ThesisItem Open AccessSTUDY OF POLLINATING PERFORMANCE OF NATIVE POLLINATORS ON BER (Ziziphus mauritiana LAMK.)(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA), 2023-08-03) SANDEEP SINGHBer (Ziziphus mauritiana, Lamk.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and it is an important fruit crop for arid and semi-arid regions. It has delicious flavour and potent nutritional properties; hence it is known as the peasantry's fruit. The ber flowers exhibit synchronous protandrous dichogamy, which means that anther dehiscence occurs before stigma receptivity. The flower biology and heavy pollen offer great potential for cross pollination. Pollination is an intricate relationship between plants and pollinators. Pollination is one of the most essential ecosystem services, which is effectual for fruit productivity. The pollination management, augmentation and conservation of pollinators would increase the fruit productivity manifold. Present investigation envisaged to compare the performance of anthophiles/pollinators. Experiments were conducted at Horticulture farm of Banda University of Agricultural & Technology, Banda. Various observations were recorded viz. diversity of the anthophiles/pollinators, foraging initiation and foraging cessation, Relative abundance, visitation rate, time spent, Pollen deposition on stigma, Fruit weight, Fruit productivity. Total 21 anthophiles were recorded during blooming period of ber, they belong to 19 families and 6 orders recorded on boom of ber. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of anthophiles H’= 2.360 was obtained on ber. The longest foraging duration in a day recorded with M. domestica. The visitation rates, time spend and relative abundance of pollinators varied from species to species, day to day and time to time. The maximum visitation rate (20.05 flower/ min), maximum time spent (3.15sec./ flower) and maximum relative abundance (4.25 visit/ meter2 / 5 minutes) were recorded with Apis florea. Out of the anthophiles, A. florea, Polistes versicolor, Musca domestica, Lucilia sericata and Sceliphron caementarium were screened as pollinators and out of these pollinators, A. florea was key pollinator of ber in this region on the basis of pollen transfer on stigma. The maximum fruit weight and Fruit productivity of ber was recorded with the open pollination. It advocates that augmentation and conservation of above-mentioned key pollinators can maximize the pollination and thereby, enhance the ber productivity. ThesisItem Open AccessRESPONSE OF GREENGRAM [Vigna radiata (L.)] VARIETIES TO VARIOUS NPK DOSES UNDER BUNDELKHAND AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA), 2023-08-07) MILIND SAGAR; Narendra SinghAn experiment was conducted at University Research Farm, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda (U.P.) on the topic entitled “Response of greengram [Vigna radiata (L.)] varieties to various NPK doses under Bundelkhand Agro-climatic conditions” during kharif 2022. The main aim of this experiment is to find out the best performing greengram variety, most suitable dose of fertilizer and interaction among them. The experiment comprises of two factor treatments conducted in Split plot design with three main plot factors and three sub-plot factors. The total combination of treatments was nine and each treatment replicated thrice. The main plot consists of three greengram varieties, IPM 02-3, IPM 410-3 and PDM-139. Further, each main plot is divided into three sub-plots consists of three different recommended doses of fertilizers viz., 75%, 100% and 125% RDF where, 100% RDF consist of 25:50:30 NPK kg ha-1 . The soil in which experiment conducted was silty clay, pH value is (7.85), E.C. (0.28 dSm-1 ), Organic carbon (0.41%), available N2 (192 kg ha-1 ), P2O5 (9.42 kg ha-1 ), K2O (208.04 kg ha-1 ). Observations on growth parameters, quantitative and qualitative attributes of greengram were recorded as and when required. The following conducted study reveals that the greengram variety IPM 02-3 performs better in comparison to other varieties i.e., IPM 410-3 and PDM-139. Among doses, 125% RDF of NPK had recorded better performance regarding growth attributes viz., Plant height (cm), plant dry matter (g plant-1 ), number of branches (plant-1 ) and LAI and yield attributing parameters viz., Number of pods (plant-1 ), length of pods (cm), test weight (g), straw yield (q ha-1 ) and biological yield (q ha-1 ). The interaction of variety IPM 02-3 with 125% RDF of NPK in growth viz., LAI and rhizobium root nodule count (plant-1 ) and yield viz., Number of pods (plant-1 ), biological yield (q ha-1 ) is found to be best in comparison to 75% and 100% RDF. Economically, 100% recommended dose of fertilizer of NPK was significantly higher in gross return, net return and B:C ratio. Based on the experimental observations, it was concluded that farmers under Bundelkhand Agro-climatic conditions can cultivate greengram variety “IPM 02-3” with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer for achieving maximum growth, yield and economical benefits. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF MULCHING ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF PIGEON PEA GENOTYPES(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, 2023-07-27) MANJU SAHU; Amit Kumar SinghThis research work entitled, “Effect of mulching on the growth and yield of pigeon-pea genotypes” was studied at the College Research Farm of Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda during the kharif season of 2022-23. The aim of this experiment was to find out the most prominent variety of pigeon-pea that could easily produce the optimum yield with better profitability and also to appropriate the mulch that supplemented to the crop and variety in the region. The field experiment was executed in a split-plot design with 10 treatment combinations and 3 replications. The 10 treatment combination derived from 2 treatment factors namely variety and mulching However; both the treatments consisted of different levels of each. 1st treatment factor and 2 varieties namely, i) PA-421, and ii) PA-291 of pigeon-pea was kept in the main-plot and 2nd treatment factor that contains mulches namely a) wheat straw b) Chickpea straw c) Mustard straw d) Linseed straw e) No-mulch, were kept in the sub plot. In general, the weather condition was quite conducive resulting in harnessing good crop yields during the year of field experimentation. The soils of the experimental unit were silty clay and had moderate pH of 7.34 and EC 0.51 dSm-1. It was poorly fertile having organic carbon content (0.45g/ha) and available nitrogen (291.67 kg/ha) and available phosphorus (12.5 kg/ha) and potassium (204 kg/ha). The experimental crop was raised using standard following package and practise of the region. Observations on growth parameters at various stages of crop growth, and quantitative and qualitative attributes of pigeon-pea were recorded. The conducted field study reveals that pigeon-pea variety “PA-291” when sown on July 16th was performed significantly superior over tested variety PA-421 irrespective of mulching practices applied. The application of chickpea mulch when applied @ 5 ton/ remarkable in terms of growth and development that resulted in maximizing yield productivity, and profitability of the crop. The treatment combinations, t he PA-291 with the application of chickpea straw mulch. Produced a statistically similar response concerning major growth and yield attributes and ultimately resulted in identical yields. This combination practically feasible and economically viable to production of pigeon-pea. ThesisItem Open AccessKNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF SHGs MEMBERS ON FOOD SAFETY, NUTRITION & DIETARY PATTERN OF BANDA DISTRICT OF BUNDELKHAND: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA), 2023-08-09) NISHA YADAV; B.K. Gupta ThesisItem Open AccessSTUDY ON KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF AGRICULTURAL GRADUATES TOWARDS NATURAL FARMING IN UTTAR PRADESH(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH(INDIA), 2023-08-19) MANI PRAKASH SHUKLA; Bhanu P. MishraNatural farming is a nature-based, eco-friendly, and chemical-free farming system, which is nowadays becoming more popular because of the less expenses in production as well as helps in the improvement of soil and human health. The present research was conducted to know the Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitude of Agricultural Graduates toward Natural Farming in Uttar Pradesh. In the present study, the descriptive research design was used and conducted in four SAUs of Uttar Pradesh which is selected purposively. A total of 140 respondents were selected through a random sampling method. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered for data collection through a personal interview method. The data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods. It had been found that most of the agriculture graduates were middle-aged, of general caste belonging to rural areas, male, their schooling was done in Hindi medium and academic performance between 6.91 to 8.0 OCPA, majority of the respondents belonged to joint family, their father was a marginal farmer, and their primary family occupation is agriculture, with annual income recorded as less than Rs. 300000/-. Their parent's education was up to graduation level. He had not taken any training related to natural farming and their main sources of information were mobile phones, the internet, and social media. They had a middle level of library exposure, achievement motivation and scientific orientation. The independent variables like age, education, academic performance, medium of schooling, family type, family size, habitation pattern, annual income, number of trainings, sources of information, and scientific orientation were associated highly significantly with awareness, knowledge, and attitude of agriculture graduates towards natural farming. Findings related to the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude showed that most of the agriculture graduates had a medium level of awareness and knowledge about natural farming, and their Attitude was favorable. It had been suggested by the respondents that maintaining the farm under natural farming is a difficult task because of the seepage of chemicals from the neighboring farm fields. Further, it can be suggested that there is wide scope to increase the level of knowledge among agriculture graduates by organizing a number of training and awareness programmes for them and developing and implementing specific extension strategies for making them more aware and experienced. ThesisItem Open Access“Utilization and Effectiveness of ICT tools as agricultural information delivery system in Banda district of Uttar Pradesh”(Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda 20001, 2023-08-09) Shivendra Mishra; Pankaj Kumar OjhaDescriptive research design was used to study the extent of effectiveness and utilization pattern of ICT tools by farmers of Banda District of