 adult emergence observed in the irradiated adults. The decreased survival of emerged adults was recorded with increase in radiation dose and the emerged adults were not survived from irradiated pupae at ≥ 250 Gy. Among different life stages, Tribolium larvae were found to be more susceptible to gamma irradiation with 100 per cent mortality at 250 Gy after two weeks. None of the larvae had developed into pupae with irradiation dose of 100 Gy and above. There was no adult emergence from the irradiated grubs at all the test doses from ≥ 10 Gy. Weight loss of rice infested with immature stages or adult beetles was significantly reduced by irradiation treatment whereas 4.74 per cent weight loss was recorded with untreated control after two months. xxii The green synthesis of nano silica encapsulated bioformulations of neem-azal, acorus oil and clove oil was done using dynamic light scattering technique which formed the more effective nanoparticles with sizes of 42.2 nm, 130.9 nm and 112 nm and zeta potential of 10.8 mV, -27.4 mV and -61.5 mV respectively compared to nano silica with 69.4 nm particle size and -23.4 mV zeta potential. Effect of nanoformulations and plant products viz., neem-azal, clove oil, acorus oil, nano silica, nano chitosan, nano silica encapsulated neem-azal, nano silica encapsulated clove oil and nano silica encapsulated acorus oil were evaluated against larvae and adults of Red flour beetle, T. castaneum. Among all biopesticides tested, nano silica encapsulated essential oils were found to be most promising against T. castaneum as compared to normal essential oils. Among the nano formulations, nano neem-azal was found very effective against Tribolium larvae and adults with 100 per cent mortality after 15 days of exposure even in lowest test concentration
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “STUDIES ON EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, MALE STERILITY AND BACTERIAL GUT SYMBIONTS OF FALL ARMYWORM, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)”
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-27) MOHAMMAD RAFI; Dr. G.S. PANDURANGA
    The research work entitled “Studies on Effect of Gamma Radiation on Biological Parameters, Male Sterility and Bacterial Gut Symbionts of Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)” was carried out at Insectary, Department of Entomology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati and Plant Pathology laboratory, Citrus Research Station, YSRHU, Tirupati during 2021-22. The male pupae (7-8 days old) of Fall armyworm were exposed to eight different doses of gamma radiation (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy) and studied the biological parameters viz., adult emergence, deformation, adult longevity and survival of irradiated males of parental generation. The effect of gamma radiation on F1 generation was also assessed by recording larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, sex ratio, adult emergence, deformation, adult longevity and survival of F1 adults. Radiation doses; 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy had not caused deleterious effects on biological parameters and quality of irradiated males of Fall armyworm. Among all doses (25 to 200 Gy) tested, radiation dose of 100 Gy had induced >80.00% of sterility with least negative effects on adult emergence (71.00%), deformation (9.00%), adult longevity (6 days) and survival under food stress (59.00%) in parental generation. Total developmental period of F1 larvae was 23.67 days at 100 Gy compared to 20.33 days at unirradiated control. Radiation doses from 25 to 100 Gy, larval period was prolonged by just 3 days only. More than 50% of pupae (51.33%) were recovered with pupal weight of 1.51 g/10 pupae at 100 Gy. Further increase in radiation doses from 125 to 200 Gy, larval duration was increased by 8 days (at 200 Gy), pupal recovery and their weight were significantly decreased as the radiation doses increased. The percentage of emergence of F1 adult at 100 Gy was 66.23% with least percentage of deformation (12.60%) and F1 adults lived up to 5.55 days with 52.00% of survival under food stress. But at radiation doses of 125 Gy onwards; adult emergence was declined with increased percentage of xiv deformation. Longevity and survival of F1 adult males were also severely affected at radiation doses ranging from 125-200 Gy. Optimization of gamma radiation dose was conducted to identify the radiation dose that could induces >80% of sterility without causing much negative impacts on the quality of sterile males. Percentage of male sterility was increased with increase in radiation doses. It was found that a radiation dose, 100 Gy has induced male sterility of 81.89% and 86.23% in parental and F1 generation of fall armyworm with no deleterious effects on adult emergence, longevity, survival and other quality parameters of sterile males. Although more than 90%of male sterility was recorded at radiation doses higher than 100 Gy (i.e. 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy) but the quality parameters of sterile males of both parental generation and F1 generation were negatively affected. Therefore, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was identified as an optimum dose as it induced maximum male sterility without compromising with quality of sterile males. Bacterial gut symbionts from sterile (100 Gy), wild and lab reared males were isolated and identified based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial symbionts isolated from the guts of sterile males were identified as Staphylococcus hominis, Enterobacter hormaechei and Bacillus subtilis. Whereas the gut microbiome of unirradiated wild males were rich in Enterobacter hormaechei, Klebsiella variicola, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus hominis, Citrobacter sp. and Bacillus mojavensis. Bacterial symbionts obtained from lab reared males were Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella sp. and Staphylococcus hominis. Microbial richness was apparently more in wild males followed by lab reared males and sterile males. The most dominant phylum of bacteria found among sterile, wild and lab reared males was Proteobacteria followed by the phylum Firmicutes. Among all the bacterial gut symbionts; Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus hominis were common bacterial symbionts in sterile, wild and lab reared males of Fall armyworm. Bacterial symbionts were less abundant in sterile males due to irradiation and they lost Klebsiella and Citrobacter in their guts
