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Agriculture University, Kota

The Agriculture University, Kota (AUK) was established on 14th September, 2013 after bifurcation of the Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology (MPUAT), Udaipur and Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University (SKRAU), Bikaner through promulgation of Act No. 22 of 2013. The University has been created for the agricultural development in South-East and Eastern Rajasthan which is having diversified agriculture situations from rainfed to canal irrigated agriculture. The Agriculture University has its Headquarter at Borkhera Farm, Kota & is located on Kota-Baran National highway-76. Kota district is situated in the South-Eastern part of Rajasthan and comes under Humid South-Eastern Plain Zone (agro climatic zone V). It lies between 23045’ and 26038’ North latitude and 75037’ and 77026’ East longitude. The jurisdiction of AUK is spread over in 6 districts namely Kota, Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar, Karauli and Sawai Madhopur. It accounts for 9.98 % geographical area, 12.67 % total human population, 9.4 % live stock population, 31.59 % forest area and 20.6 % net sown area of the state. Development and education of modern practices in the field of Agriculture, Horticulture & Forestry for sustainable livelihood of the rural masses is the main thrust of the service area of AUK.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF NANO-PARTICLES OF Zn AND Fe ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF PARTHENOCARPIC CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.) UNDER POLYHOUSE CONDITION
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2022) GEETA YADAV; Dr. I. B. Maurya
    The study was carried out at Protected Cultivation Unit, Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during Rabi season from December 2021 to April 2022 to investigate the “Effect of nano-particles of Zn and Fe on growth, yield and quality parameters of parthenocarpic cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under polyhouse condition” The experiment consisted of 2 different nano-particles with different doses i.e. Zn and Fe including control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Data were collected on different growth, yield and quality contributing characters of cucumber. Results revealed that the treatment T28 (seed treatment with Zn NPs @ 400 ppm + Foliar spraying with Fe NPs @ 400 ppm) gave the maximum, vine length at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAT (0.39 m, 2.38 m, 3.69 m and 4.83 m), stem diameter at 45 and 90 DAT (0.88 cm and 0.92 cm), minimum days taken to first flowering (36.96 days), inter-nodal length at 45 and 90 DAT (7.46 cm and 13.01 cm), number of leaves per plant at 45 and 90 DAT (61.82 and 136.99), leaf length at 45 and 90 DAT (14.98 cm and 16.95 cm), leaf width at 45 and 90 DAT (16.74 cm and 19.06 cm), Leaf Area Index (3.52), number of branches per plant at 45 and 90 DAT (10.33 and 19.30). minimum number of days taken to first harvesting (48.22 days), number of fruit per plant (39.18), fruit length (18.66 cm), fruit diameter (4.09 cm), average fruit weight (187.04 g), marketable yield per plant (5.07 kg), minimum unmarketable yield per plant (0.152 kg), fruiting span (43.69 days), and also the total soluble solids (3.93 ºBrix), chlorophyll content of leaf (3.14 mg/100g), ascorbic acid (2.83 mg/100g). Overall acceptability 7.59 (9 point hedonic scale) were found, as compared to control. This study suggest from the results that (seed treatment with Zn NPs @ 400 ppm + Foliar spraying with Fe NPs @ 400 ppm was found most effective in growth, yield and quality attributes. The treatment T28 (seed treatment with Zn NPs @ 400 ppm + foliar spraying with Fe NPs @ 400 ppm) was found most effective in increasing the net return (Rs. 246450/ 500 m2) with higher B:C ratio (5.11).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAY OF BORON AND ZINC ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF JAMUN (SYZYGIUM CUMINI L. SKEELS) CV. GOMA PRIYANKA
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2022) RITU CHOUDHARY; Dr. Virendra Singh
    A field experiment entitled “Effect of foliar spray of boron and zinc on growth and development of Jamun (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels) cv. Goma Priyanka” was conducted during the year 2021-22, at the Instructional Farm, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Among different treatments, application of T15 (Borax @ 0.50% + ZnSO4 @ 0.50%) to individual plant was found significantly superior over other treatments with respect to growth and development parameters such as per cent increase in rootstock girth (9.73%), scion girth (9.31%), plant height (39.97%), number of leaves/shoot (26.19%), number of shoots/branch (33.61%), petiole length (27.89%), length of internodes (13.55%), leaf length (29.48%), leaf width (12.54%), leaf area (45.73%), canopy volume (8.13%), canopy spread North-South (15.58%), canopy spread East - West (7.06%), relative water content (15.53%) and chlorophyll content (1.78%). From the experiment it may be summarized that T15 (Borax @ 0.50% + ZnSO4 @ 0.50%) proved superiority over all individual as well as treatments in combination in improving growth and development parameters of jamun plant. However, it requires further study for confirmation of results.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFICACY OF HERBICIDES ON WEED CONTROL IN AFRICAN MARIGOLD (Tagetes erecta L.) cv. KALKATIA LADDU
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2022) HANUMAGOUDA BHARAMAGOUDRA; Dr. Ashutosh Mishra