Uttar Pradesh, which was selected purposefully due to its nearness and jurisdiction of my university i.e., Banda University of Agriculture & Technology. Banda district consists of eight blocks, namely Baberu, Badokhar Khurd, Bisanda, Jaspura, Kamasin, Mahua, Naraini, and Tindwari, among which two blocks namely-Badhokhar Khurd and Tindwari were selected randomly. From each block, three villages were selected following a random sampling procedure Mawai Buzurg, Barokhar, Mahokhar from Badhokhar Khurd and Mungus, Mahui and Lama from Tindwari Block were selected for the present study. From each village a total of 20 farmers were randomly selected for the purpose of obtaining their response using structured interview schedule developed specifically for this study. Thus, a total of 120 farmers were selected as respondent’s form a total of six (6) villages were selected for the study. The data collected during the study was entered, organized and analyzed using the appropriate statistical tools using the available software packages. The detailed analysis of socioeconomic profile indicated that the majority of the farmers were adult aged (62.50%), educated up to middle level (34.00%), marginal and small level of land holding (63.64%), 10-20 years of experience in Farming (60.64%), 5-10 years of experience in usage of ICT tools (60.83%), low level of training undergone (5.00%), medium level (1 lakh to 2 lakh) of family annual income (64.16%), medium level of mass media exposure (66.66%), medium level of extension contact (73.34%), medium level of innovativeness (60.00%), medium level of scientific orientation (64.16%) and medium level of economic motivation (74.17%). The detailed analysis of the dependent variables indicated that a majority (67.50%) of respondents had a medium level of utilization of ICT tools and almost half (49.16%) of the respondents found ICT tools effective in providing various information related to agriculture and allied sectors. The variables viz., education, land holding, experience in usage of ICT tools, family annual Income, extension contact, social participation, innovativeness, economic motivation, mass media exposure, and scientific orientation were associated with extent of utilization and effectiveness of ICT tools. The other variables- age, training and farming experience were not associated with extent of utilization and effectiveness of ICT tools. The problems faced by the farmers on utilization of ICT tools were high cost of ICT gadgets like smart phones, computers, lack of practical exposure regarding technology shared and less number of service. The suggestions given by the farmers were reduce the costs of ICT tools, Provide subsidies on ICT gadgets, Provide infrastructure facilities, Training should be provided in usage of ICT tools, Provide educational facilities near village and Create awareness campaigns on benefits of ICT tools. ThesisItem Open AccessDYNAMICS IN AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAM IN BUNDELKHAND REGION (U.P.)(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BANDA-210 001, UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA), 2023-08-01) ANKIT KUMAR MAURYA; Rahul Kumar RaiThe research study entitled “Dynamics in Area, Production, and Productivity of Gram in Bundelkhand Region (U.P.)” had aimed to study growth rate, instability, and decomposition analysis of gram as well as forecast the production of gram for the Bundelkhand region and also identify the gap between FHPs & MSPs of gram. During the last 20 years (2001-2021), the growth rate of area and production of gram were negative in all districts and also it was negative for Bundelkhand region. But in term of productivity, it has indicated a positive impact in almost all districts and for this region. During the study period, Gram was found as the highest instability in Jhansi (29.01), Mahoba (59.87), and Mahoba (43.97) while the least variability was recorded for the Banda (4.46), Hamirpur (38.65), and Lalitpur (26.13) in term of area, production, and productivity, respectively. By the decomposition analysis, it has been anticipated that area was one of the important factors in the overall development of gram production with a convincing and parallel to productivity contribution. The gap between FHP and MSP resulted that in most cases FHP is higher than MSP because higher demand than supplies does not allow the market prices to fall below MSP. In recent years, market prices ruled higher than MSP. For forecasting, specifically, the ARIMA time series model was utilized. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) made forecasting of gram production in Bundelkhand region by using 21 yearly observations. This model went through a battery of diagnostic and investigative tests so as to explore and examine the efficacy of the model. The model ARIMA (1, 0, 0) had the lowest normalized value, so this model was chosen. A ten-year ahead production of gram has been predicted. According to observations, they indicate a declining trend in gram production. The present study showed negative growth in area, production and productivity of gram in the Bundelkhand region noticed because of shift in area from these crops to other competitive crops. Thus, there is a need to give more emphasis on concerted research efforts, technological aspects as well as policy aspects (extension services and more remunerative prices) and also suggest appropriate remedial measures for correcting this undesired trend so that increase in area, production, and productivity of gram.