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “MONITORING OF PHOSPHINE RESISTANCE IN Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) AND ITS MANAGEMENT”
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-20) MEGHA. S. ARALESHVARA; Dr. A. RAJESH
    The research work entitled “Monitoring of phosphine resistance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) and its management” was conducted at Department of Entomology, S.V. Agricultural College and Institute of Frontier Technology, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh during 2020-2021. A detailed survey of warehouses storing pulses was carried in major pulse growing districts viz., Chittoor, Kurnool, Guntur, East Godavari and Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh to assess the frequency and distribution of phosphine resistance in Callosobruchus maculatus. Five C. maculatus populations were collected from five different warehouses primarily storing pulses at the surveyed locations. The frequency of resistance to phosphine in C. maculatus was evaluated based on the response of adult insects to discriminating concentration (0.04 mgL-1) of phosphine over 24 hours of exposure period as suggested by FAO, 1980. The phosphine bioassay results revealed medium level (51-75%) of resistance to phosphine in the populations collected from Renigunta (56.66%) in Chittoor District and Nandyal (53.33%) in Kurnool District whereas, the population from Amadalavalasa (50%) in Srikakulam District, Kakinada (43.33%) in East Godavari District and Sattenapalli (36.66%) in Guntur District were found to have low level (0-50%) of resistance to phosphine. The correlation analysis between the number of aluminium phosphide fumigations and the percentage of resistance showed a correlation co-efficient (r) of 0.972. Molecular characterisation of the five C. maculatus populations collected from major pulse growing districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Chittoor, Kurnool, Guntur, East Godavari and Srikakulam was carried out by using partial mitochondrial cytochrome B (Cyt B) primer. The nucleotide sequence obtained were blasted in NCBI database and they were confirmed as C. maculatus with 98 per cent similarity. Intra specific variation of C. maculatus sequences assessed xv through multiple sequence alignment revealed that there were no nucleotide variations in the nucleotide sequences of the populations collected from five surveyed location in Andhra Pradesh. The phosphine resistant C. maculatus populations (Chittoor and Kurnool Districts) identified through phosphine bioassay were used for resistance management studies using essential oils viz., clove oil, acorus oil, eucalyptus oil, orange oil, cedar wood oil and neem oil (each at 1%, 3% and 5% concentrations) at the rate of 5 ml/kg of seed (green gram) alone and in combination with phosphine (0.04 mgL-1). The data on adult mortality, fecundity, oviposition inhibition, adult emergence, grain damage and grain weight loss due to C. maculatus were recorded. All the essential oils at five per cent concentration in combination with phosphine recorded 100 per cent mortality of adults of C. maculatus. Neem oil at five per cent concentration in combination with phosphine recorded lowest number of eggs (5.33 eggs) and highest per cent oviposition inhibition (94.12%) whereas orange oil at one per cent concentration recorded highest number of eggs (75.66 eggs) and lowest per cent oviposition inhibition (16.73%). All the essential oils at five per cent concentration in combination with phosphine, neem oil alone at five per cent concentration recorded 100 per cent inhibition of adult emergence, reduced grain damage (0 to 0.98%) as well as grain weight loss (0 to 0.06%). Orange oil at one per cent concentration recorded highest per cent of adult emergence (66.11%), grain damage (19.78%) and grain weight loss (9.20%). Essential oils at five per cent concentration were found effective by recording highest adult mortality, lowest oviposition, adult emergence, grain damage and grain weight loss than essential oils at three per cent and one per cent concentration. The germination percentage of green gram seed treated with essential oils of various concentrations was tested. The per cent seed germination of green gram treated with five per cent concentrations of essential oils recorded 68.88 to 92.22 per cent whereas seeds treated with one per cent concentration of essential oil recorded 51.11 to 86.66 per cent. The germination percentage of green gram seeds treated with essential oils increased with increase in concentration of essential oils due to low damage caused to green gram seed by C. maculatus at higher concentrations.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON PLANT RESISTANCE IN FINGER MILLET (Eleusine coracana L.) TO INSECT PEST COMPLEX