    The present investigation “Efficacy of Herbicides on weed control in African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) cv. Kalkatia Laddu” was conducted during 2021-22 in the instructional farm of the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar. The experiment consisted of eleven treatments replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design. Among the herbicidal applications, pre-emergence application of Oxyfluorfen @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha recorded minimum number of grass weeds, Broad leaves weeds, Fresh and Dry biomass of weeds at 30 DAT (2.62, 1.36, 3.68 g/m2 and 1.23 g/m2) and at 60 DAT (5.06, 2.72, 6.84 g/m2 and 2.28 g/m2). However, at later stage of crop growth i.e., 90 DAT minimum number of grass weeds (7.32), Broad leaves weeds (3.69), Fresh and Dry biomass of weeds (9.65 g/m2 and 3.21 g/m2) was observed in Weed free (Manual weeding) treatment. The maximum values for these parameters were recorded in control treatment. Similarly, maximum weed control efficiency (83.41% at 30 DAT and 77.24% at 60 DAT) was observed in Oxyfluorfen @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha. However, it was maximum (75.80%) in Weed free treatment at 90 DAT of marigold crop. The minimum weed index (0.00%) recorded in weed free treatment. However, control treatment recorded maximum values for these parameters. Similarly, application of Oxyfluorfen @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha resulted in the maximum plant height (29.16 cm, 54.22 cm and 73.74 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT, respectively), plant spread (21.56 cm, 51.31 cm and 67.02 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT, respectively), number of primary branches (8.48, 17.26 and 20.64 at 30, 60 and 90 DAT, respectively), stem diameter (7.49 mm, 11.26 mm and 14.26 mm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT, respectively), Fresh and Dry biomass of plants (483.52 g and 101.02 g), days taken to bud visibility (54.51 days), days taken from bud to flower opening (6.15 days), days to 50 % flowering (69.38 days) and maximum B:C ratio (4.49). The maximum fresh and dry weight of flowers (45.59 g and 5.71 g), chlorophyll content (1.82 mg/g), xanthophyll content (2.97 mg/g), essential oil content (0.167 %), number of flowers per plant (84.49), Flower yield per plant, plot, square meter and hectare (325.02 g, 8.12 kg, 2.02 kg and 203.13 q) recorded in Weed free treatment. The maximum flower diameter 91 (4.84 cm) was recorded in Atrazine @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha treatment. The minimum values for these parameters were recorded in control treatment. On the basis of present investigation, it can be concluded that, cultivation of marigold with application Oxyfluorfen @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha was found effective in controlling weeds and enhancing growth, flowering and yield of marigold crop.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CHARACTERIZATION OF AERIAL ROOTS OF Ficus benghalensis Linn. WITH RESPECT TO TREE GROWTH CHARACTERS
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2022) NILESH TAILOR; Prahlad V.C.
    A field experiment entitled “Characterization of aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis Linn. with respect to tree growth characters” was carried out during the year 2021-2022 by selecting total 80 numbers of trees from 4 size of diameter classes D1 (<30cm), D2 (30-60cm), D3 (60-90) and D4 (>90cm) from Jhalawar locations. The vital tree growth characters, characterization of aerial root forming trees and their soil character were studied as part the investigation. The open grown trees in absence of neighbour competition utilized unlimited light and space, resulted in wider crown spread, lesser crown height branched profusely to provide stability and mechanical strength. The higher slenderness index of D1 and D2 class indicates decreased stability there by more vulnerable to damage in comparison to big trees which intern seems to be producing aerial roots in initial period itself for their survival that persisted in subsequent diameter classes. Though aerial roots formation reported both from primary and secondary branches but 98% of primary and secondary branches reported to form aerial roots in D4 class while 85% and 88% in primary and secondary branches respectively from D2 class. Further, 38% of buttress root formation in our study that too 45% each in D3 and D4 class has also expressed an explicit interrelation with aerial root formation. A strong correlation exists between cluster distance, base height of aerial roots with trees and crown size where minimum 41.59 to maximum 146.15 aerial root cluster per trees were reported to spread distance from 0.16m to 8.09m from the centre of the stem axis. Also, the base height of aerial roots in taller trees (D4 class) begin to cling above ground from minimum 3.11m to 6.75m compared to trees of lesser height (D2 class) that found clinging from 2.07m to 3.83m. Regarding the gap length of aerial roots, the bigger trees reported to produce longer aerial roots just short of 3.86m (D1 class) to 1.03m (D3 class) vertical length to reach the ground. The diameter and moisture % of aerial roots showed positive relation with tree size where the smaller root diameter(5.18mm) reported lesser moisture% (43.15%) compared to higher moisture% (47.15%) from higher diameter of aerial root (7.52mm). The soil analysis of current study reported the higher content of available Nitrogen (218.17kg/ha), available Phosphorus (35.18kg/ha), available Potassium. (316.87kg/ha), pH (7.19), EC(0.49dS/m) and bulk density (1.41g/cc) in D1 class. While highest soil moisture (10.01%) and organic carbon (0.6%) found in D4 class. Keywords- Aerial roots, base height, cluster distance, crown projection ratio, gap length, moisture percentage, slenderness index.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF ISABGOL (Plantago ovata Forsk.) GENOTYPE IN SOUTH-EAST REGION OF RAJASTHAN