    (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, 2024-03-20) MANNELA LOKESWARIDEVI; Dr. K. V. HARI PRASAD
    The present investigations on “Studies on plant resistance in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) to insect pest complex" was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Perumalapalle, Tirupati; Department of Entomology, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati and Institute of Frontier Technology (IFT), RARS, Tirupati during 2021-22. Hundred and four finger millet genotypes were screened to identify the source of resistance to insect pest complex. The major insect that was identified during the period of study, during kharif 2021 and late rabi 2021-22 was ragi pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the results pertaining to the same is presented. The reaction of 104 genotypes against pink stem borer incidence in terms of per cent dead hearts, ranged from 8.13 to 67.3 with an average of 15.52 per cent during kharif, 2021. Out of 104 genotypes, 83 genotypes were placed under highly resistant category with <10 per cent dead heart incidence, 12 genotypes under moderately susceptible (10.1 - 40%) and five genotypes (more than 40%) under highly susceptible category to pink stem borer infestation. During late rabi, 2022, the reaction of 104 finger millet genotypes against pink stem borer incidence in terms of per cent dead hearts, ranged from 8.13 to 64.64 with an average of 14.04 per cent. Out of 104 genotypes, 80 genotypes were placed under highly resistant category with <10 per cent dead heart incidence, 15 genotypes under moderately susceptible (10.1 - 40%) and five genotypes under highly susceptible (more than 40%) to pink stem borer infestation. Studies on biophysical characters of resistance revealed that trichome density (- 0.879) and leaf thickness (-0.946) were negatively correlated with mean per cent dead heart incidence. Studies on biochemical characters of resistance revealed that phenols (- 0.825) and chlorophyll content (-0.961) were negatively correlated with mean per cent dead heart incidence, while, total proteins (0.980), amino acids (0.960) and total reducing sugars (0.985) were positively correlated with mean per cent dead heart incidence. Biology studies of Sesamia inferens were done on three selected genotypes, which included IC 0478656 (highly resistant), ER 75 (moderately susceptible) and EN 70 (highly susceptible) from field screening during kharif and late rabi 2021-22. The xiv results indicated that larval duration when the insect was reared on different genotypes of finger millet was minimum on the highly susceptible genotype EN 70 (22.6±0.22days), followed by that on moderately susceptible genotype ER 75 (27.08±0.27), while it was maximum on the highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 (35.2±0.67 days). The mean durations of larval instars of I, II, III, IV, V and VI on highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 were 4.74 ± 0.84, 4.94 ± 1.16, 5.26 ± 0.79, 5.56 ± 1.04, 6.90 ± 0.82 and 7.80 ± 1.19 days, while on highly susceptible genotype EN 70 i.e., it was 3.06 ± 0.89, 3.13 ± 0.62, 3.20 ± 1.24, 4.01 ± 0.47, 4.1 ±0.95, 5.2± 1.08 days. The larval weights when the insect was reared on different genotypes of finger millet were maximum on the highly susceptible genotype EN 70(115.17±2.2 mg), followed by moderately susceptible ER 75 (85.11±1.5 mg) and minimum on the highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 (56.4 ± 1.76 mg). There exists significant difference in larval duration and larval weights when the insect was reared on different genotypes of finger millet. The pupal period, when the insect was reared on different genotypes of finger millet varied from 8-12 days. There exists statistically significant difference in pupal duration and pupal weights when the insect was reared on different genotypes of finger millet. The pupal duration on highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 was 12.3 days, while it was 8.6 days on highly susceptible genotype EN 70. The pupal duration of a moderately susceptible genotype ER 75 was found to be between 8.6 to 12.3 days, i.e., 10.77 days. Similarly, the pupal weight on highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 was 54.4 mg, while it was 73.3 mg on highly susceptible genotype EN 70, whereas the pupal weight on moderately susceptible genotype ER 75 was found to be between 54.5 to 73.3 mg, i.e., 64.18 mg. No significant difference was found with respect to adult longevity, sex ratio when the insect was reared on genotypes with different levels of field resistance. Fecundity of the female moth when the insect was reared from different genotypes of finger millet did not differ significantly however female moth reared on highly susceptible genotype EN 70 laid more eggs (259 eggs) as compared with the resistant genotype IC 0478656 (97 eggs). Incubation period when the insect was reared on different genotypes ranged from 6-7 days, with an average 5.95-days. The total life span of S. inferens, when reared on highly resistant genotype IC 0478656 was 58.5 days, while it was 46.5 days on highly susceptible genotype EN 70. The total life span of a moderately susceptible genotype ER 75 is 51.57 days and these differences were statistically significant. Studies on larval preference indicated that highly susceptible genotype EN 70 was most preferred by the larva of pink stem borer followed by ER 75. Least preferred genotype was highly resistant genotype IC 0478656. Studies on oviposition preference indicated that highly susceptible genotype EN 70 was most preferred by the adult pink stem borer for egg deposition followed by ER 75. Least preferred genotype was highly resistant genotype IC 0478656.