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2022) RAM LAKHAN DHAKAR; Dr. Bhuvnesh Nagar
    Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis were studied in a set of 14 genotypes of Isabgol grown in a randomized block design with three replications at the College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during Rabi season of 2021-22. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for all the characters under study. Highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters indicate that variation among the genotypes is heritable. The genotype Jawahar recorded maximum seed yield per plant (5.95 g) and also the performance of this genotype was better for other yield attributes characters. The genotypes Mayuri (5.81 g), PB-6-3 (5.04 g) and Niharika (4.35 g) recorded higher seed yield per plant. Phenotypic coefficient of variation is higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters under study, so it could be concluded that phenotypic selection would be more effective. The character association studies indicated that the advantages of upgrading Isabgol genotypes through simultaneous selection for plant height at maturity, number of tillers per plant, number of spikes per plant, number of seeds per spike, husk content per plant percent, husk content per plant and swelling index. The data pertaining to path coefficient revealed that husk content per plant (g), days to 50% flowering, swelling index and seed moisture indicating that selection should be made on the basis of these traits for improvement in seed yield of Isabgol.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF MANDARIN (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) cv. NAGPUR MANDARIN
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2023) VIKRAM KUMAR YADAV; Virendra Singh
    A field experiment entitled “Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) cv. Nagpur Mandarin” was carried out during the year 2021-22 and 2022-23 on 12 years old mandarin plants at the Instructional Farm, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar. The experiment was consisting of 21 treatments of different organic source of NPK viz., vermicompost, cotton fortified vermicompost, neem cake, cotton cake, mustard cake and bio fertilizers such as PSB and VAM with three levels of recommendation dose of fertilizers. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Among all the treatments, T9 (75 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB) was found significantly superior over other treatments with respect to plant growth parameters, yield attributes, physical characteristics and chemical or quality parameters of mandarin. Treatment T9 (75 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB) was found best with regards to maximum increase in plant height, plant spread (East-West and North-South), canopy volume, leaf area, chlorophyll content of leaves, leaf N, P, K content, fruit set and fruit retention per cent, number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and per hectare, diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, TSS, sugar per cent, sugar/acid ratio, ascorbic acid, juice per cent, soil NPK and minimum specific gravity, peel weight, peel thickness, peel per cent, days taken to first harvesting, days taken to complete harvesting and acidity per cent, which was closely followed by T20 (50 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB). However, the soil parameters such as organic carbon per cent, water holding capacity and microbial population were found maximum and bulk density, particle density and porosity found minimum under treatment T20 (50 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB) and T9 (75 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB) was also found at par. Similarly, T9 (75 % RDF + 10 kg Vermicompost + 7.5 kg Neem Cake + 50 g PSB) has resulted the maximum gross return of Rs. 4,03,770/ha which was Rs. 1,28,760/ha excess over control. Further, the highest net profit (Rs. 73,299/ha or 27.19 per cent over control) was also estimated at this treatment which was 46.82 per cent higher than control in pooled analysis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INTERCROPPING FENNEL (Foeniculum vulgare MILL.) UNDER SHISHAM (Dalbergia sissoo ROXB.) BASED AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IN SOUTH-EASTERN RAJASTHAN
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2023) NIKITA KUMARI; Dr. S.B.S Pandey
    The present investigations entitled “Intercropping Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) based agroforestry system in South-Eastern Rajasthan.” was laid out in RBD with three replications during September, 2022 to April, 2023 at Herbal Garden, under the Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar (Agriculture University, Kota). Four years old Plantations of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) at 5 m × 5 m spacing were used for intercropping of five varieties of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) viz., AF-1, AF-2, RF-125, RF-205 and RF-290 planted at 50 cm × 20 cm were selected for the present study. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among intercropping Fennel under Shisham based agroforestry system as well as sole cropping system. For the growth and yield of Shisham, it was found non-significant with respect to all the treatments whereas, total chlorophyll content, germination percent was found non- significant in Fennel. Significant maximum plant height of Fennel at different intervals as 30 DAS, 60 DAS and 90 DAS and at harvest was recorded in the T1 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1) (16.15 cm, 106.42 cm, 157.50 cm and 182.14 cm). The maximum test weight of Fennel wasfound in T1 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1) (9.95 g) followed by T2 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-2) (9.84 g) were also found significant. The significant maximum seed yield per plant was found in the T1 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1) (25.64 g) followed byT2 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-2) (25.42 g) and the maximum economical yield (25.64 q/ha) and biological yield (68.92 q/ha) was found in T6 (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1 sole). The highest benefit-cost ratio was found in T1 (Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1) (4.83). The maximum growth, yield and biomass of Fennel was found higher under the Agroforestry system than the sole cropping. The T1 and T2 (Shisham + Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1, Shisham+ Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-2) performed better among all five varieties of the Fennel intercropped under Shisham based Agroforestry system. The higher benefit-cost ratio also revealed that AF-1 (Shisham + Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. AF-1) variety of Fennel may be grown under Shisham based agroforestry system in the Jhalawar climate. Therefore AF-1 among five varieties of Fennel is recommended as an intercrop at the spacing 50 cm × 20 cm in Shisham plantation at the spacing of 5 m × 5 m.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    VALUE ADDITION OF AONLA (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) BY PREPARATION OF HEALTH DRINK AFTER BLENDING WITH GUAVA PULP AND ALOE VERA JUICE
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2023) ANAMIKA SHARMA; Dr. S. K. Jain
    A study entitled “Value addition of aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) by preparation of health drink after blending with guava pulp and Aloe vera juice” was conducted at the PG Laboratory, Department of Post-Harvest Technology, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during May, 2022 to August, 2022, with a view to find out the organoleptic acceptability of blend of aonla with guava and Aloe vera in various proportions for preparation of health drink and also to find out most superior blend among them. The experiment consisted of different treatment combination comprising different ratio of aonla with guava and Aloe vera juice/pulp for preparation for blended health drink beverages having 20 per cent juice, 15 per cent TSS and 0.3 per cent acidity. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. Among different combinations blending of aonla with guava pulp in 50:50 (T3) and aonla with guava and Aloe vera in 50:25:25 (T6) were found superior since T3 was found best with respect aroma, taste, TSS, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, total phenol and third best in ascorbic acid while T6 was found best in colour and overall acceptability up to 3 months of storage at ambient temperature. A gradual decrease in acidity and corresponding increase in pH value was observed in the health drink beverages as the storage period progressed. The ascorbic acid, phenol and antioxidant activity of the RTS beverages followed a decreasing pattern, while total sugar, reducing sugar and TSS increased with the advancement of storage period. Negligible growth of microbial population was found in all the treatments which were acceptable up to 90 days.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    VALUE ADDITION OF NAGPUR MANDARIN (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) BY PREPARATION OF IMMUNITY BOOSTING SPICED SQUASH BLENDED WITH BEETROOT AND CARROT
    (College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar, 2023) RITU PANWAR; Dr. S. K. Jain
    An experiment entitled “Value addition of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) by preparation of immunity boosting spiced squash blended with Beetroot and Carrot” was carried out at the Department of Post-Harvest Technology, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar (Rajasthan) in the month of April – October, 2022, aimed at preparing an immunity boosting spiced squash by blending Nagpur mandarin with beetroot and carrot. The experiment consisted of different treatments comprising of different blending proportions of Nagpur mandarin juice with beetroot and carrot juice having 25 per cent juice, 40 per cent TSS and 1 per cent acidity with addition of spices mix containing Black salt- 10 g, black pepper- 5 g, ginger juice- 10 g per litre of squash. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. Among different combinations, blending Nagpur mandarin juice with carrot juice in 75:25 ratio (T4) was found superior with respect to sugars content, aroma, taste and overall sensory attributes. While, from the point of view of immunity boosting properties, the spiced squash prepared by blending Nagpur mandarin and beetroot juice in 50: 50 ratio (T3) was found superior as it had higher phenol content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content. It also had highest TSS and colour values, second best acidity content and fair amount of ascorbic acid up to 6 months of storage. During 6 months storage of squash, a gradual decrease was observed in acidity, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, anti-oxidant activity, phenols, anthocyanin, and sensory scores for color, aroma taste and overall acceptability while an increase was observed in TSS and sugars. Negligible growth of microbial population was found in all treatment which was acceptable up to 6 months.